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Sunil Kumar R1, Prof. U. B. Khadabadi2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering (M.Tech in Design Engineering)

KLE Dr. M S Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology Udyambag, Belagavi, Karnataka, India 590008

2Department of Mechanical Engineering (Professor)

KLE Dr. M S Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology Udyambag, Belagavi, Karnataka, India 590008

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Abstract - Pipe networks consists of Y-junction, elbows, T- 1. INTRODUCTION

junctions, bends, contractions, expansions, valves and many

other components. These components cause loss in pressure The flow of liquids through pipe networks is used in

due to change in momentum of the flow caused due to friction industries as well as the households. The supply of water for

and pipe components. In fluid flow analysis, the geometry with household purposes involves the transport of water through

branch angle plays an important role in the distribution of pipes which have small diameters. In industries the water

flowing fluid, pressure and velocity of fluid. The purpose of and other fluids supply is done through pipelines with

maintaining branch angle is to distribute the flowing fluid comparatively larger diameter. The mechanics of the flow of

with proportion volume through branched segments. But fluids depends on the properties of the fluids being

larger angle variation may be the reason to build uneven transported. These fluid properties include density, viscosity

distribution, loss of pressure, velocity variation and turbulence and surface tension.

formation. Pipe networks are mainly used for transportation and supply

of fluids and gases. These networks vary from fewer pipes to

In general, the effect of branching in pipe network is thousands of pipes (e.g. water supply network of a large

the complication in flow patterns. Change in angle will also city). In addition to pipes, the network also consists of Y-

affect the other flow parameters like, flow distribution, junction, elbows, T-junctions, bends, contractions,

pressure etc. In this investigation an attempt is made to expansions, valves, meters, pumps, turbines and many other

evaluate the flow parameters which affect the distribution of components. All these components cause loss in pressure

flow at the junction, pressure loss by comparing the various due to change in momentum of the flow caused due to

branching angle results. The small junction of pipe network i.e. friction and pipe components. This means conversion of flow

Y branch is been concentrated in the present investigation. The energy in to heat due to friction or energy lost due to

mesh tool (Altair Hypermesh 16.0) had been used to model the turbulence. Pipe networks are very common in industries,

geometry and to mesh the same with different branching where fluid or gases are to be transported from one location

angle. Further, the simulation part is carried using Ansys 16.0 to the other. The head loss (pressure loss) may vary

(Fluent). The results are evaluated for different velocities by depending on the type of components occurring in the

changing the branch angles. Though this investigation it had network, material of the pipe and type of fluid transported

been concluded that, pressure drop with respect to velocity through the network. In industries the networks are usually

variation is high at bent angle of 450 compare to 600, 90, and large and require very precise pressure at certain points of

180 . Also, the pressure distribution at the two outlets is network. It is also sometimes essential to place valves,

uniform for an angle 450 compare to 600, 900 and 1800. This pumps or turbines of certain capacity to control pressure in

uniform pressure distribution at the outlets is due to the least the network. The placement of valves, pumps and turbines is

effect of the turbulence for 45 branching. The flow important to overcome pressure losses caused by other

distribution of fluid at the junction is uniform for an angle of components in the network.

450 compare to 600,900 and 1800.

This uniformity in distribution of flowing fluid is the result of 1.1 Branching Angle and Its Effects

less angle segment and turbulence at the junction. It can be

conclude that as bent angle goes on increases, it will directly In fluid flow analysis, the geometry with branch angle plays

effect on pressure drop, pressure distribution and distribution an important role in the distribution of flowing fluid,

of flowing fluid. The structural analysis is carried out for a pressure and velocity of fluid. The purpose of maintaining

bent angle 45 with preferred velocity. The same pressure branch angle is to distribute the flowing fluid with

developed inside the pipe due to fluid flow is made to act on proportion volume through branched segments. But larger

the inner surface of the pipe. From this analysis the effect of angle variation may be the reason to build loss of pressure,

pressure developed on the pipe-wall had been studied and the velocity variation and turbulence formation. In general,

preferred condition is suggested. branching flow effect the flow patterns and makes it

complicated, hence flow modeling and analysis at the

branching regions.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1520

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 06 | June -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

figure

Fig-3: Modeling, Meshing and Boundry definition for 450

5. FLOW ANALYSIS

This section deals with the fluid flow simulation. The fluid

flow simulation was done using Ansys Fluent (16.0) tool.

Assuming that, the fluid flow through pipe as steady state,

the viscous laminar model with K-epsilon governing

equation was chosen to investigate the problem. The flowing

fluid through the Y-Duct was selected as water surrounded

with steel wall with their respective properties. The fluid

entering the pipe as velocity and exiting as pressure outlet.

The solution convergence was put under control by varying

the parameters like momentum and turbulent kinetic

energy. The problem was analyzed with the variation in

velocity, ranging for 0.05 m/s.

angle under consideration of velocity variation is illustrated

in figure. In which, drop in pressure is high for an angle of

bent 450 and it goes on reduce as the bent angle increases.

This higher pressure drop was taken place in smaller bent

angle due to high turbulence existence at junction. Also,

pressure drop increasing continuously as there is an

Fig-2: Flow Chart Representing the Methodology of Work increase in velocity of fluid. It is observed that, the dynamic

pressure developed at the inlet is high. This pressure

development is due to the high velocity and high resistance

3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS offered by the contact surface on the flowing fluid. As, the

fluid diverges into two path at the junction, the velocity

In this section we shall discuss about continuity equation, decreases with the drop in dynamic pressure at the outlets.

NS equations, Momentum Change and Flux and

Turbulence K-Epsilon model.

4. MODELING

meshing of geometry. The modeling was done using

Hypermesh (16.0) having the measurements of 1inch

diameter, 5inch length [1-2] and for branching angle of 45,

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1521

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 06 | June -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

bent angles.

The difference between mass flow rates at the two outlets

versus bent angle with respect to variation in rate of velocity

is illustrated in figure (7). From this plot it was observed that

for the unevenness in mass flow distribution at the junction

is high for a branch of 1800.This unevenness occurrence in

the mass flow distribution may be the result of sudden

impact of fluid at junction and varying resistance on flowing

fluid by the opposite surface.

Fig-5: Pressure Distribution versus velocity Velocity Rate for different angles.

a. For 450

illustrated in figure (5). From this plot it can be conclude

that, as the rate of velocity of flowing fluid increases, the

asperous pressure distribution and uneven mass

distribution occurs. The turbulence at the junction leads to

cause asperous pressure distribution and uneven mass

distribution because; the turbulence is the function of

velocity and sudden interruption to flow.

The pressure distribution at outlet versus bent angle is

illustrated in figure (6). Through this plot it was noticed that

as the bent angle increases the difference in pressure

distribution at outlets also increases. This unevenness may

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1522

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 06 | June -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Rate for different angles. Turbulence kinetic energy (k) plots for 0.05m/s

Velocity Rate for different angles.

a. For 450

a. For 450

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1523

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 06 | June -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

found to be uniform for the lower rate of velocities.

This equality in rationing of flowing fluid is due to

less angle segment and low turbulence occurrence

at the distributing region. Thus, typically it can be

wrap up that the loss in pressure, pressure

distribution and mass flow distribution will be

influenced by velocity parameter of flowing fluid.

REFERENCES

Numerical and Computational Aspects of

Turbulence Modelling.

2. Hirani, A. A., & Kiran, C. U. (2013). CFD simulation

and analysis of fluid flow parameters within a Y-

Shaped Branched Pipe. IOSR Journal of Mechanical

c. For 900 and Civil Engineering, 10 (1), 31-34.

3. Singh, B., Singh, H., & Sebgal, S. S. (2013). CFD

analysis of fluid flow parameters within a Y-shaped

branched pipe. International Journal of Latest

Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET),

2(2), 313-317.

4. Mr.G.B.Nimadge et.al, CFD analysis of flow through

T-junction of pipe, International Research Journal

of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume:4,

e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072, Feb-2017.

5. Dr. Neihad Al-Khalidy, design optimization of

industrial duct using computational fluid dynamics,

Third International Conference on CFD in the

mineral and Process Industries, CSIRO, Melborne,

Australia, 10-12 December 2003

6. K.Venkateswara Rao, Comparison of CFD

simulation of hot and cold fluid mixing in t-pipe by

placing nozzle at different places, International

Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology,

Volume: 03 Issue: 09, eISSN: 2319-1163 pISSN:

2321-7308, Sep-2014.

7. Mazumder, Q. H. (2012). CFD analysis of single and

7. CONCLUSIONS multiphase flow characteristics in elbow.

8. Anand, R. B., Singh, S. N., & Rai, L. (2008). Effect of

This section deals with the conclusion of this investigation: swirl on the flow characteristics of S-shaped

diffusing duct.

Through this investigation it has observed that, as

the fluid passes through the junction, there subsist

a drop in pressure and uneven flow distribution at

the junction.

This unevenness in flow distribution and pressure

drop is the function of velocity and turbulence.

Also, it has observed that the pressure distribution

at the two outlets is uniform for lower rate of

velocity.

The less turbulence occurrence at 45 branching,

results into unvarying pressure distribution at the

outlets.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1524

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