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4.

Pushover Analysis is a static analysis of an inelastic

structure subjected to monotonically increasing forces with
an invariant force distribution, i.e., increasing load factor

Its results tell the sequence and magnitudes of yielding

(damage), internal forces, deformations, and failure
mechanism

Pushover analysis is similar to the plastic analysis, where

failure mechanism and collapse load factor is determined
and the moment-rotation relation of plastic hinge is rigid-
plastic.

But, pushover analysis also keeps track of structural

response as the load factor increases incrementally and
moment-rotation relation of plastic hinge can be other than
rigid-plastic.

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Structural Model for Pushover Analysis

Structural model consists of nonlinear elements

Nonlinear element can be for any type of forces, e.g.,
bending, shear, or axial force
Plastic hinge is a simple nonlinear element to model yielding
in bending
Information on moment-rotation or moment-curvature relation
of plastic hinge is required
SAP2000 is a program that is capable of performing
pushover analysis as it has plastic hinge element

Plastic-hinge model

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Force-Deformation Relation (or Moment-Rotation Relation)

Force-deformation relation is no longer linear elastic

Knowledge of cyclic behavior is not necessary in pushover
Force-deformation relation can be elastoplastic, bilinear,
Moment-rotation relation is often rigid-plastic

M M

Elastoplastic Bilinear

M M

Rigid-plastic with/without post-yield stiffness

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Height-wise Force Distributions (Force Pattern)

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Pushover Curve

Pushover curve is a plot of base shear versus roof

displacement
It shows nonlinear behavior of the building
It is often idealized by bilinear curve to determine the yield
base shear, which indicate the global lateral strength of the
building
Note that global yield point not the same as first local yield
point

Base shear

Bilinear idealization

Actual curve

Roof displacement

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Seismic Evaluation using Pushover Analysis

Seismic evaluation is to assess the seismic performance of a

structure by comparing the seismic demands to structures
capacities

Pushover analysis is used to approximately determine the

structural responses (seismic demands) due to an
earthquake ground motion (or average response due to a set
of earthquake ground motions)

Seismic Demands

Internal forces
Displacement ui of the ith story relative to the ground
Inter-story drift i of the ith story = ui - ui 1

u2

u1
2

ug

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Pushover Analysis to Determine Seismic Demands

The seismic demands, which are the maximum responses

during earthquakes, are estimated by the structural
responses in pushover analysis when the roof displacement
of the structure reaches a predetermined target.

The target roof displacement is determined from the

deformation of an equivalent inelastic single-degree-of-
freedom (SDF) system due to the earthquake ground motion

Assumptions

1. The response of the multi-degree-of-freedom (MDF)

structure can be related to the response of an equivalent
SDF system, implying that the response is controlled by a
single mode and this mode shape remains unchanged even
after yielding occurs

2. The invariant lateral force distribution can represent and

bound the distribution of inertia forces during an earthquake

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Equivalent Inelastic Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDF)
System

Force-displacement relation of SDF system is determined from

pushover curve (base shear- roof displacement)

bn

Idealized
V nkn
bny
1
Actual

kn
1

ur n
u
rny

Fsn / Ln (b) Fsn / Ln Dn Relationship

*
Vbny / Mn 2
n n
1

2
n
1

Dn
D =u /
ny rny n rn

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Response of SDF System to Earthquake

Equation of motion is

 + 2 D + F ( D, D ) = u ( t )
D s g

D = Displacement of equivalent SDF system

ug (t ) = Earthquake ground acceleration

Target roof displacement is determined from displacement of

equivalent SDF system

uro = 11r Do

Seismic demands equal to response of structure from pushover

analysis when roof displacement equal to target roof
displacement.

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FEMA (273 and 356) Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)

FEMA-273 or the newer FEMA-356 describes in detail how to

use do seismic evaluation using pushover analysis

Specifies moment-rotation relationship, force patterns, how to

determine target roof displacement (coefficient method),
acceptance criteria, and limitation of the procedure (when NSP
should not be used)

M Collapse prevention performance level

C
B

D E

A

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FEMA-273 Force Distributions (Force Patterns)

Required
Uniform (acceleration)

And choose one or more of the followings:

Equivalent lateral force (ELF)
SRSS pattern = Lateral force back calculated from
story shear determined by response spectrum
analysis (RSA)
First mode pattern (new in FEMA-356)

(a) 1st Mode (b) ELF (c) SRSS (d) Uniform

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Target Roof Displacement

Te2
t = C0C1C2C3Sa 2 g
4
t = Target roof displacement
C0 = Factor to relate spectral displacement to roof disp.
C1 = Factor to relate inelastic to elastic displacement
C2 = Factor to include degradation of hysteresis loop
C3 = Factor to include P-Delta effect
Sa = Elastic spectral acceleration
Te = Effective period

The NSP should not be used for structures in which higher

mode effects are significant because it assumes that the
response is controlled by a single (fundamental) mode

This leads to the development of modal pushover analysis

(MPA), which includes the contribution of higher modes

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