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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2017, pp.7385,


pp. Article ID: IJCIET_08_05_010
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=5
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ISSN Print: 0976-6308
6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
0976

IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

CAPACITY SPECTRUM METHOD


METHOD ON RCC AND
COMPOSITE
OSITE FRAME STRUCTURES
STRUCTUR
ChBhupal Reddy
Postgraduate student, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences,
VIT University, Chennai,
Chennai Tamilnadu.

K Vasugi
Asst.professor (Sr.),
(Sr.) School of Mechanical and Building Sciences,
VIT University, Chennai,
Chennai Tamilnadu.

ABSTRACT
Buildings are affected severely during the earthquake. While design the any
building in seismic zone, earthquake load are to be considered. To know the behavior
of structures under seismic load there are three methods namely push over analysis,
Time history analysis and Response Spectrum analysis. Based on the required result
the type of method is performed.
performed. In this research the push over analysis is chosen and
capacity spectrum method techniques is implemented. The Capacity Spectrum
Method[CSM] is a performance based seismic design techniques and it is obtained by
non-linear force displacement curve know as push over analysis. It is widely
accepted displacement based seismic design by means of graphical procedure
,comparing the structure capacity with respect to ground motion of the structure. The
roof displacement and base shear forces are converted to equivalent
equivalent spectral
acceleration and spectral displacement with respect to coefficient that shows the
effective model masses and model participation factor. This spectral values defines
the capacity spectrum of both structure. This paper present the seismic evaluation
e of
RCC and Composite frame structure with irregular plan.Analysis
plan.Analysis and connection
design of sixteen storied framed structure is be done by using non-liner
non static
pushover analysis in ETABS Software.
Key words:-Steel, RCC,, composite structure, seismic
seismic analysis, capacity spectrum.
Cite this Article: ChBhupal Reddy and K Vasugi Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc
and Composite Frame Structures.
Structures International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology,, 8(5), 2017, pp. 7385.
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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

1. INTRODUCTION
Capacity spectrum method (CSM) is defined as the ratio of spectral acceleration and spectral
displacement. It was initially introduced by freeman in 1970s. This is one of the seismic
design procedure to find the correlation between building performance and earthquake
ground motions (ATC 40).this method is also used in the performance based seismic analysis
for various steel and reinforced cement concrete structures. The design procedure compares
the structure capacity (in the form of push over curve) with the structure demands (in the
form of response spectra).The response of the structure is find from intersecting of the two
curves. The capacity spectrum method is also used to verify the design procedure of new
buildings and commercial buildings. For damage identification purposes also this method is
used and this method is also called as nonlinear static push over analysis by changing the base
shear in x-axis and roof displacements in y-axis from a non-liner static push over analysis to
equivalent spectral accelerations and spectral displacements. From that capacity curve we
find the maximum displacements and performance point of the structure.
Reinforced cement concrete construction is one of the famous construction in the world.
This is widely used for the commercial and industrial buildings by using the steel bars in
plain concrete to overcome the tensile strength of the buildings. Concrete is strong in
compression and weak in tension as well as steel reinforcement is strong in tension and weak
in compression, by combining (or) by adding this two materials i.e. concrete and steel gives
the good results. For the modern constructions and special design constructions this RCC is
used. The workability and durability of the concrete is high.
The term which we are used for any building construction by adding multiple dissimilar
materials is known as composite construction. Few years back composite materials are used
in industrial buildings now a days this materials are using in residential buildings also.
Composite structures are defined as the combination of two different materials which they are
used in column or beam or slab. They are several reasons behind using this composite
materials, it increases the strength, durability and environmental sustainability. Few years ago
Composite constructions dominates the residential building sectors by using this composite
materials weight of the building is less and stiffness is more .utilizing this composite
constructions provide the significant benefits in terms of building envelope and cost of
services .
Steel connections form a crucial part in any type of steel structures. This connections are
more complicated then members to design and analysis. The type of connection is depends on
the structural member and weight of the building. The different type of components used in
the connection elements are gusset plates, cleats, and brackets. Connectors for the connection
plates such as bolts, pins, rivets and weld.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Shweta A. Wagh and Dr. U. P. Waghe[4]conclude that the stiffness and durability of the
composite structures are strong compare to RCC structure. Under earthquake conditions
composite steel section is strong compare to RCC structure. Lifting, placing and fixing the
elements is much faster than RCC structures. When compare to RCC structure the total
building cost of the composite structures is higher, by using lighter sections in composite
construction reduces the self-weight of the building and reduces the total cost of the building.
V.Vysakh, Dr. Bindhu and K.R. Rahul Leslie [5] et all concludes that two different type of
procedure they followed i.e program based procedure and another one is simplifying
assumptions that is yield stress put it as constant. The displacement values in procedure B are
more than procedure A. the difference between spectral acceleration and spectral

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displacement values with respect to both the design procedures are 7.28% and 6.28%
respectively. The difference between two design procedures for four story building is 22mm.
Tiziana Rossetto et all [6] conclude that capacity spectrum assessment is one of the method
used in finding the ground accelerations through fragility capacity spectrum assessment
(FRACAS). From the analysis of the structure finding the fragility curves and compare to the
non-linear
linear time history analysis (NLTHA).in this paper they find how the in elastic record to
record date is converting in to fragility curves. The static push over curves are derived from
the fragility curves and the difference between two curves are represents in the form of input
spectra and target spectra respectively.
Karim Tarbali, and Kazem Shakeri [7] conclude that compare the estimations from ST and
ST-ACS
ACS methods. The response of this two higher story methods are approximately
approx equal.
The estimation result of the ST-ACS
ST ACS method is nearly equal to the NHRA result in bottom
stories of the structure. The adaptive capacity spectrum method cannot give the better
estimation results compare to different load varying of the structure.
structure. When comparing to
MPA method ST-ACS ACS method gives the higher or equal estimation results. For high rise
buildings MPA method is more suitable to estimate the results. Story drift values are used to
evaluate the damage stage of the buildings subjected to
to ground accelerations.

3. DETAILS OF SECTION
3.1. Capacity Spectrum Method
This is one of the method used to find the correlation between spectral acceleration in y-axis
y
and spectral displacement in x-axis
x by combining the two curves (i.e. spectrum curve and
demand curve) they meet at single point that point called as performance point of the
building. The maximum displacement of the structure get from pushover analysis. This
analysis gives the accurate and exact values of the structure
structure compare to other analyses.

Figure 1 Capacity Spectrum Curve for Identification [3]

3.2. Composite Frame


The section which made with the combination of two different type of materials such as steel
and concrete used in columns and beams is known as composite frame structures. Composite
floor slab: The most common floor system is built-up
built section
on (or) rolled steel section and the
steel deck is connected to the beam section and struts are used at the top of the steel deck
connected to beam and concrete is poured at the top of the steel deck. The thickness of the
composite slab is less compare to the rcc slab. The self-weight
weight of the slab is also less. For the
shallow decking the thickness of the slab in the range 100 to 250 mm for the deep decking the

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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

slab thickness in the range 250 to 320mm. There


here is no separate Indian code for the design of
composite frame sections.

Figure 2 Composite Floor Slab for Identification [Wiki]

3.3. Steel Connections


Steel connections are generally used in steel frame constructions and industrial constructions.
They are different type of connections used for steel constructions. The different type of
connections are welded connections, bolted connections and riveted connections. In that
welded connections fillet weld is mostly used in all type structures. Bolted connections are
used in frame section for resisting the
th moments in column beam beam sections. The concentric
bolted connections are used to transfer the force in both tension and compression members in
this paper mainly focusing on the beam to beam and column to column connection in
composite frame structures.

Figure 3 Bolted connections for Beam-Beam


Beam and Beam-column [wiki]

4. BUILDING DETAILS
In this research work the building is consider as a commercial building. The plan dimensions
dimensi
of the structure is 22mX12m.. Thishis plan dimensions are same for both RCC and composite
frame structure. The basic loading conditions for both the structures are kept as same as per
IS 1893-2002
2002 time period of the building has calculated.

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Figure 4 Overview Plan of RCC structure

Table 1 Parameters Used for RCC Framed Structures


S.NO DESCRIPTION DETAILS
1 Length X width 22 mX12 m
2 No.of storeys 16(G+15)
3 Each floor height 3m
4 Column size 0.7 mX0.7 m
5 Beam size 0.7 mX0.45 m
6 Slab thickness 0.15 m
7 Shear wall thickness 0.200
8 Live load on floors 3 KN/m2
9 Live load on roof 1.5 KN/m2
10 Seismic zone III
11 Response reduction factor 5
12 Soil type Medium
13 Importance factor 1
14 Grade of concrete M30
15 Zone factor 0.16
16 Time period 1.365 sec
17 damping 5%

Figure 5 Overview Plan of composite framed structure

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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

Table 2 Parameters used for Composite Framed Structure


S.NO DESCRIPTION DETAILS
1 Length X Width 22 mX12 m
2 No.of stores 16(G+15)
3 Each floor height 3m
4 Column section ISHB 450
5 Beam section ISWB 400
6 Slab thickness 0.10
7 Live load on floors 3 KN/m2
8 Live load on roof 1.5 KN/m2
9 Seismic zone III
10 Response reduction factor 5
11 Soil type Medium
12 Importance factor 1
13 Grade of concrete M30
14 Zone factor 0.16
15 Time period 1.476 sec
16 Damping 5%

5. MODELING OF STRUCTURE
In the present research work a sixteen storied RCC and composite frame structure situated in
zone III, is taken for the research work. The plan dimensions for both the structures is
22mX12m with 3m height of each story. The total height of the building is 48m and it is an
asymmetrical building. The soil condition of the building should consider as a medium. In the
composite constructions column-beam connections should also be consider for analysis.

Figure 6 3D view of RCC and Composite Framed Structures

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5.1. Diaphragm of the Structures


This is one of the technique used in the frame
frame analysing for good results by applying the
diaphragm on the structure all the loads acting at the centre of gravity and these loads transfer
to the basement of the structure.

Figure 7 Diaphragm of the RCC and


nd Composite Frame Structures

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


DISCUSSI
The 3-dimensional
dimensional building model is analyzed by using equivalent static method in ETABS.
Seismic codes are required for analyzing any type of structures. In this research work using
IS1893-2002
2002 code for seismic calculations as well as manual lateral load calculations. For
analyzing the RCC Structures using IS 456-2000
456 2000 code and IS 875 part III is using for wind
loads all type of structures.

6.1. Displacement
It is observed that the displacement values of the composite frame structure higher as
compare to RCC frame structure. The displacement values of both the structures with in the
limit as per 1893-2000.
2000. The variation
v in displacement of both the structure
tructure are shown in the
figure 8 at each stories with a final difference of 17mm (Top).

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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

RCC COMPOSITE

70
60

DISPLACEMENT (MM)
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

NUMBER OF STOREYS

Figure 8 Displacement graph of RCC and Composite Framed Structures

6.2. Time Period


Based on the previous earthquake, the frequency values are taken according to IS 1893-2002
part 1 and it shows the damping values at particular time period. According to that damping
values. The oscillation of the building with different time period are taken. Time period
values are given in table 3.

Table 3 Time period of RCC and Composite frame structure

TIME PERIOD (Sec)


MODE COMPOSITE
S.NO
NUMBERS RCC FRAMED FRAMED
STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE
1 MODE 1 0.921 0.939
2 MODE 2 0.908 0.825
3 MODE 3 0.780 0.782
4 MODE 4 0.284 0.424
5 MODE 5 0.27 0.41
6 MODE 6 0.248 0.275
7 MODE 7 0.154 0.237
8 MODE 8 0.14 0.194
9 MODE 9 0.137 0.169
10 MODE 10 0.105 0.133
11 MODE 11 0.094 0.132
12 MODE 12 0.092 0.119

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The Time period values shows that Composite frame structure are almost similar to the RCC
frame structure. The sum of the damping percentage of both the structure is 95.6% which
shows the structure is safe under seismic load as per IS 1893-2002.

6.3. RCC Structure Analysis

6.3.1. Pushover curve


Push over analysis is done to carry out the accurate value of base shear and displacement
values. The curve plotted between base shear in y-axis and displacement in x-axis. This is one
of the method used to find the base shear and displacement values. For the capacity spectrum
method acceleration is calculated manually.
Acceleration =1.36 *(Z/2)

= 0.108 m/s2
Where
Z= zone factor=0.16
Base shear of the RCC frame structure is 1804 kN with a displacement of 31.6mm

Figure 9 Push over curve of RCC structure

6.3.2. Demand Spectra Curve


This method is used to find the maximum resistance of a building to resist displacement at
which lateral forces applied. This result are carried out by pushover analysis. This curve
plotted between spectral displacement and time period as shown in fig 10 .Spectral
displacement point is Sa =50.606 mm and Periodic time =0.782 sec.

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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

Figure 10 Demand Spectrum Curve of RCC Structure

6.3.3 Performance point of the structure


The meeting of capacity curve and demand curve is called performance point. The curve
plotted between spectral displacement and spectral acceleration on are shown in Fig 11.The
performance point of the structure is 50.892mm, 0.332m/sec2.

Figure 11 Performance Point of the RCC Structure

6.4. Composite Frame Structure Analysis:


6.4.1. Push over Curve of Composite Frame Structure
The curve plotted between base shear in y-axis and displacement in x-axis. This is one of the
method used to find the base shear and displacement values. For the capacity spectrum
method acceleration is calculated manually as 0.108 m/s2.The maximum displacement of the
structure by applying pushover analysis is 35.6mm as shown in fig 12.

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Figure 12 Pushover Curve of Composite Frame Structure

6.4.2. Demand Spectra Curve


This curve plotted between spectral displacement and time period as shown in fig 13. Spectral
displacement point is Sa =202.30 mm and Periodic time =1.28 sec.

Figure 13 Capacity Spectra Curve of Composite Frame Structure

6.4.3. Performance Point of the Structure


The curve plotted between spectral displacement and spectral acceleration on are shown in
ance point of the structure is 202.30mm, 0.49m/sec2.
Fig 11. The performance

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Capacity Spectrum Method on Rcc and Composite Frame Structures

Figure 15 Performance Point of the Composite Framed Structure

6.5. Result comparison of RCC and Composite structure:


structure
From graphs 8 & 9 the displacement values of composite frame structures is higher compare
to RCC frame structure in both the directions. The time period values of both RCC and
Composite frame structures got similar values.
values Sum of all the time period values less than one
only.. Then its safe for the structure to do analysis. From fig 12 &15
15 the capacity curve and
single demand curve meet at one point that point called performance point of structure. The
Performance Point of the composite frame structures is very high compare to the RCC frame
structure.

7. CONCLUSIONS
Analysis and design verification
rification of sixteen storied framed structure can be done by using non-
non
liner static pushover analysis. Conclude the all results of both RCC and composite framed
structures below.
Under seismic load conditions composite frame are having higher displacements.
displacement
Spectral displacement for RCC framed structure is less when compared to composite
structure.
The performance point of the composite frame structure is higher as compare to RCC
frame structure.
RCC structure gives the better results compare to composite frame structure.
At last, I conclude that as both the structure is safe in seismic zone ; as compare speed of
construction is less time taken in composite structure as compare to RCC frame structure.

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REFERENCES
[1] IS:1893 (Part 1), (2002), Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures General
provisions and buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[2] IS:800-2007 General construction in steel code of practice, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
[3] IS:875 (Part 3), (1987), Code of practice for design loads for buildings and structures,
dead loads, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[4] Shweta A. Wagh and Dr. U. P. Waghe comparativestudy of RCC nd composite steel
fram structuresinternational journal of engineering and applications in the year 2014.
[5] Phu-Cuong Nguyen and Seung-Eock Kim Nonlinear inelastic time-history analysis of
three-dimensional semi-rigid steel framesjournl of engineering structures in the year
2014.
[6] Tiziana Rossetto et all FRACAS: A capacity spectrum approach for seismic fragility
assessment including record-to-record variability journal of engineering structures in the
year 2015.
[7] Karim Tarbali and Kazem Shakeri Story shear and torsional moment-based pushover
procedure for asymmetric-plan buildings using an adaptive capacity spectrum method
journal of engineering structures in the year 2014.
[8] Donglin Wang and Li Wang Nonlinear Analysis of the New Composite Frame
Structure International Journal of Nonlinear Science in the year 2011.
[9] Ketan Patel and Sonal Thakkar analysis of cft, rcc and steel building subjected to lateral
loadingprocedia engineering in the year 2011.
[10] hou guangyu et all design and research on composite steel and concrete frame-core wall
structureThe 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008,
Beijing, China.
[11] Mahbuba Begum et all Cost Analysis of Steel Concrete Composite StructuresAsian
Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC) vol. 14, no. 6 (2013).
[12] M. Anbarasu and S. Sukumar Effect Of Connectors Interaction in Behaviour and
Ultimate Strength of Intermediate Length Cold Formed Steel Open Columns Asian
Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC) vol. 14, no. 2 (2013).

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