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P1AUIC05 FUEL AND EMISSIONS

Unit I Introduction L-9

Estimate of petroleum reserve, need for alternate fuel, availability and comparative properties of
alternate fuels, CNG, LPG, Alcohol, Vegetable oil, Bio-gas, ethanol and hydrogen.

Unit II CNG and LPG L- 9

Types of vegetable oils for engine application, Availability, properties, modifications required in
SI and CI engines, performance and emission characteristics, storage, handling and dispensing,
safety aspects. Alcohol - Manufacture of alcohol, properties, blending of Methanol and Ethanol,
engine design modifications required and effects of design parameters, performance and
emission characteristics and durability. Esterification, biogas, properties, engine performance and
emission characteristics.

Unit III Hydrogen and Fuel cells L- 9

Production methods, properties, performance and emission characteristics, storage and handling,
safety aspects, working principle, classification, description of fuel cell systems, fuel cell
components, properties of fuel cell, general performance characteristics, emission characteristics,
merits and demerits, Engine modification for hydrogen fuel.

Unit IV Emissions from SI & CI Engines and its Control L-9

Emission formation in S.I. engines Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide Nitric Oxide, Lead
particulates Polyneculear aromatic hydro carbon emission Effects of design and operating
variables on emission formation in spark ignition engines Controlling of pollutant formation in
engines Thermal reactors Catalytic converters Charcoal Canister Control for evaporative
emission Positive crank case ventilation system for UBHC emission reduction.

Chemical delay Significance Intermediate compound formation Pollutant formation on


incomplete combustion effect of operating variables on pollutant formation Controlling of
emissions Driving behavior Fumigation Exhaust gas recirculation Air injection Cetane
number effect.

Unit V-Emission Measurement and Test procedure L-9

Measurement of CO, CO2, by NDIR. Hydrocarbon by FID Chemiluminescent detector for


NOx measurement, Smoke meters Dilution tunnel technique for particulate measurement.
Constant Volume Sampling procedure (FTP) Emission Test Sampling probes and valves
Quantifying emissions.

TOTAL: 45 periods
7. LEARNING RESOURCES:
7.1 Required Resources:
1. Dr. S.S Thipse, Alternative Fuels, Jaico Publications, 2010.
2. Ganesan.V, Internal Combustion Engines, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.
3. Crouse.W.M, Anglin.A.L. Automotive Emission Control, McGraw Hill 1995.

7.2. Recommended Resources:


1. Springer.G.S, Patterson.D.J, Engine Emissions, pollutant formation, Plenum Press, 1986
2. Patterson, D.J, Henin.N.A, Emissions from Combustion engines and their Control, Anna
Arbor Science, 1985. Linden.D, Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, McGraw Hill,
1995.
3. Maxwell et al, Alternative Fuel : Emission, Economic and Performance, SAE, 1995
4. Watson, E.B., Alternative fuels for the combustion engine, ASME, 1990
5. Bechtold, R., Alternative fuels guidebook, 1998.
6. Joseph, N., Hydrogen fuel for structure transportation, SAE, 1996.
7. Holt and Danniel, Fuel cell powered vehicles: Automotive technology for the future,
SAE, 2001.
8. Vora K C & Ghosh B, Monograph on Automotive Catalytic Converter, ARAI Publication,
1995.
7.3 Online Resources:

This course uses various resources, such as lecture notes, materials from electronic media,
assignment papers. Students should make appropriate use of these resources.
1. www.nptel.in

8 LEARNING AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES:


8.1 Learning and Teaching Modes:

This course relies on lectures to guide through the material, tutorial classes to provide students
with class, and a sequence of written and online assignments to provide formative assessment
opportunities for students to practice techniques and develop their understanding of the course.
8.2 Contact hours:

The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with
the course requirements.

Activity Class Contact


hours
Lectures 45 45
Assignments 5 5
Cycle Test 2 4
Model Test 1 3
Total 57 periods

9 LEARNING ACTIVITIES SUMMARY:


Course Code/Course Name: P1AUIC05/Fuels and Emissions
Year/Sem: I/I Faculty Name:

Sl No Teaching Learning Process Delivery Methods Assessment


Methods
1 Solving real world problem Chalk & Talk Assignments
2 Explaining application before theory ICT tools Tests
3 Solving problems Group discussion Exams
4 Designing of experiments
5 Problems on environmental, economics,
health & safety
6 Problems on professional and ethics
7 Seminar Mini projects
8 Problems using software
9 Self-study
10 Formulation of problems
11 Identification of malfunctioning or mistakes
12 Demonstrations

CO1: Explain about the basics of alternate fuels.


Delivery Assessment
Sl No Topic Date TLP
Methods Methods
1 Estimate of petroleum reserve, 1/2 1 1/2/3
2 need for alternate fuel, 1/2 1
availability and comparative properties of
3 1/2 1
alternate fuels,
4 CNG 1/2 1
5 LPG 1/2 1
6 Alcohol, Vegetable oil, 1/2 1
7 Bio-gas, 1/2 1
8 ethanol 1/2 1
9 Hydrogen 1/2 1
10 Revision 1/2
11 Seminar 7 3
12 Class test 1 6
CO2: List the different types of alternate fuels.
Types of vegetable oils for engine
13 1/2 1
application,
Availability, properties, modifications
14 1/2 1
required in SI and CI engines,
15 performance and emission characteristics, 1/2 1
storage, handling and dispensing, safety
16 1/2 1
aspects. Alcohol - Manufacture of alcohol,
properties, blending of Methanol and
17 1/2 1
Ethanol, 1/2/3
18 engine design modifications required and 1/2 1
19 effects of design parameters, 1/2 1
performance and emission characteristics
20 1/2 1
and durability.
Esterification, biogas, properties, engine
21 1/2 1
performance and emission characteristics.
22 Revision 1/2 1/2
23 Seminar 7 3
24 Class test 1 6
CO3: Describe about hydrogen and fuel cells.
25 Production methods, properties, 1/2 1
26 performance and emission characteristics, 1/2 1
27 storage and handling, safety aspects, 1/2 1
working principle, classification,
28 1/2 1
description of fuel cell systems
29 fuel cell components, 1/2 1
30 properties of fuel cell, 1/2 1
1/2/3
31 general performance characteristics, 1/2 1
emission characteristics, merits and
32 1/2 1
demerits
33 Engine modification for hydrogen fuel. 1/2 1
34 Revision 1/2 1/2
35 Seminar 7 3
36 Class test 1 6
CO4. Estimate the emissions from SI and CI engines
37 Emission formation in S.I. engines 1/2 1 1/2/3
Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide Nitric
38 1/2 1
Oxide, Lead particulates
Polynuclear aromatic hydro carbon
39 1/2 1
emission
Effects of design and operating variables
40 on emission formation in spark ignition 1/2 1
engines
Controlling of pollutant formation in
41 1/2 1
engines
42 Thermal reactors 1/2 1
43 Catalytic converters 1/2 1
Charcoal Canister Control for evaporative
44 1/2 1
emission
Positive crank case ventilation system for
45 1/2 1
UBHC emission reduction
46 Revision 1/2 1/2
47 Seminar 7 3
48 Class test 1 6

CO5: State the various processes in the emission testing.

49 Measurement of CO, CO2, by NDIR. 1/2 1


50 Hydrocarbon by FID 1/2 1
Chemiluminescent detector for NOx
51 1/2 1
measurement,
52 Smoke meters 1/2 1
Dilution tunnel technique for particulate
53 1/2 1
measurement.
Constant Volume Sampling procedure 1/2/3
54 1/2 1
(FTP)
55 Emission Test 1/2 1
56 Sampling probes and valves 1/2 1
57 Quantifying emissions. 1/2 1
58 Revision 1/2 1/2
59 Seminar 7 3
60 Class test 1 6

10 ASSESSMENT:

10.1 Principles:
Assessment for this course is based on the following principles
1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
2. Assessment must measure achievement of the stated learning objectives.
3. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgments about student performance.

4. Assessment practice must be fair and equitable to students and give them theopportunity
to demonstrate what they learned.

5. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

10.2. Assessment Summary:


10.2.1. Mapping between Assessment task and Course Outcomes
Assessment Task Task Type Weightage Course Outcomes
1 2 3 4 5
Assignment Formative 10%
Cycle Test-I Formative & Cognitive 6%
Cycle Test-I Formative & Cognitive 6%
Model Exam Formative, Cognitive & 13%

Summative
Attendance Face to Face Interaction 5%
University Exam Formative, Cognitive & 60%

Summative

10.2.2. Mapping between Program Outcomes and Course Outcomes


Mapping of courses outcomes to program outcomes
Programme outcomes (POs)
Course outcome
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Course outcome 1: Explain about the basics of
H H L H L H
alternate fuels.
Course outcome 2: List the different types of
H H L H L H
alternate fuels.
Course outcome 3: Describe about hydrogen
H H L H L H
and fuel cells.
Course outcome 4: Estimate the emissions
H H L H L H
from SI and CI engines.
Course outcome 5: State the various processes
H H L H L H
in the emission testing.

10.3. Assessment Related Requirements:


1. An aggregate score of 50% is required to pass the course.

10.4. Assessment Details:

Assessment Item Distributed Due Date


rd
Assignment 1 3 week
Assignment 2 6th Week
Cycle Test I 7th Week
Assignment 3 8th Week
Assignment 4 11th Week
Cycle Test II 12th Week
Assignment 5 14th Week
Model Exam 15th Week
Attendance All weeks as per the Academic Calendar