You are on page 1of 20

2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

A TECHNICAL REPORT

ON FIELD TRIP
TO
PAVEMENT EVALUATION UNIT (P.E.U) IKOYI LAGOS AND
JULIUS BERGER SITE ALONG LAGOS SHAGAMU EXPRESS
ROAD FOR PRACTICAL WORK

ON
WEDNESDAY 26TH MARCH 2014
BY

400 LEVEL STUDENTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL


ENGINEERING, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,
ABEOKUTA (FUNAAB)
PREPARED
BY
ADEYEYE AYODEJI DANIEL
MATRIC NUMBER: 2010/0806

LECTURER IN CHARGE: DR. ENGR. ADEWUYI


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

CONTENTS

TITLE

Acknowledgement

Introduction to P.E.U

Soil laboratory

Concrete laboratory

Chemistry laboratory

Foundation laboratory

Bitumen laboratory

Introduction to Julius Berger site

Plate bearing test

Determination of dry density of soil in field

Conclusion

Recommendation
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I use this medium to give my undiluted appreciation to my parents, Mr. & Mrs.
ADEYEYE who God has been using to finance my education. They have been good parents to
me.

I also thank the authority of the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta especially those
in the Department of civil engineering. ENGR (DR.) ADEKUNLE P.ADEWUYI and ENGR
OLUWATUNDIMU the other staffs for incorporating this field trip into the civil engineering
scope of study (CVE 401), I thank them for the knowledge they imparted on me.

I will also like to appreciate my course Mate who were part of the committee member
that made the field trip a success and my prayers for you is that you will all succeed in your
academic endeavour.

Lastly, my appreciation goes to the FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WORKS (Pavement


Evaluation Unit) Lagos instructors; Engr. Olushola Alfred and the other staffs who imparted
knowledge into me

My acknowledgement will not be complete, if I fail to acknowledge the prayerful support


of the fellowship of God (MFMCF UNAAB).

I say a very big thank to you all including those that their names were not typed, God
Almighty will continually be your strength and will bless you the more.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

INTRODUTION

Pavement Evaluation Unit, Lagos is one of the three departments of material, geotechnics and
quality control in Highways of federal ministry of works, Nigeria. It is situated at Awolowo road,
Ikoyi Lagos state, Nigeria.

It was established in 1960s and name as materials and research under civil engineering of
the then federal ministry of works and housing. The unit was head by Engineer Alfred Olushola

Pavement evaluation unit was set up to perform the following function on Nigeria federal
highways:

1. To prepare a strategy and procedure for evaluating the structural adequacy of roads
earmarked for improvement in order to provide the department with necessary data to
rationally plan their annual program of road maintenance and rehabilitation.
2. To provide the equipment and manpower needed to determine the quality of materials
and workmanship at road construction sites in line with the ministry specifications.
3. To develop, equip and train Nigerians on modern procedures of managing and
maintaining networks of roads.
4. To develop a rehabilitation design procedure for Nigerian condition.
5. To established a highway database for the highway departments for use in planning
management system [PMS].

COVERAGE
PEU, activities cover all federal highways in the country. Pavement evaluation
unit, Lagos covers all ongoing federal highways projects within southwest and part of
south south sections .this involves a lot of travelling short response to directives at very
short notices. PUE staffs are used to carrying out instruction at short notice.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

We were welcome by the staffs, and the head of the Pavement Evaluation Unit (ENGR.
OLUSHOLA ALFRED) address us, and introduction of the staff of the unit and excursion
student with the staff follow immediately.

The field trip to pavement evaluation unit on Wednesday 26th of March 2014 begins at exactly
6:20 am, as we all gathered together at Dambold filling station camp. We were grouped into two
groups, as one bus was head by Engineer Oluwatudimu and the Nuesa president, and the other
one by Dr Adewuyi and Mr Cosmos. The bus took off 6:40 am, and we got to Ikoyi around 10am
in the morning.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

SUMMARY OF THE RELEVANT SECTIONS OF FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WORKS


SPECIFICATION

CLAUSE(S) SPECIFICATION REMARK


Materials suitable for Sub grade/ fill
Specification is silent
% Passing sieve 200 />35%
on CBR, but 10%
6201, 6122 Liquid Limit (LL) />50%
minimum is
Plasticity Index (PI) />30%
recommended
Relative Compaction />100% of BS (top 150mm)
Materials suitable for Sub-base Type 1 sub-base.
% Passing sieve 200 />35% If % passing Sieve
Liquid Limit (LL) />35% 200 is greater than
6201
Plasticity Index (PI) />12% 35% - no need for
CBR (24Hrs soaking) />30% further test and
Relative Compaction />100% of WASC material rejected
Materials suitable for Stone-base
% passing through sieve 200: Non-Plastic or
6252 (i), OR LL not greater than 30%
Wet process
6252 (ii) PI not greater than 6%
Continuously graded aggregates falling into grading
envelopes A-E
Materials suitable for Asphaltic Concrete
Wearing Binder
Optimum Bit. Content 5-8% 4.5-6.5
6201
Marshall Stability 320kgmin
Marshall flow 2-4mm 2-6mm
Void of total mix 3-5% 3-8%

The unit (Pavement evaluation unit) has different laboratories, where test on civil engineering
construction materials are carried out, and the laboratories are as follows:

Soil Laboratory
Concrete Laboratory
Chemistry laboratory
Foundation laboratory
Bitumen laboratory
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

SOIL LABORATORY

Soil laboratory was made to carry out geotechnics test on soil, and the test is as follows:

California bearing ratio test


Sieve analysis
Compaction test
Liquid and plastic limit test

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO

California bearing ratio (CBR TEST) is a penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical
strength of road base course, sub base and sub grade. It was developed by the California
department of transportation, the test is performing, by measuring the pressure required to
penetrate a soil sample with a plunger of standard area. The measured pressured is then divided
by the pressure required to achieve an equal penetration on the standard crushed rock material.
The test cannot be achieved without a pre test called compaction.

SIEVE ANALYSIS

Step: Take moisture content of the material.

Desiccators: Put the soil in it. Desiccators allow sample not Moisture from the environment.
Sample must have been label.

Nuclear Gauge: To get anything about the material.

There is no way a sample will lose its moisture content to zero.

Sample: 500g of soil

Any sample that pass through sieve 200, it is silt, and percentage passing must not be more than
35%, if not, it is rendered useless.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

PRECAUTIONS
i) No sample must get loss when working
ii) Then wash your sieve
iii) Wash the soil sample. After washing the soil, pass it through sieve #200
iv) Put inside module, label then put inside oven for 24 hours at temperature not more than
60 degree Celsius, to avoid particle to be remain not to get burnt.

Put on shaker for 5 10 minutes

Equivalent dry weight = 500 * 100/ (moisture content + 100)

Add the sample together subtract it from equivalent dry weight

COMPACTION TEST
Compaction is a process whereby soil mass is reduced in volume by:
a) Tapping
b) Rolling
c) Vibration
d) Addition of temporary surcharge load.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

ADVANTAGES OF COMPACTION:
i) It increases soil strength and bearing capacity
ii) It reduces the void ratio and reduces the settlement and permeability.
iii) It reduces shrinkage.

This is the process that determine the strength and the behavior of material (clay, sub-base and
sub-grade) at its best or worst condition, presently we soak material for CBR Sub-grade
= 96hrs CBR 10% min
Sub-base = 24hrs CBR 30% min
Base course = Unsoaked = 80% min

In CBR the result cannot be achieved without Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and the
Optimum Moisture Content (OMC).

CONCRETE LABORATORY TEST


INTRODUCTION TO CONCRETE LABORATORY

Concrete is the composition of sand, gravel or granite bonded together with cement paste (water
+ cement) to form a solid mass after the setting and hydrating process.
Materials Used in Concrete Laboratory are:
i) Sand or Fine Aggregate
ii) Gravel/Granite Coarse Aggregate
iii) Cement

TYPE OF CONCRETE
i) Mass concrete
ii) Reinforced concrete
Concrete can be mass or reinforced when iron is introduce into it.
FINE AGGRGATE
It consists of sand particles (soft or sharp). It is of size below 4.76mm. It is used in concrete mix
or as mortar in plastering and rendering.
COARSE AGGREGATE
It consists of hard material like rocks and granite from quarries.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

CEMENT
It is powdery substance that binds the aggregate together to form concrete.

USES OF CONCRETE LABORATORY


It is used in construction of buildings, dams, roads and bridges.

Ratio of Concrete mix


1:1:2, 1:2:4, 1:3:6

TEST ON CONCRETE
The Moulds
Dimension - 150 x 150 x 150
Compression Machine: It is in S. I. Unit

TEST ON CONCRETE
The test carried out on concrete which is used to determine comprehensive strength is crushing
test.
EQUIPMENTS USED
Crushing machine, concrete mould
PROCEDURE
Immediately after preparing of fresh concrete on site, we lubricate the concrete mould with oil
for easy removal of the concrete. Pour the concrete into the mould and compact in three layers.
Leave for 24 hours to solidify. Remove the mould and put the concrete into the curing tank for 7
days, 21 days and 28 days. After which the concrete is taken to the lab for crushing to get the
compressive test.

CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
Since water is part of concrete, there is a need to test for the PH of water. The importance of
water Analysis cannot be overemphasized due to acidic nature of some water. Sometimes, water
is basic in nature.
Acidic water attacks concrete, thereby reducing it strength and disintegration commences
immediately this happen.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

In basic water test will reveal the salts present in the water. The one with sulphate (SO4) can
change reaction and become sulphuric acid (H2SO4) which will eventually attack concrete. The
one with chloride will attack reinforcement and eventually cause rusting, which will directly
reduce the strength of reinforced concrete. It will further lead to disintegration and later cause
collapse of structure on ground.

Based on this, we will carry out PH test on water with the aid of Universal indicator paper and a
PH meter - (Buffer tablet will be given with the machine) - with the table below

TEST ON WATER
Use of pH meter
Universal indicator paper

(Required standard of water: 6.5 8.5 PH value)

TEST STANDARD: NIS 554:2007

S/N TYPE OF TEST RESULT W. H. O.


STANDARD
1 PH Test 6.5 - 8.5
2 Temperature 30 - 35 degree
3 Acidity Nil
4 Appearance Clean
5 Colour Colourless
6 Odour Unobjectionable
7 Taste Tasteless
8 Suspended particle Free off suspension
9 Chloride {cl} mg/l 600mg/l
10 Sulphate {so4} mg/l 200mg/l
11 Iron {Fe2+} mg/l 0.3mg/l
12 Nitrate mg/l <10
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

FOUNDATION LABORATORY
It is otherwise called site investigation. It enables engineer to have a good knowledge of site
conditions and topography of the soil, therefore enabling him to carry out a safe and economic
design of foundation structures.

Foundation Laboratory involves two types of sample. They are:


i) Disturbed Sample: The properties of the soil get partly or fully modified.
ii) Undisturbed Sample: The properties of the soil remain preserved.

Foundation test can be carried out through:


i) Triaxial test
ii) Consolidation test
iii) Sieve Analysis
iv) Shrinkage Limit
v) Liquid Limit
vi) Plastic Limit

Equipments used
-Triaxial machine
-Consolidation machine
-Cone
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

BITUMEN LABORATORY
Bitumen means the same as the word Asphalt. It contains naturally occurring solid/semi
solid hydrocarbons mainly ASPHALTNESS.
Bitumen is defined as black materials which are adhesive, highly waterproof, durable,
and adequately plastic and has controllable flexibility to mixtures of mineral aggregates.
Asphaltic concrete is a mixture of aggregate and asphaltic cement. The Asphalt/Bitumen
binds and waterproofs the aggregate, that is, coarse, fine aggregates and mineral filler (or
cement).
Asphaltic concrete laid on roads as final layer is the primary materials used for surfacing
highways in Nigeria. It can be found in Ondo State.
Source: Bitumen is found as a residual of petroleum distillation. It also occurs naturally in the
lake of Trinidad, Venezuela and Japan.
CLASSIFICATION OF BITUMEN
i) Bitumen cement
ii) Cutback Bitumen
iii) Bitumen emulsion.
Bitumen Cement: It can only be made to non-viscous to flow and thoroughly coat both the
coarse and fine aggregate particles.
Cutback Bitumen: It results from the addition of a solvent such as naphthalene or kerosene to
the base asphalt to make it fluid.
Bitumen Emulsion: It comprise of two immiscible substances, e.g., oil and water. The substance
cannot be mix or bring together due to the presence of an emulsifying agent.

TESTS ON BITUMEN CEMENT AND CUTBACKS


Penetration test
Density test
Viscosity
Softening Point
Ductility
Flame test
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

TESTS ON BITUMEN EMULSION

Sieve Analysis test


Specific gravity test
Viscosity test
Extraction test

Only the penetration test and extraction test will be discussed.

Description of test

Penetration test: A penetrometer is used. The test is aimed at determining resistance of a


confined specimen of bitumen to the penetration of a needle under a standard weight of 100mg
for 5 seconds.

Extraction test: It is used to determine the proportion of various materials in bituminous concrete
sample, the percentage of bitumen added in relation to the weight of the aggregates. It also
allows the sieve analysis of aggregates used to be carried out.

FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WORKS


PAVEMENT EVALUATION UNIT (PEU) LAGOS
15, AWOLOWO ROAD, IKOYI, LAGOS.

PENETRATION TEST

DATE:

SAMPLE NO. 1 2
A B C A B C

AVERAGE
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

STEEL LABORATORY

In this laboratory, the tensile strength of steel is determined.

Equipments used: Universal testing machine (UTM),


2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC

INTRODUCTION

Julius Berger Nigeria plc is one of the two companies federal government of Nigeria awarded the
rehabilitation of Lagos-Shagamu expressway to, and they handle one section of the road.

IN SITU TEST CARRIED OUT IN JULIUS BERGER SITE

1. Sand replacement method


2. Plate bearing test soil in field

PLATE BEARING TEST

Plate bearing test is use to measure the bearing capacity of soil, IT IS ALSO USED TO CHECK
the maximum load the road can carry.
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

EQUIPMENT USED

The equipment used to carried out plate bearing test has the following components

1. Plate arm
2. Jack
3. Tripod
4. Punger
5. Base

PROCEDURES

Fix the cylindrical end part of the equipment to the vehicle, the apply the pressure.
Level the equipment
(Rectangular section) and connect to the cylindrical.
Set gauge to 0,
Then start loading
Record your readings

SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD

Sand replacement method is one of the method used for density determination on road, other
method include:

1. Cure cutter method


2. Destometer method
3. Trussler gauge

Sand replacement methods are always carried out on site with the following equipment:

1. Digging tray
2. Sand cone
3. Hammer
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

4. Spoon
5. Chisel
6. Scale
7. Wash sand from sample from the laboratory.

PROCEDURE

1. The digging tray was placed on the site( on top of the compacted soil)
2. Then the soil was dug to a depth of 15cm using chisel, the tray whole diameter is 10cm.
3. Weigh the dug sample and put the sand in the sand bottle into the dug space.
Diameter of the sample strip =10cm
Weight of the sample = 133g
Sample + plastic = 245g
4. Add calcium carbide which is equivalent to oven drying for 24hrs
5. And shake vigorously
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

6. Moisture content is 10%


NUCLEAR GUAGE

15cm/16 was obtained using the chisel


And the nuclear gauge equipment was placed on the 15cm hole that was dug
And the reading buttons was pressed and was obtained to be

DD = 116.4

% MOISTURE = 13.8

MDD = 124.9

WD = 132.4

% PR = 93.2

MC = 16.0

MAX DEPTH = 6/15CM

Proofing rate sieve 200

Value >35
2013/2014 FIELD REPORT {2010/0806}

CONCLUSION

My participation in this FIELD TRIP has really increased my practical knowledge on

major engineering tests and courses; it exposed me to the practical of most of the theoretical

courses Ive been thought in my 300L 400L civil engineering courses like CVE

305,302,308,314,401,417,312,302 e.t.c.

RECOMMENDATION

I recommend field trip like this should be introduced in most of our departmental courses.