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Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228

Ahmad Albalasiea,*, Arne Gloddea, Guenther Seligera, Ahmed Abu Haniehb

a

Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstr. 8-9, Berlin 10587, Germany

b

Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (0)30 / 314-21255; fax: +49 (0)30 / 314-22759. E-mail address: albalasie@mf.tu-berlin.de

Abstract

A novel technique to reduce energy consumption for industrial robots by using redundancy and under-actuated configurations is introduced

in this paper. The study concentrates on kinematics including a passive axis which causes a highly nonlinear coupling of the Coriolis and

centrifugal forces and high inertia coupling. The challenge of meeting the requirements of position accuracy, precision, and repeatability

combined with the requirements for the speed, acceleration, and torque is coped with by solving a sequence of linear two point boundary value

problems for controlling the movement of the end effector between two points. The advantages of this method are the ability of reducing the

computation time dramatically, computer storage, and linearizing the nonlinear model. Furthermore the optimal trajectories are identified with

minimizing energy consumption and enabling high speed capability. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical analysis.

2014

2015 The

The Authors.

Authors. Published

Published by

by Elsevier

Elsevier B.V.

B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

Keywords: under-actuated motion; robots; control; optimization; quasi-linearization; trajectories planing.

1. Introduction SAMARA is based on offline control [1]. This paper uses the

quasi-linearization to reduce the computation time,

SAMARA is a prototype for industrial horizontal planar simplifying the model as much possible, and minimizing the

robot for material handling process. The configuration for energy consumption cost function for SAMARA robot to

SAMARA prototype is redundant. Furthermore SAMARA compute the angular positions, angular velocities, angular

has three linked robot arms with three actuators. The two accelerations and input torques trajectories to execute each

motors at the shoulder (joint 1), and the elbow (joint 2) are task.

completely active but there is a passive axis in the third link

in the phase of under-actuated motion see Fig.1.

null space motion to execute the pick and place tasks (in this

paper the null space motion is not discussed) and the under-

actuated motion to move from the initial point (Point A) to

the desired point (Point B). One of the main differences

between the two phases is the last axis is a passive axis in the

phase of the under-actuated motion, on the contrary the last

axis is an active axis in the phase of null space motion.

consumptions while maintain execution time. In addition

position accuracy, repeatability, precision, and increasing the Fig. 1 second generation of SAMARA robot

reliability must be satisfied. Since the current model of

Controlling the under-actuated motion in SAMARA is a

SAMARA is a nonlinear so it takes a long time to calculate

challenging problem. This is caused by the nonlinearity of

how to execute each task as a result of that the control for

2212-8271 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

doi:10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.168

224 Ahmad Albalasie et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228

the mathematical model currently used for SAMARA. This between multi-stations and the second phase is the under-

nonlinearity is caused by the large range of space tasks, the actuated motion to move from one point to another one to

kinematic coupling between the mechanical components. start the new null space motion. Each cycle has two phases

Moreover the configuration is redundant so the torque of null space motion and two phases of under-actuated

control inputs less than the number of joints. Another motion.

challenging problem is searching for the optimal values

responsible for reducing the energy consumption. Beside Reducing the energy consumption in each cycle is an

this, the passive axis in SAMARA manipulator is a second important issue. This paper focuses on minimizing the

order non-holonmic constraint and thus increasing the energy consumption in the under-actuated motion not only

difficulty of control [2]. However the controllability of the 3- by using the last axis as a passive axis which means the motor

DOF manipulator with a passive axis under a second order in the last joint does not work in this phase, but also by using

non-holonmic constraint was studied by using the the dynamic programing optimization techniques to find the

constructive method [3] and the result is the system is optimal value for the energy consumption cost function. As

globally controllable [2]. well as SAMARA must have the capability for high speed to

reduce the operating expenses and increase the efficiency of

The under-actuated motion was solved by using other the material handling process.

methods such as the partial feedback linearization [4], or the

suggested solution by Oriolo and Nakamura [5] but the The reason for the optimization problem being difficult to

previous methods cant find the optimal trajectories for the solve is its nonlinear character. This difficulty is caused

angular positions, angular velocities, angular acceleration because of the requirements resulting from the calculus of

and input torques. Nevertheless there are a lot of methods variation. These must be satisfied in order to find the minimal

that can solve the numerical optimization problem such as optimal value for the cost function in the feasible set. The

gradient method, quasi-linearization, neighbouring external solution can be found by using an iterative process.

method, shooting method, and others. This paper applies a

quasi-linearization approach [6] to determine the optimal The idea focuses on controlling the end effector between

control for the under-actuated manipulators with two point two points (Point A and Point B is shown in Fig. 2). These

boundary value problem with specified values of the points are the start and the end points for the under-actuated

boundary conditions and specified time. Furthermore the motion by using quasi-linearization. The nonlinear

solution must satisfy the necessary conditions for the equations represent the mathematical model for SAMARA

optimality to solve the Eular Equation and the sufficient prototype and must be formulated to minimize the energy

conditions [6]. consumption for the robot. Quasi-linearization applies to

find the optimal angular positions, angular velocities, and

angular accelerations per each axis to minimize the cost

function.

two-point boundary problem. By using the numerical

integration in each sample, the problem can easily be solved

by using an iterative process. The dynamic equations for the

horizontal planer under-actuated manipulator is shown in Eq.

(1).

Fig. 2 SAMARA configuration with Point A and Point B in the phase of (1)

under-actuated motion.

The number of axes in the robot is n, as a result of that

The organization of this paper is as follows. Problem is a symmetric positive definite inertia matrix,

formulation to describe the problem details with also are a Coriolis and centrifugal forces. In

mathematical equations in section 2. Procedures to convert addition; are the damping and friction

the nonlinear differential equations model to linear time moments, moreover are the motor torques. Where

varying differential equations model in section 3. Section 4 the generalized coordinates for the angular positions are

contains the quasi-linearization algorithm which can control , as well as vector divided into two sub vectors. Vector

the under-actuated motion to solve the numerical which are the generalized coordinates for the active

optimization problem. In addition, section 5 shows two axes and which are the generalized coordinates for

numerical examples to create the under-actuated trajectories the passive axes. As a consequence Eq. (1) can be expressed

for the SAMARA manipulator. In conclusion, section 6 in more details about the active and passive axes as shown

discuss an outlook to future works and the conclusions for below:

this paper

2. Problem Formulation (2)

SAMARA has two phases of motion. The first phase is

the null space motion to execute the pick and place tasks

Ahmad Albalasie et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228 225

where: , and are the Coriolis is to estimate the nominal co-state trajectories because these

and centrifugal forces for the active and passive trajectories are not related to the physics. However, there is

axes respectively. a publication help to cope with this challenge e.g. [10].

, and are the damping and

friction moments for the active and passive axes 3. Procedures to linearize the model

respectively.

is the vector containing motor torques. Linearization of the state and co-state equations is a

The state space representation for the under-actuated robot: sensitive problem. This is caused by the possibility of

divergence for the modified nominal states and co-states

, , trajectories. Under these circumstances this process also

takes a lot of computations and therefore computation time,

because usually this process is a periodically process in each

iteration. Moreover the quasi-linearization modifies the

(3) nominal trajectories per iteration to satisfy the necessary and

sufficient conditions for optimality [6] [11].

As discussed before Eq. (4) expressed the minimization

problem for the energy consumption The algorithm converges if the stop criteria is satisfied.

However, there are many reasons for divergence e.g. the

(4) initial estimated trajectories are so poor [10] or the

linearization is not accurate enough. However, the most

sub to:

famous method to linearize the model around the nominal

trajectories per each sample is the Taylor series. But before

where: is the transpose of vector .

linearizing the model, it is necessary to find the solution of

R is a positive semi-definite matrix with

the following equations to minimize the cost function.

Obviously to minimize the previous cost function it is

necessary to have the values of the boundary conditions (in (8)

Point A and Point B see Fig. 2) to compute the under-

actuated motion between two null space motions, but these Substituting the values of in Eq. (6) and Eq. (7) the

values are known from the null space trajectories: result is reduced nonlinear state and co-state equations.

These equations functions of states, Lagrange multipliers and

Point A is the end of the right/left null space motion. the time. Linearized model Eq. (9) can clarify this point.

Point B is the start of the left/right null space motion.

The Hamiltonian equation for the manipulator is shown

(9)

below

Where

(5)

,

Where is the Lagrange multipliers functions, also

called the co-state variables. ,

(10)

Moreover the state and co-state equations are

(11)

(6)

(7) Even though the new system is a linear model, but its time

The last equation Eq. (7) is called the co-state equation varying differential equations. This issue is going to be

discussed in the following section.

Quasi-linearization can solve the optimization problem

after estimating the initial nominal trajectories for the state 4. Quasi-linearization

and co-state equations, then the differential equations are

linearized around the nominal trajectories at each sample There are two groups to solve the numerical optimization

which must satisfy the boundary conditions at the end of the problem i.e. direct numerical optimization e.g. gradient

iteration process. There are many approaches to solve this method, and the steepest decent method suggested by Bryson

problem, the first one is the adjoint method [7], the second [12] or indirect numerical optimization e.g. quasi-

approach is the complementary function method [8], another linearization, or the perturbation methods. In this paper the

technique is to use the expansion of the Chebyshev series [9]. quasi-linearization solves the problem by integrating the

linearized differential equations at each sample around the

The algorithm can converge if and only if the initial nominal trajectories to modify the nominal trajectories at

estimate for the nominal state and co-state trajectories are not each iteration to satisfy the optimality conditions. On the

poor, otherwise the solution will diverge. Usually it is easy contrary, the perturbation methods which solve the problem

to estimate the nominal state trajectories because this is by integrating the nonlinear differential equations around

related to the dynamics of the robot. However, the problem nominal trajectories [13].

226 Ahmad Albalasie et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228

The main difference between the indirect and direct boundaries in Eq. (14) and the forward integration for the

methods is in the philosophy of searching the solution. In the nonhomogeneous equations Eq. (9)

case of the indirect methods the use of conditions is required (14)

for the mathematical optimality as starting point and seek by

various iterative philosophies, to satisfy these conditions. On The superposition principle (for homogeneous and

the contrary, the direct methods use only the desired terminal particular solutions) can be used to estimate the behaviour

conditions and the equations of motion as starting to find the of the nonlinear equations as shown in Eq. (15).

optimal value for the cost function [13]. In this paper one of

the indirect methods is used to solve the numerical 15)

optimization problem. The reason for choosing an indirect

method is that the convergence rate is very slow in the Where c is an unknown vector. However, the

neighbourhood of the optimal solution in the case of the specified preselected time and the specified state space

gradient method.[13]. at the start and end points (point A and point B in Fig. 2) in

the under-actuated motion Eq. (17) are used to find the value

Quasi-linearization was introduced the first time by of c vector

Bellman and Kalaba [11]. The major advantages of the quasi-

linearization is the process of computer implementation, 16)

computer storage and the computation time. In addition; it

converges rapidly in order for the computation time to be (17)

significantly reduced in comparison to other methods

(exception is the perturbation method). Quasi-linearization is Thus the algorithm now completes one iteration if the stop

an iterative method that approximates the original nonlinear criteria is satisfied the optimal solution converges. Otherwise

boundary value problem with a series of linear ones which is a new iteration process initiated by the algorithm including

are easier to solve numerically. Paper by Tapley and the new boundary conditions resulting from the previous

Lewallen [13] compared this approach with other popular iteration [6] [11].

iterative methods such as gradient methods, perturbation

methods and the second variation method in solving optimal The stop criteria for the algorithm is:

control problems [10].

Initial nominal trajectories must be

(18)

estimated to start the quasi-linearization, then the modified

nominal trajectories are obtained by integrating the

Where is preselected as a small number close to zero.

linearized form to satisfy the optimality conditions. This

process is a periodical process at each sample and in each

iteration. The coefficients used to form modified nominal 5. Simulation and Numerical Results

trajectories are obtained from the previous nominal

trajectories. The algorithm converges if and only if the The validation of the previous approach will be discussed

optimality condition is satisfied Eq. (8) since the boundary in this section. There are two under-actuated trajectories

condition is satisfied on each iteration and the system is a between two null spaces motions which will be discussed in

linear. Under appropriate conditions, the successive this section.

solution of the linearized equations converges to the

solution to the original set of nonlinear equations. The basic dynamics and kinematics of SAMARA was

already discussed by Brett [1]. Even though this paper uses

Eq. (9) has (2*n) differential equations. It contains of two the same kinematic and dynamic equations as Brett, the

major parts. The first part is a homogeneous and the second model is significantly enhanced by the use of new

part is the particular part. Eq. (13) clarifies only the (2*n) parameters. Those parameters reflect the second generation

homogeneous solutions which can be found by using the of SAMARA manipulator shown in Fig. (1).

forward integration with these boundary conditions:

Case 1:

(12)

Find the optimal torques for the active axes and the

optimal paths that minimize the following cost function:

The linearized homogeneous equations: (19)

sub to

13)

Whereas 0.00001, execution time sec. and

R is a unity diagonal matrix,

Ahmad Albalasie et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228 227

Also the two point boundary conditions Point A and Point Case 2:

B are the (end right / start left) null space points are

Find the optimal torques for the active axes and the

optimal paths that minimize the following cost function:

Point A== , Point B= =

(20)

sub to

The result of the quasi-linearization algorithm are angular

position, angular velocity, angular acceleration, and input Whereas 0.00001, execution time sec.

torque for each axis. The results are shown in Fig. (3) and the and R is a unity diagonal matrix. Furthermore the two

iteration process for the cost function is shown in Table (1). point boundary conditions Point A and Point B are the (end

left / start right) null space points are

Point A==

, Point B ==

in Fig. (4) and the iteration process for the cost function is

shown in Table (2)

Fig. 3 optimal paths and torques (axis 1- blue, axis 2 - green, axis 3 - red)

1 212.141935 1637.289061

2 223.758131 533.163634

3 155.251109 369.962165

4 158.643186 40.141543

5 158.167481 3.789478

6 158.180413 0.220495

7 158.177817 0.013147

8 158.177923 0.000776

9 158.1779131 0.000080

10 158.1779136 0.000004541 Fig. 4 optimal paths and torques (axis 1- blue, axis 2 - green, axis 3 - red)

228 Ahmad Albalasie et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 223 228

Table 2. Iteration process for example 2. [2] H. Aria, Controllability of a 3-DOF Manipulator

with a Passive Joint under a Nonholonomic

Iteration No. Cost Function value Error Constraint, in Robotics and Automation, 1996.

1 624.943971 3553.998971 Proceedings., 1996 IEEE International Conference

2 541.716760 3616.440512 on (Volume:4 ), Minneapolis, 1996.

3 351.185439 1474.096654 [3] J.-P. Laumond, Feasible Trajectories for Mobile

4 366.075488 213.343595

Robots with Kinematic and Environment

Constraints, in Intelligent Autonomous Systems,

5 366.066474 1.783673

Amsterdam, 1987.

6 366.064791 0.022397

[4] M. W. Spong, Partial Feedback Linearization of

7 366.064806 0.000373 Underactuated Mechanical Systems, in Intelligent

8 366.0648055 0.00000305355 Robots and Systems '94. 'Advanced Robotic Systems

and the Real World', IROS '94. Proceedings of the

IEEE/RSJ/GI International Conference on (Volume:1

6. Conclusion

), Munich, 1994.

In this paper, a numerical algorithm has been developed [5] G. Oriolo and Y. Nakamura, Control of mechanical

to solve the problem of optimal control for the under- systems with second-order nonholonomic constraints:

actuated manipulators. The SAMARA 2nd generation underactuated manipulators, in Decision and

prototype can execute these trajectories easily but the main Control, 1991., Proceedings of the 30th IEEE

benefit of this algorithm is the convergence rate Conference on, 1991.

consequently the computation time is very short in [6] D. E. Kirk, Optimal Control Theory An Introduction,

comparison to the previous approach. It is shown in the Mineolla, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 2004.

iteration tables, that the system converges faster than the [7] . T. R. Goodman and . G. N. Lance , The numerical

previous code indicated in [1]. In addition; another integration of two-point boundary value problems,

interesting result is the possibility controlling SAMARA Math. Comp. 10 , pp. 82-86, 1956.

robot with a passive axis under a non-holonomic constraint

but with taking into account finding the minimum value for [8] L. Fox, Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial

Differential Equations, Massachusetts: Addison-

the cost function without using any breaks in this type of the

Wesley Publishing Company, 1962.

manipulator.

[9] C. W. CLENSHAW, THE NUMERICAL

The quasi-linearization method is used to convert a SOLUTION OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL,

nonlinear optimal control problem into a sequence linearized Mathematical Proceedings of the, pp. 134-149, 1956.

two point value problems which are solved by forward [10] B. P. YEO, K. J. WALDRON and B. S. GOH,

integration. The update laws for the nominal trajectories Optimal initial choice of multipliers in the

ensure satisfaction of the terminal conditions. Compared to quasilinearization method for optimal control

nonlinear programming based methods, the approach offers problems with bounded controls, International

significant advantages in computational efficiency. Journal of Control, vol. 20, pp. 17-33, 1974.

[11] R. E. Bellman and R. E. Kalaba, Quasilinearization

Future works will concentrate on the effect of physical and nonlinear boundary-value problems, RAND

constraints for SAMARA on the control theory, and execute Corporation, 1965.

the pick and place tasks in minimum time. Furthermore, the

possibility for mixing direct and indirect algorithms to [12] A. E. Bryson and W. F. Denham, A Steepest-Ascent

improve the numerical calculations for the optimization Method for Solving Optimum Programming

problem has to be explored. Problems, Journal of Applied Mechanics | Volume

29 | Issue 2 , pp. 247-257, 1962.

[13] B. D. Tapley and J. M. Lewallen, Comparison of

References several numerical optimization methods, JOURNAL

OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND

APPLICATIONS: Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-32, 1967.

Efficient Handling Processes, Berlin: Fraunhofer

Verlag, 2013.

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