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SWE2002

COMPUTER NETWORKS

Dr. G.Usha Devi


Associate Professor
School of Information Technology and Engineering
VIT University, Vellore
Chapter 1 Data Communications,
Data Networks, and the Internet
Data Communication

Data:
Refers to Information, Facts, Concepts,
Instructions
Represented by: binary information units (bits:
0, 1)
Consists of: text, numbers, pictures, sound or
video

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Data Communication

Exchange of data between two devices via


transmission medium
Data is represented by: binary information units
(bits: 0, 1)
text, numbers, pictures, sound or video
Fundamental characteristics:
Delivery
Accuracy
Timeliness - real-time transmission
Jitter

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Data Communication (cont.)
5 components
Message, Sender, Medium, Receiver, and
Protocol

From Figure 1.1 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

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Data Flow

Simplex
one direction, either as transmitter or receiver
Half-duplex
both direction; can transmit or receive, but one at a
time
Full-duplex
can transmit and receive simultaneously

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Data flow (simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex)

From Figure 1.2 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Networks

A Network
a set of nodes connected by media links for
resource sharing
A Node
computer, printer, etc
A Link
communication Channel
Resource
printer, database, files, Web pages, records, etc

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Network Criterion (cont.)
Performance
Transit time and response time
Depends on
Number of users
Types of transmission medium
Hardware
Software
Throughput and delay
Reliability
Security

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Transit Time Is the amount of time required for a
message to travel from one device to another.

Response Time - Is the elapsed time between an


inquiry and response

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Network Configuration

Defines the attachment of communication devices


to a link
Two categories:
Point-to-Point
Multipoint

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Point-to-Point Line Configuration

Dedicated link
Entire capacity of the channel reserved for
communication
Examples:
PC to PC (workstation)
Mainframe to PC (Workstation)
Satellite links

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Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint

From Figure 1.3 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Multipoint Line Configuration
Multi-drops
Sharing a single link: PC Laser printer

Spatially Ethernet

Time sharing
Laptop computer
Notebook computer

PC

Laptop computer Notebook computer

Laser printer

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Categories of Network

Local Area Network (LAN)


Wide Area Network (WAN):
Long distance transmission of data, voice, image,
and video information
Enterprise network (owned by a single company)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

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Local Area Networks (LANs)
Single organization
Office, building, campus, etc
Resource sharing
Printers, file servers, Internet
connection
One type of medium
Ethernet most common
10, 100, 1000 Mb/s
Wireless LANs
Topologies
bus, ring, star

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An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers
to a hub in a closet

From Figure 1.10 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

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Wide Area Network (WAN)

Long distance transmission of data, voice, image,


and video information
Enterprise network (owned by a single company)
Technologies:
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
Frame Relaying
X.25 (Packet switching network)
Circuit switching

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Wide Area Network (WAN)
International networks
Use different kinds of equipment
Public, leased, private equipment
International operators (carriers)
Private WAN
Enterprise networks

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WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN

20 From Figure 1.11 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

City wide coverage


LAN-to-LAN
LAN-to-other larger network

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Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Connect LANs together
Provide access to WAN
Different kinds of ownership
private company
public company
Network operator
Stadsnt, kommuner, energibolag

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A heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs

From Figure 1.12 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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A Communications Model
Communications Tasks
Transmission system utilization Addressing

Interfacing Routing

Signal generation Recovery

Synchronization Message formatting

Exchange management Security

Error detection and correction Network management

Flow control
Data Communications Model
Transmission Medium
selection is a basic choice
internal use entirely up to business
long-distance links made by carrier
rapid technology advances change mix
fiber optic
wireless
transmission costs still high
hence interest in efficiency improvements
Networking
growth of number & power of computers is driving need for
interconnection
also seeing rapid integration of voice, data, image & video
technologies
two broad categories of communications networks:
Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Wide Area Networks
span a large geographical area
cross public rights of way
rely in part on common carrier circuits
alternative technologies used include:
circuit switching
packet switching
frame relay
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
The Internet
Internet evolved from ARPANET
first operational packet network
applied to tactical radio & satellite nets also
had a need for interoperability
led to standardized TCP/IP protocols
Internet Elements
Internet Architecture
Example Configuration
Chapter 2 Protocol Architecture,
TCP/IP, and Internet-Based
Applications
Need For Protocol Architecture
data exchange can involve complex procedures, cf. file transfer
example
better if task broken into subtasks
implemented separately in layers in stack
each layer provides functions needed to perform comms for layers
above
using functions provided by layers below
peer layers communicate with a protocol
Protocol
A set of rules that govern data communications
What is communicated?
How it is communicated?
When it is communicated?

Key Elements:
syntax - data format
semantics - control info & error handling
timing - speed matching & sequencing
Protocols (cont.)
Syntax
Structure or Format of data
Order of data
Example:
Address of Receiver (First 8 bit)
Address of Sender (Second 8 bit)
Message (rest of bits)

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Protocols (cont.)
Semantics
Meaning of each section of bits
Bit pattern and interpretation
Command or action
Timing
When to send ?
How fast it can be sent?

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Network Models
System structure
Protocol functions
Interfaces between protocols
Separation of functions into layers
Technology
Application areas
Security and charging systems

Examples
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Internet protocols, TCP/IP suite

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Common Layered Network Models

The Internet model


and

OSI model

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ISOs OSI Model
Open Systems
Interconnection
Seven layer model
Three key concepts
Service
Interface
Protocol
Originates from early
80s
Protocol stack was never
fully implemented and
deployed
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Internet Model
Also known as TCP/IP protocol suite

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Communication Between Layers
Peer-to-peer processes
Between protocols at the same layer in different devices
Logical connection
Interfaces between layers
Between adjacent layers in the same device
Data is transfered by passing data and network information
through layers
down (sending) or up (receiving)
Communication takes place over well-defined interfaces

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Communication Between Layers

Two types of communication between layers


Peer-to-peer communicationsame layer, different devices
Communication over interfaces between layersdifferent layers, same device

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Interfaces Between Layers
The interface of a layer defines how the layer above it can access it
Each layer has its own format for the Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
A layer in the sending device may add more protocol information
to the data unit from the layer above
Headers and trailers
A layer in the receiving device may strip off protocol information

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Data Exchange

A layer in the sender adds protocol information to the data


Headers and trailers
A layer in the receiver strips off protocol information

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Function of Layers
Physical Layer
Data Link Layer
Network Layer
Transport Layer
Application Layer

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Physical Layer
Interface & Transmission Media
Electrical Specification
Mechanical Specification
Responsible for movement of individual bits from
one hop (node) to the next.
Define functions and procedures for data
transmission
Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium
Representation of bits
Data Rate
Synchronization of Bits
Line configuration
Physical topology
Transmission mode

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Physical Layer

From Figure 2.5 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

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Data Link Layer
Provide a reliable Link
Error free to the upper layer (network
layer)
Responsible for moving frames from one
hop (node) to the next.
Major responsibilities
Framing
Physical addressing
Flow control
Error control
Access control

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Data Link Layer (cont.)

From Figure 2.6 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

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Data Link Layer Hop-to-hop (Node-to-
Node) Delivery

From Figure 2.7 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Network Layer
Source to destination delivery of a data
packet across multiple networks
Responsible for the delivery of individual
packets from the source host to the
destination host.
Major responsibilities
Logical addressing (IP)
Routing
When independent network or links are connected

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Network Layer

From Figure 2.8 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

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Network Layer Source-to-Destination
Delivery

From Figure 2.9 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Transport Layer
Responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire
message
Responsible for the delivery of a message from one
process to another
Ensure reliable and orderly transmission of the whole
message
Oversee error control and flow control at the source-to-
destination level.
Major responsibilities
Service-point addressing
Segmentation and reassembly
Connection control
Flow control and error control

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Transport Layer

From Figure 2.10 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Reliable process-to-process
delivery of a message

From Figure 2.11 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Session Layer
Establish, maintain and synchronize the
interaction among communication system.
Responsible for dialog control and
synchronization.
Major responsibilities
Dialog control
Synchronization
Allows a process to add synchronization points to a
stream of data

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Session Layer
Advantages

From Figure 2.12 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Presentation Layer
Syntax and semantics of the information
exchanged between two systems.
Major responsibilities
Translation
Encryption
Compression

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Application Layer
Provide user interface and support for services.
Services provided
Network virtual terminal
File transfer, access, and management
Mail services
Directory services

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Application Layer

From Figure 2.14 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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Summary of Layers

From Figure 2.15 of Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan, 4th


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TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
developed by US Defense Advanced Research Project Agency
(DARPA)
for ARPANET packet switched network
used by the global Internet
protocol suite comprises a large collection of standardized
protocols
OSI v TCP/IP
Addressing

From Figure 2.17 of Data Communications and Networking


by Forouzan, 4th

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Relations of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

Advantages

From Figure 2.18 of Data Communications and Networking


68 by Forouzan, 4th
Addressing
Physical Addresses
Link address
Defined by its LAN or WAN
Included in the frame used by data link layer
The lowest level addresses
Size and format of the address depend on the network
Ethernet uses a 6-byte address

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Example

Most local-area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address


written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal
digits) is separated by a colon.

07:01:02:01:2C:4B

A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.

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Addressing (cont.)
Logical Addresses
Necessary for communications that are independent of
underlying physical networks.
Each host can be identified uniquely
Currently a 32-bit address in the Internet
The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the
logical addresses usually remain the same

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Addressing
Port Addresses
Internet communication
Process communicates with another process
Processes TELNET, FTP, HTTP etc.
A method to label different processes.
16 bits in TCP/IP
Represented by one decimal number, e.g.
SSH- 22, Telnet -23, Http - 80, ftp - 21

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Addressing
Specific Addresses
Email address luoh@ipfw.edu
Web url http://www.ects.ipfw.edu/~luo

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Communicating Systems
Interoperability between different vendors, products, etc
Solution: Standards
Two systems that follow the same rules should function
together
Independent of vendor and realisation method

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Standards

Advantages:
Assure that there will be a large market for a particular piece of
equipment or software
Allows products from multiple vendors to communicate (more
selections)
Disadvantages
Tends to freeze the technology
Multiple conflicting standards

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Standards Organization

ISO (International Organization for


Standardization)
ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union
Telecommunication Standards Sector)
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers)
EIA (Electronic Industries Association)

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REFERENCES
1. Data Communications and Networking
by Forouzan
2. Data and Computer Communications
by William Stallings