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4.

5 Pushover Analysis (Nonlinear Static Analysis)

Pushover Analysis is a static analysis of an inelastic


structure subjected to monotonically increasing forces with
an invariant force distribution, i.e., increasing load factor
while fixing load pattern.

Its results tell the sequence and magnitudes of yielding


(damage), internal forces, deformations, and failure
mechanism

Pushover analysis is similar to the plastic analysis, where


failure mechanism and collapse load factor is determined
and the moment-rotation relation of plastic hinge is rigid-
plastic.

But, pushover analysis also keeps track of structural


response as the load factor increases incrementally and
moment-rotation relation of plastic hinge can be other than
rigid-plastic.

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Structural Model for Pushover Analysis

Structural model consists of nonlinear elements


Nonlinear element can be for any type of forces, e.g.,
bending, shear, or axial force
Plastic hinge is a simple nonlinear element to model yielding
in bending
Information on moment-rotation or moment-curvature relation
of plastic hinge is required
SAP2000 is a program that is capable of performing
pushover analysis as it has plastic hinge element

Plastic-hinge model

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Force-Deformation Relation (or Moment-Rotation Relation)

Force-deformation relation is no longer linear elastic


Knowledge of cyclic behavior is not necessary in pushover
analysis; only the first loading branch is required
Force-deformation relation can be elastoplastic, bilinear,
degrading, etc
Moment-rotation relation is often rigid-plastic

M M


Elastoplastic Bilinear


Degrading
M M


Rigid-plastic with/without post-yield stiffness

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Height-wise Force Distributions (Force Pattern)

Uniform 1st Mode Shape

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Pushover Curve

Pushover curve is a plot of base shear versus roof


displacement
It shows nonlinear behavior of the building
It is often idealized by bilinear curve to determine the yield
base shear, which indicate the global lateral strength of the
building
Note that global yield point not the same as first local yield
point

Base shear

Bilinear idealization

Actual curve

Roof displacement

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Seismic Evaluation using Pushover Analysis

Seismic evaluation is to assess the seismic performance of a


structure by comparing the seismic demands to structures
capacities

Pushover analysis is used to approximately determine the


structural responses (seismic demands) due to an
earthquake ground motion (or average response due to a set
of earthquake ground motions)

Seismic Demands

Internal forces
Displacement ui of the ith story relative to the ground
Inter-story drift i of the ith story = ui - ui 1

u2

u1
2

ug

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Pushover Analysis to Determine Seismic Demands

The seismic demands, which are the maximum responses


during earthquakes, are estimated by the structural
responses in pushover analysis when the roof displacement
of the structure reaches a predetermined target.

The target roof displacement is determined from the


deformation of an equivalent inelastic single-degree-of-
freedom (SDF) system due to the earthquake ground motion

Assumptions

1. The response of the multi-degree-of-freedom (MDF)


structure can be related to the response of an equivalent
SDF system, implying that the response is controlled by a
single mode and this mode shape remains unchanged even
after yielding occurs

2. The invariant lateral force distribution can represent and


bound the distribution of inertia forces during an earthquake

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Equivalent Inelastic Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDF)
System

Force-displacement relation of SDF system is determined from


pushover curve (base shear- roof displacement)

V (a) Idealized Pushover Curve


bn

Idealized
V nkn
bny
1
Actual

kn
1

ur n
u
rny

Fsn / Ln (b) Fsn / Ln Dn Relationship

*
Vbny / Mn 2
n n
1

2
n
1

Dn
D =u /
ny rny n rn

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Response of SDF System to Earthquake

Equation of motion is

 + 2 D + F ( D, D ) = u ( t )
D s g

D = Displacement of equivalent SDF system


ug (t ) = Earthquake ground acceleration

Fs ( D, D ) is determined from pushover curve

Target Roof Displacement

Target roof displacement is determined from displacement of


equivalent SDF system

uro = 11r Do

where Do = peak value of D

Seismic demands equal to response of structure from pushover


analysis when roof displacement equal to target roof
displacement.

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FEMA (273 and 356) Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)

FEMA-273 or the newer FEMA-356 describes in detail how to


use do seismic evaluation using pushover analysis

Specifies moment-rotation relationship, force patterns, how to


determine target roof displacement (coefficient method),
acceptance criteria, and limitation of the procedure (when NSP
should not be used)

Moment-Rotation Relation of Plastic Hinges

Life safety performance level

M Collapse prevention performance level

C
B

D E

A

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FEMA-273 Force Distributions (Force Patterns)

Required
Uniform (acceleration)

And choose one or more of the followings:


Equivalent lateral force (ELF)
SRSS pattern = Lateral force back calculated from
story shear determined by response spectrum
analysis (RSA)
First mode pattern (new in FEMA-356)

0.191 0.260 0.326 0.111

0.173 0.213 0.183 0.111

0.154 0.170 0.087 0.111

0.134 0.130 0.044 0.111

0.114 0.096 0.050 0.111

0.093 0.065 0.079 0.111

0.070 0.040 0.096 0.111

0.048 0.020 0.086 0.111

0.024 0.006 0.049 0.111

(a) 1st Mode (b) ELF (c) SRSS (d) Uniform

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Target Roof Displacement

Te2
t = C0C1C2C3Sa 2 g
4
t = Target roof displacement
C0 = Factor to relate spectral displacement to roof disp.
C1 = Factor to relate inelastic to elastic displacement
C2 = Factor to include degradation of hysteresis loop
C3 = Factor to include P-Delta effect
Sa = Elastic spectral acceleration
Te = Effective period

Limitation of NSP (FEMA-273: 2.9.2.1)

The NSP should not be used for structures in which higher


mode effects are significant because it assumes that the
response is controlled by a single (fundamental) mode

This leads to the development of modal pushover analysis


(MPA), which includes the contribution of higher modes

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