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3Di explained

3Di explained

A little over four years ago, Ron Thiemann called me. He had two guys in his office with
an improbable tale, and wanted to know if I was interested. The two gentlemen in
question, Guus Stelling and Wytze Schuurmans, claimed that they could make water
calculations a hundred times faster. A highly unusual claim, which would need solid proof
to back it up. There would then also have to be people who dared to try it.

After hearing what they had to say, I contacted my colleague Luc Kohsiek and we decided
to go ahead. Pier Vellinga and Bas Verkerk soon came to help us, and so it all began.
We may not always have been able to follow everything that Guus told us, but his
enthusiasm was infectious and the results were spectacular. Last year, the municipalities
of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and the OAS (wastewater system optimisation)
project ‘De Groote Lucht’ decided that wastewater also deserved a spot in 3Di. The
Valoriasation Programme Delta Technology supported 3Di as a prime example of inno-
vation that yielded a usable market product.

We are now rounding off a unique innovation project that is bringing in new ideas both
scientifically and on many other fronts. Above all, there is now something that is usable
for all water and wastewater managers.

I hope that you will become as convinced as I am and that you will dare to pick up
the gauntlet.

Michiel van Haersma Buma,
Chairman of the 3Di watermanagement steering committee

Delft, 20 March 2014


Delfland Water Board – Daniël Goedbloed. 3Di explained 3Di explained ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This brochure has been put together to mark the end of the four-year 3Di watermanagement project CONTENTS THE 3Di STEERING COMMITTEE CONSISTED OF: MODELLING WILL NEVER BE THE SAME AGAIN 5 – Michiel van Haersma Buma. Dyke Warden for the Delfland Water Authority AUTOMATING MODELLING 7 – Luc Kohsiek. Municipality of Rotterdam. Professor at Delft Technical University MANAGING AND USING 3Di AREA MODELS 23 – Bas Verkerk. Deltares – Kim van Nieuwaal. Director of Nelen & Schuurmans 3Di IN PRACTICE 29 WHAT WILL IT COST? 35 THE 3DI PROJECT GROUP CONSISTED OF: – Jan Strijker. Professor at Delft Technical University – Elmar Eisemann. Delfland Water Board – Marcel Boomgaard. Director of Deltares FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 9 – Pier Vellinga. Deltares – Elgard van Leeuwen. Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board – Carl Paauwe. Waternet – Arthur van Dam. Nelen & Schuurmans Published by the 3Di Waterbeheer consortium © 2014. Director of Kennis voor Klimaat – Peter Weesendorp. Mayor of Delft – Wytze Schuurmans. Director of Waternet A LOOK UNDER THE HOOD OF 3Di 17 – Guus Stelling. No rights can be derived from the content of this brochure. Nelen & Schuurmans – Wytze Schuurmans. Dyke Warden for the Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Authority – Ron Thiemann. Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board – Peter Hollanders. Kennis voor Klimaat – Olga Pleumeekers. Designed by Theo Horstink 2 3 .

but now you listen to your music as digital files. your CD collection? You may well have kept everything. with easy access to your data and being able to see the results of your calculations almost at once. 3Di models are stored centrally in the cloud and will never get lost. but your music is now probably stored in digital form and you listen to it not only in the living room. Your music collection is less tangible. This may sound like pie in the sky but. where do you keep them? And if you want to do calculations on them. for the younger generation. Your music collection is less tangible. but you can enjoy it more often. at home or in the car or while jogging. thanks to 3Di. A sophisticated version control system means that your earlier versions are also retained. 3Di explained 3Di explained MODELLING WILL NEVER BE THE SAME AGAIN Can you still remember your record collection? Or. but also en route in a car or while doing sports. You will have an answer to your question in just a few minutes. Planning officers and spatial planners as well as water specialists can use 3Di to get a clear picture of their interventions in water and spatial planning and – quite literally – map out what the effects of these plans will be on watermanagement. Calculations can be handled easily through your Internet browser. And what about your water system models? Do you have models of your water system? If so. it is already a reality. 4 5 . but you can enjoy it more often. You still have all your records or CDs. do you have to involve a department or consultancy firm? How many days or weeks is it then before you get an answer? Simple modelling.

2014 will be a watershed in modelling. 6 7 . (groundwater) hydrology and hydraulics are working closely together on an automated computer environment. 3Di watermanagement is not only quick at the calculations: area models are also put together rapidly by means of a computerised production technique. 3Di explained 3Di explained AUTOMATING MODELLING 2014 will be a watershed in modelling. just as 1908 was for car production. A large group of experts with backgrounds in database techniques. just as 1908 was for car production. this was when the automobile became available to the masses. This means that every water board and any municipality can now afford 3Di area models. thanks to the mass production methods of the famous Model T-Ford. as well as making them more maintainable and of course cheaper. Although cars had been around for some time. This improves the quality of the 3Di area models. GIS expertise.

results in the digital terrain height model then makes the calculations clear for laymen. both for the current situation – for example during heavy rain- fall – and for climatological scenarios in urban and rural environments. operational managers and communications advisers through to disaster coordinators. varying from water specialists. made up of various cartographic layers of geographical information. 3Di explained 3Di explained FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS This section discusses a number of questions that are often asked during workshops and presentations. The 3Di calculation core can then carry out water cal- culations on this underlay. The so-called area models act as a kind of underlay in 3Di. spatial planners. heavy precipitation and drought. What can 3Di do? 3Di area models can quite literally map out water flows and the effects of flooding. the ultrafast calculation times and the interactive access via a web browser make the area models suitable for a broad target group. performing calculations in the cloud and visualising the results realistically on an iPad or touch table. A realistic visualisation of the calculation of ground levels. ground level height and ground usage. The high level of detail. the 3Di Foundation? What is 3Di? 3Di comprises a number of innovative. altering the map that is used for the calculations. permeability. flooding and high water can be These could for example be modifications in the external situation. interrelated developments. for example in terms calculated in fine detail. 8 9 . type of road surfacing. 3Di generates these area models automatically as far as possible from the source files. such as the soil type. etc. The users can play interactively with 3Di. These allow 3Di to make water calculations interactively as a whole. Thanks to the 3Di sub-grid technique. as well as using 3D stereo visualisation. urban expansion. What is 3Di? What exactly can it do? What is its relationship with the modelling packages? Is 3Di an open system? And what is Stichting 3Di.

10 11 . 3Di focuses primarily on policy officers at water boards. in order to get a picture of the effects. It is ideal for questions about how water can be given a place in spatial planning. municipalities and subsidy providers: Delfland Water Board. 3Di works with predefined area models in which the user can implement measures in the outside areas or the water system. urban planners. for instance through a user-friendly interface. 3Di explained 3Di explained The layout and transport capacities of water. The models also include all interactions. Top- class specialists and developers in IT. disaster coordinators and other water safety professionals. planning specialists. The development was made financially possible by the following water boards. interactive planning processes and investment decisions. The effects of possible interventions can be visualised in next to no time. Waternet. Municipality of The Hague. crisis management and the local approaches to dealing with high water. managers of external areas. Additionally. so that the effects of measures can be examined very precisely. Kennis voor Klimaat and Waterkader Haaglanden. providing maximum support for the evaluations. hydraulics and GIS systems are working together 3Di area models are integrated right into the heart of the calculations. Municipality of Rotterdam. the advanced GIS environment gives specialists the capability to make much larger numbers of changes behind the scenes. sewer and groundwater systems can also be altered. the 3Di Foundation? 3Di has been developed over the course of the last four years by a consortium of Deltares. This for 3Di in a small team. The inspirational and efficient way in which this is being done means there is no time-consuming exchange of data in files. OAS ‘De Groote Lucht’. 3Di is a highly successful co-operative venture in the so-called Golden Triangle. What is the relationship between 3Di and modelling packages? 3Di is an instrument for exploring measures for improvement that could be taken in outside areas. The high level of detail also means that laymen can recognise the situation and ‘non-specialist’ users are also able to come up with ideas and try them out. Unlike the specialised modelling packages. giving very fast and the exceptionally good cooperation with those working in the field are essential calculation times as a result. for instance by changing the flow profiles and the civil engineering structures. It is not intended to replace modelling packages for designing and testing water and waste- water systems. The combination of high calculation speeds and the fine level of detail of the external areas in the model mean that 3Di is an excellent tool for decision support in crisis management. What is Stichting 3Di. Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board. Delft Technical University and Nelen & Schuurmans.

A charge is made for this. who draw up the development plan. you will be involved with the 3Di Foundation for the one-off creation of one or more area models and the hosting and management of the area models and 3Di calculations servers. The bodies funding the continued development can join the Supervisory Board.g. 3Di is an open development in that sense too. Water is only one of the spatial structures in spatial planning. clearly linked to water system characteristics (see overview at the back). New fields of application are naturally also being explored. Partners who support any new developments financially or who have knowledge or technology that might be interesting can join 3Di and help define the direction in which it will develop. The board determines the top-level of vision and defines an annual development plan in consultation with the Programme Board. water quality and dyke strength. 12 13 . As a 3Di user. such as integration of e. The board of the foundation consists of representatives of the consortium members and water managers. In concrete terms. there is a user community. Stichting 3Di develops and manages area models and supports con- tinued development of 3Di. In addition. How can I join? You can start using 3Di and support its continued development. there is an ongoing search for subsidies to support new 3Di developments. There is also a Programme Board consisting of experts in the fields. It must therefore be possible to display water information combined with other relevant information. This meets twice a year and issues advice about desired modifications and expansions based on practical experience with 3Di. 3Di is open and transparent. The foundation called Stichting 3Di was set up to ensure this approach remains possible in the future and to enable successful further development. which monitors the administration and running of the foundation. In addition. If you use 3Di. 3Di explained 3Di explained aspects. 3Di provides this capability. The 3Di pilot phase has been completed and the implementation of 3Di has been started in the areas managed by the Delfland and Hollands Noorderkwartier water boards. you will be supporting the 3Di Foundation and you can take part in the 3Di user community. The users who take part in this provide details of their experien- ces with 3Di and draw up wish-lists for further development. This foundation manages 3Di and is working on further development of 3Di. which therefore makes it ideal for developing structural visions and climate adaptation strategies. The income that the Foundation receives from the users covers the costs of the area models plus cloud services such as hosting and storage.

will be included in new releases after thorough testing. An area model is developed as a one-off by the 3Di Foundation and placed in the cloud. A number of develop- ment and validation stages are still required for that. This means that the quality and problem-free functioning can be guaranteed in the cloud. the 3Di Academy maintains contacts with the scientific staff. graduates and university students. Users can then make what- ever changes they want using open GIS models. articles in professional magazines and tutorials on the website www. The selection shows a transverse cross-section through the Arena. The partners in 3Di want to make 3Di into open source software. A number of graduate students are also actively involved with elements of 3Di. The formats and the structure of the input and output files of the calculation core are fully open and accessible. 3Di explained 3Di explained Is 3Di open? 3Di is a fully open development. the interface has been published. Progress over recent years has been exhaustively tested in work- shops and practically oriented studies. we are making it possible for other parties to develop new functionality and add it to where they can discuss content-related aspects with the programmers and modellers. By doing so. showing part of the detailed ground level model – one of the information layers in the 3Di area models. The software components that have been developed will be published under a GPLv3 licence (open source).3di. The substantive background (how 3Di works) has been published in scientific journals. if found suitable. an approach that has hugely benefited the quality of 3Di. The links with universities and colleges come clearly to the fore in joint projects. Amsterdam. The roof is open. By applying 3Di in graduate and doctoral studies. New functions are assessed and. The calculation core for flooding is expected to be published under GPLv3 within a year. Those who are interested are always welcome to visit the 3Di lab at Drieharingstraat 6 in Utrecht. 14 15 .

This also implies complete interaction between 1D. 2D. It is possible to include 1D levees in the scheme to give a more accurate picture. This also allows rivers and canals in the sub-grid raster to be ‘excavated’. The moisture in the soil is described using CAPSIM. namely conservation of mass and conservation of momentum. The water movements in 3Di are described using two laws of conservation. A 3Di area model can consist of one or several model layers. thanks to these sub-grid technique with irregular quadtrees. 16 17 . The groundwater flow in 3Di is described using the Darcy equation. for example to simulate the growth of a model with three layers: a raster subsoil layer. a raster terrain layer and a 1D open water network layer. namely: – a raster terrain layer (for flooding and precipitation) – a raster subsoil layer (for soil moisture content and groundwater) – a 1D open water network layer (for the canal system) – a 1D sewer network layer (for the sewer system) Raster terrain layer. as accurately as the machine precision will allow. The calculations make accurate allowances for detailed height differences in the landscape (or the ground. This example is levees can be modified over the course of time. The 1D A 3Di area model can be made up of multiple layers. groundwater and sewerage. The momentum equation describes the water movements in accordance with the Saint-Venant equations as 1D and 2D flows. for flooding and precipitation The 2D flows in 3Di are suitable for flooding and for the flows in lakes and estuaries. The 2D flows are entirely hydrodynamic and suitable for dry bed flow. One special feature of 3Di is that conservation of mass is handled extremely strictly. All the equations are put into a matrix which is efficiently solved implicitly so that calculations can be performed using larger time intervals with- out stability issues. 3Di explained 3Di explained A LOOK UNDER THE HOOD OF 3Di General 3Di is a dynamic water model.

There are three ways of connecting the 1D canals up to the groundwater. Civil engineering structures in the canals can be modelled. connected and isolated. Raster subsoil layer. High groundwater levels result in water on the surface. Flows at civil engineering structures make allowances for the direction of flow and various flow conditions. Wind effects are also going to be added. but it is also possible to add precipitation from weather stations. The groundwater flows then become two-dimensional sur- face flows. The soil properties are specified per sub-grid and the soil moisture content is calculated per sub-grid. underflows. weirs. through crops). although that is still custom work at the moment. for soil moisture content and groundwater 12 hours The groundwater flow is restricted to shallow groundwater in the unsaturated zone. including pumping stations. percolation. There are three variants for the linkage between 1D and 2D flows: embedded. such as free and submerged flows. Example of a test calculation working out how the groundwater level will progress. storage. drying and capillary rising. 3Di explained 3Di explained a breach. avoiding calculation time steps needing to be shortened even when canals dry out or in supercritical flows. 3Di conserves mass completely. In principle.g. Compared to other 1D models. 24 hours 1d open water network layer The 1D flow through canals is calculated fully hydrodynamically. The deep groundwater flow is not included in 3Di. with slow removal via the groundwater and rapid removal via surface flows. The unsaturated zone describes a variety of processes such as evaporation (e. A profile can be given for the canals showing resistance and bed height. culverts and bridges. The rainfall runoff process is described in 3Di using these linkages. the 1 hour precipitation uses weather radar images. infiltration. The calculation core can use more than one billion sub-grid cells and can perform the calculations about 1000 times faster than comparable models on the same hardware configuration. Precipitation and evaporation can be input as well as flooding. Real-time control of these structures is possible. Seepage and infiltration are specified spatially. 18 19 . This allows any system to be described properly. The groundwater flow between calculation cells is described in two dimensions using the Darcy equation.

20 21 . embedded. The zoom level determines which details are shown. Civil engineering structures may be included in the sewer network. the sewer network can be linked to the 2D raster network and the 2D groundwater network. weirs and underflows. The sewerage is also integrated into the 3Di calculation core.e. does the calculations without time step reduction and is suitable for both subcritical and supercritical flows. The sewer layer calculation conserves mass completely. Calculations down to the level of storm drains are then feasible. Just like the 1D open water network. Underground constructions can be described in detail using storage height functions. The municipal sewer network in the area covered by OAS ‘De Groote Lucht’ in 3Di. The same type of connections are used for this as for the 1D surface waters. i. 3Di explained 3Di explained 1D sewer network layer The calculation core is capable of handling the sewer system fully hydrodynamically right down to the sewer pit and drain level. connected and isolated. such as pumping stations.

These checks are fully automated. Checks. The corrections and additions are needed for making the area model. with corrections and additions being made as necessary. When an area model is produced. The key points are: – connecting to the source control files of the water manager – flexible updating of the area models with new data – checking. The data that is required for the area model is read into an ‘object database’ and a ‘raster database’. 22 23 . correcting and adding the necessary data – processing and modifying area models by the modeller or consultant – version control of the area models and model scenarios – interactive use of the area models Control at the source Every water manager has source data and the corresponding software for managing data about waterways. 3Di explained 3Di explained MANAGING AND USING 3Di AREA MODELS General A great deal of attention was paid in the setup of 3Di to creating and managing model schematics. which makes them extremely flexibly when updates are needed. Changes to the source files can be read in again later into these databases. The supplementary and adjusted values are also reported back to the manager of the source The level of detail of 3Di makes it possible to make detailed calculations of high water problems and find tailored solutions for them. corrections and additions The object database is checked. sewers and civil engineering objects. data standards are used along with standard management software. also known as ‘area models’.

The user can download and edit an area model and then upload it again. The basic checks ensure that the model is com- plete.2. using numerous source files. The object database and the area models are stored in the cloud. Updating an area model Area models are stored in a SpatiaLite database. All the variants of an area model are managed automatically in the cloud and it is possible to retrieve older variants. All raster data and object data in the area model can be accessed and edited using standard GIS tools. connections. Data mining turns out to be particularly useful for secondary and tertiary water systems. based on big data mining. This involved correction and supplementation of missing profiles. weirs and level limits. Data mining The checks are carried out at two levels. 3Di explained 3Di explained files. yielding better quality area models. Creating an area model The area models are generated automatically from the object database and the raster database by a 3Di specialist. an open source GIS package. The managers can then make their own decisions as to whether or not the changes should be implemented in the source files. 3Di area models can be modified by the specialist right down to the finest level of detail using QGIS. culverts. Editing is done using QGIS v2. 24 25 . An optional detailed check can be performed.

The user can start up a calculation with the ‘play’ button and follow the calculation on the map as it progresses. 3Di and FEWS OIn order to validate area models and to use them in a high water prediction system. 26 27 . During the calculation. the 3Di area model is updated every 15 or 60 minutes with the latest radar data and predictions. These modification may relate to the spatial planning or the water and wastewater systems and civil engineering structures. Dis- crepancies between the values measured and calculated are logged and can be adjusted if so desired. weirs. pumping stations (rotating impellers for pumping stations removing water) and the water flow (a stream of ‘white balls’) quickly provide insights into how the water system works. In this combination. the user can retrieve information and make changes. In 3Di area models. there are links with FEWS and ControlNext. the 1D watercourses are fully integrated into the 2D flow model. Visualisation of the culverts. the user has a 3Di web interface for choosing an area model and a scenario. 3Di explained 3Di explained Interactive use When a calculation is to be carried out.

A 3Di area model can also be used for flooding problems due to extreme precipitation. Within just a few minutes. the technical implementation has been made as simple as possible. A 3Di area model can be used for a desktop study. cycle tunnels and viaducts can be pre- sented in just a few minutes. Emergency measures can be tried out first in the area model. Alternatives can be input immediately during working sessions and the effects calculated. it can be entered into the area model instantaneously. This can also use weather radar images to get an accurate spatial picture. at any rate. Consensus is achieved much more rapidly this way about the usefulness and necessity of measures. as is a picture of the consequences of any actions that might be taken. a realistic picture of the flooding is available. emergency pumping or closures of waterways. 3Di explained 3Di explained 3Di IN PRACTICE 3Di area models can be used for numerous applications. This makes 3Di the perfect tool for helping take the correct emergency measures. Images can also be sent to the Disaster Management System. Getting 3Di properly embedded in your organisation obviously needs more than just a properly functioning model. We have listed a number of applications below for illustrative purposes. Disaster management A 3Di area model is ideal for use in an emergency or in a disaster exercise. making a distinction between those that are sensible and those that are pointless. Various practical case studies have been carried out over the last few years. The effects of raising dykes. Thanks to the 3Di cloud solution. as an interactive tool in workshops and as part of a system for fire brigade support or high water prediction. A good picture of the current situation is crucial in an actual or impending emergency. When an actual or impending breach is signalled. Using a 3Di area model makes it possible to estimate which roads could still be used for evacuation if the water retention structures fail. 28 29 . The pictures can be shared using the ‘watch’ function of the Internet interface.

The 3Di area model also allows the effects of deeper dredging. allowing the correct IPO classes to be determined for each section. 3Di explained 3Di explained Classification of embankments Regional embankments and areas with variable water levels are standardised by the provincial authorities into so-called (Dutch) IPO classes (1 to 5). need greater protection than the less vulnerable areas such as grasslands. Tackling water problems Water problems as a result of heavy precipitation have led many water authorities to test their water systems. These provincial classes are related to the damage that would occur if the embankment broke. Thanks to the more accurate classification. The 3Di calculation schema is suitable for calculating 2D flow patterns in rivers because appropriate allowances are made for the effects of floodable field areas. but they are too slow or too large for many applications. 3Di has been used abroad to make 2D models of Jamaica Bay in New York and San Francisco Bay. 30 31 . The high level of detail in the 3Di area models allows the calculation of the damage to be made much more accurately. The Dutch National Administrative Agreement on Water standards state that the vulnerable areas. The calculation time for these models is just a few minutes. such as urban areas. harbour expansions and bypasses to be examined. This let the Hollands Noorderkwartier water authority save over a hundred million euros on proposed dyke reinforcement work. The new 3Di calculation core means that it is now possible to do 2D calculations. Tens of thousands of dyke breach scenarios can be calculated in just a short time with 3Di. The effects of nature development in the flood fields or the utilisation of overflow areas can be made clear to everyone. unnecessary dyke strengthening work as a result of excessively high classifications can be avoided. Rivers and estuaries 2D models of rivers and estuaries have been around for a long time. Putting the outer flood fields underwater or draining them again and how this affects water transport by the river are described exceptionally well in a 3Di area model. although the models contain a billion cells.

Extreme precipitation can involve vastly more rainwater on the streets than the ‘bui08’ standard scenario. a 3Di area model has been made down to the level of paving stones. 32 33 . alone or combined with dyke breaches. Determining the water burden and looking for tailored solutions is many times quicker and more accurate with 3Di area models than was previously possible. The ability of areas (particularly urban areas) to handle climate issues can be examined. Instead of having to purchase land for water storage in the open. real-time control and alterations to the sewer system or the wastewater purification. including looking at severe extremes of precipitation. creating a need for integral spatial analysis of water behaviour. for instance. This area model has allowed the vulnerable areas in the city to be mapped out accurately. That is a massive difference and it generated correspondingly substantial savings. combined with a 3Di surface model. A 3Di area model has been developed for the OAS ‘De Groote Lucht’. If you are interested in what would happen in your municipality if 100mm of rain were to fall in one go. A 3Di area model is particularly well suited for obtaining a good picture of how the UDS actually functions. A 3Di case study carried out in Delfland showed that the water burden in a vulnerable polder could be reduced by eighty per cent. 3Di brings ‘climate scans’ within reach for any water authority or municipality. Optimising urban drainage systems (UDS) An optimisation study (also known as an OAS) can be carried out for UDS. Urban environment plans New environmental legislation is on the way. A model such as this contains the entire sewer system of all municipalities down to the individual pipes. For Amsterdam. 3Di explained 3Di explained A 3Di area model allows the impact of extreme precipitation to be mapped out very accurately at a fine level of detail. This has allowed the functioning of the UDS to be examined accurately. including studies of optimisation measures such as disconnecting residential areas. a ‘water scan’ can be carried out using a 3Di area model. a tailored solution is now being realised together with the municipality that fits in with the spatial planning.

The costs can be subdivided into: – Annual usage costs for calculations with a 3Di area model. 34 35 . This is done using the basic area model and your calculation subscription. The approach is similar to a package for a mobile phone: you purchase a 3Di package that gives an annual amount of calculation time and data storage. – The costs of realistic three-dimensional stereo visualisation.000 PREMIUM 2 TB 2000 HOURS L75. – One-off costs for creating one or more 3Di area models.000 MEDIUM 50 GB 100 HOURS L10. Where would escaped prisoners from Alcatraz have made landfall? 3Di has the answers. This was capable of giving a detailed picture of the changing flow patterns at high and low tide in San Francisco Bay. for example. TYPE STORAGE CPU TIME PRICE BASIS 5 GB 10 HOURS L5. you need a modern Internet browser such as Chrome and a 3Di subscription.000 The 3Di calculation core can show flow velocities at the sub-grid level. The prices stated below are exclusive of Dutch VAT.000 LARGE 500 GB 1000 HOURS L50. The 3Di calculation core is hosted on calculation servers in a professional data centre. But what will it cost to use it? This chapter gives a picture of the pricing. To perform calculations with a 3Di area model. 3Di explained 3Di explained WHAT WILL IT COST? You now know what 3Di is worth. 3Di usage costs You do not have to purchase a licence and you hardly need to install any software your- self in order to do calculations with 3Di. Users can make any desired modi- fication to an area model and analyse scenarios or measures that could be taken. with a number of worked examples at the end.

000 75000 L125.000 rights. This can be sent to you on request. such as when used in a disaster organisation or as part of a decision support system. You can also give external consultants access to your account. 5 – 10 80% 11 AND MORE 90% – The discounts only apply for orders that are placed at the same time.000 3Di area models Discounts: cooperating pays off You need a 3Di area model if you are going to work with 3Di. it may be modified by everyone who has the appropriate rights. then you will need to extend your subscription. The costs can be worked out using the 4 70% table on page 37. 36 37 . The extended subscription can be a smaller type. The Medium package is more suitable for a medium-sized municipality. – The highest discounts are applied to the cheapest models.000 50000 L100.000 5000 L20. Missing or inconsistent data in the dataset supplied will be corrected and you will be notified of the corrections made. A water authority with numerous 3Di area models should find Large to be enough.000 – Multiple users can work with a single account. 1 BILLION L80. There are 500 MILLION L60. 2 50% 3 60% The one-off costs of an area model are determined by the number of model layers and the number of schema elements per model layer. 100 MILLION L40.5 BILLION L100.000 25000 L60.000 discounts that apply to equivalent subscriptions.000 – For operationally critical applications. namely: Considerable efficiency gains can be achieved when several models are created at once.000 Premium is the best option for intensive. The costs of an area model include reading in the data from the management system according to the standard exchange formats and protocols. 10 MILLION L20. A 3Di area model can consist of one or several model layers.000 20000 L50. a higher service level agreement may be 1.000 15000 L40. Once an area model has been created. 1 MILLION L10.000 1000 L10. 2 BILLION L120. Every user is a registered and can be granted more or fewer 50 MILLION L30.000 needed.000 – If you want to work with multiple users at the same time. – a raster subsoil layer (for soil moisture content and groundwater) – a 1D open water network layer (for the canal system) – a 1D sewer network layer (for the sewer system) NUMBER OF 3Di MODELS DISCOUNT 1 0% The basic area model can only be made by the 3Di Foundation. these also apply to multiple models. 3Di explained 3Di explained – The calculation times are quick enough that the Basic package is sufficient for occa- RASTERS PRICE 1D ELEMENTS PRICE sional use.000 10000 L30. – a raster terrain layer (for flooding and precipitation) The discounts that are given for this can be as much as 90%. large-scale use.

so the extra cost of the second one is then J20. a discount of 50% applies.000. The total cost for a 3Di area model for the municipality is thus: a discount of 50% is given on the second raster layer.= J80. (terrain model.000 HA L50. pumping stations and so forth).-. DISCOUNT Example cost calculations If a decision is made to create several models at the same time. 38 39 . costs J20..+ J20. This point cloud data must first be processed as a one-off from aerial photographs.000.- The number of one of the elements in the open water network for the polder is 4..000. Renting the equipment costs J1. Purchasing the equipment. The costs for the 1D open water network are therefore J20.25m2.000.000. (terrain model plus sewer model).000 HA L1.- (80% discount) of 0. The subsoil layer also contains 63 million sub-grids.. The total cost for making the polder models for the entire area you are managing is there- fore easy to determine. The cost of making an area model containing only this terrain layer is J40.= J20. J100.-.50 PER HA Making a three-layer schema of a 3Di area model for this polder therefore comes to Displaying 3D images requires a stereo video projector and a laptop. If the two are done at once. culverts.500 are weirs. it will consist of 60 million sub-grids. The cost of making this layer is The one-off costs per hectare for processing the point cloud data visualisation are: J40.- (50% discount) >> Take a municipality with 80. or J80.-. The costs for the 1D sewer network are therefore J40.25m2 is used for the terrain layer.-.PER HA Of these. overflows. 1.000.000..-.+ L0. This example assumes a polder area of 1.000. subsoil model and sewer model).+ J20. Municipalities are able to obtain a substantial discount by having several 3Di area models made at the same time. The municipal sewer system contains 15. the terrain layer for this area consists of 63 million sub-grids.000 residents and a built-up area of 1. this can also be done jointly with other municipalities. 3Di explained 3Di explained If a raster subsoil layer is included in the area model in addition to the raster terrain layer.000.000..-.000. 3Di visualisatie The results of a 3Di calculation can be visualised in a realistic setting using what is POLDER known as the point cloud. If a resolution of 0. including installation of the software. can be rented or you may purchase it yourself.500 per day. pumping stations and bridges.000.570 ha..000.. 0 – 5000 HA L5000. 5000 – 100.. This equipment J40.000 items (manholes.000. Doing the subsoil AREA COSTS layer at the same time costs 50% x J40. > 100. At a resolution Costs for model 6: J16.000.- MEDIUM-SIZED MUNICIPALITY Costs for model 2: J40.-.000.000. then the costs for sub- sequent models are: Costs for model 1: J80. The subsoil layer for this polder also contains 60 million sub-grids.000.500 ha.000.-.

Nijmegen) Dimitri van Breemen Yasmin Faraji (Utrecht University) Pieter Buijs Floor Speet (University of Twente) Carsten Byrman Arnold van ’t Veld (Delft Technical University) 40 . 3Di explained THE FOLLOWING WORKED ON THE 3Di WATERMANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMME DELTARES Jorik Chen Onno van den Akker Fritz van Deventer Fedor Baart Wouter van Esse Ruben Dahm Jack Ha Arthur van Dam Olivier Hoes Klaas-Jan van Heeringen Alexander Hoff Olga Kleptsova Ernst Kuilder Robert Leander Anne Leskens Elgard van Leeuwen Coen Nengerman Arnejan van Loenen Gijs Nijholt Jan Noort Olga Pleumeekers Daniël Twigt Jan-Maarten Verbree Govert Verhoeven Bram de Vries Toine Vergroesen Bastiaan Roos Jarno Verkaik Reinout van Rees Wytze Schuurmans
 DELFT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Jonas van Schrojenstein Lantman Elmar Eisemann Martijn Siemerink Gerwin de Haan Sander Smits Christian Kehl Arjan Verkerk Frits Post Arjen Vrielink Guus Stelling Daniël Zijderveld Tim Tutenel Nicolette Volp 3Di ACADEMY Lars Wijtemans Louise Klingen (Van Hall Larensteijn College) Tessa van Rosmalen (Utrecht University) NELEN & SCHUURMANS Anna Cruijsen (Delft Technical University) Ber Albers Benno Fakkert (University of Twente) Thomas Berends Frank Tibben (University of Twente) Berto Booijink Kelly van der Elst (Radboud University. .3di.