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INTRODUCTION TO INTERROGATION

INTRODUCTION

1. Interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a subject in order to obtain


the maximum amount of usable information. An interrogation involves the traction of two
personalities such as: the subject of interrogation and the interrogator. Each encounter
between these two differs to some degree because of the individual characteristics and
capabilities of the participants. Furthermore, the circumstances of each encounter-
friendly or hostile and the physical environments are variable. It may begin as a conflict
of character: if it is to be successful it must end as a partnership. The factor which
decides the out-come of an interrogation is the ability of the interrogator to dominate the
subject, to establish such an ascendancy over him that he cases to resist the
interrogator and becomes a willing co-operator.

AIM

2. The aim of this manual is to set further the doctrine pertaining to basic principles
of interrogation and establish procedures and techniques applicable to counter
intelligence interrogations.

PURPOSE

3. A counter intelligence organization is not a law-enforcing agency. It endeavours


to gather information about the capabilities, methods and intentions of potentially hostile
intelligence services or subversive organizations in order to protect the state against
their attacks. It follows that the purpose of interrogation counter intelligence subjects is
not to serve the ends of criminals' justice but to obtain the maximum amount of
information. In order to do this it may often be necessary to resort two methods of
interrogation which- in law constitute duress or otherwise unacceptable to the court. It
is important that this should be thoroughly understood by all concerned and that nobody
should hamper the interrogation by insisting upon observation of the Judges Rules.

DEFINITION OF INTERROGATION

4. Interrogation can be defined as an art and science of examining a person by


asking questions in a formal, logical and systematic way, which is an investigative
method and aims to gather usable and reliable information in a lawful manner and within
a best possible time, to satisfy the requirements of the directing authority.

TYPES AND FIELDS OF INTERROGATION

5. There are five types of interrogation basing on the fields of interrogation. These
are as follows:

a. Counter Intelligence Interrogation. It deals with security suspected


members of hostile intelligence services or subversive organizations.

b. Battle Field or Tactical Interrogation. In conventional war; enemy


prisoner of war, line crosser, refugee, returned personal etc. are to be
interrogated.

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c. Criminal Interrogation. It deals with the subject who has done a


crime under Bangladesh Penal Code or Bangladesh Military Act.

d. Counter Insurgency Interrogation. It deals with the member of


insurgent organization who may be a regular, militia, political cadre, sympathiser
or a defector of any category in a counter insurgency situation.

e. Counter Terrorist Interrogation. It deals with terrorist of various


kinds.

CONCLUTION

6. The aim of interrogation is to gather information about the capabilities, methods


and intensions of hostile organizations in order to protect the state against their attack. It
follows that the purpose of interrogation is not to serve the ends of criminal justice but to
obtain maximum amount of information. In order to do this efficiently and nicely, an
interrogator must learn the basic trail, technique and above all his learning should be
based on sound principle.

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PRINCIPLES OF INTERROGATION
PRINCIPLES

1. The art of interrogation rests upon certain principles, which can be considered to
have general applicability to all types of interrogations. All counter intelligence personnel
should have firm grasp of these principles. These are as follows:

a. Objectives
b. Initiative
c. Accuracy
d. Use of Force
e. Security

Objectives

2. Each interrogation must be conducted for a definite purpose. An interrogator


must keep this purpose firmly in mind as he proceed to obtain the maximum amount of
usable information to satisfy the assigned requirement and thus contribute to the
successful accomplishment of the mission of the unit. The interrogator must use the
objective as a basis for planning and conducting the interrogations. He should attempt
to prevent the subject from becoming aware of the true objective of the interrogation.
The interrogation should not concentrate on the objective to the extent that he overlooks
or fails to take cognizance of other valuable information extracted from the subject. For
example, in the course of an interrogation the interrogator learns of the presence here;
of a highly sensitive condenser microphone (high capacity), which was before unknown.
Although this information may not be in line with his specific objective, the interrogator
must develop this important lead to obtain all possible information concerning this
equipment. It then becomes obvious that the objective of an interrogation can be
changed as necessary or desirable.

Initiative

3. Achieving and maintaining the initiative is essential to the successful


interrogation; just as the offence is the key to success in combat operations. The
initiative in any interrogation must rest with the interrogator throughout the entire
interrogation. He will have certain advantages at the beginning of an interrogation which
will enable him to grasp the initiative and assist to maintain this initiative throughout the
interrogation. These advantages are:

a. The interrogator closely known the purpose of the interrogation; the


subject does not know he may assume, but he cannot be certain. This gives
the interrogator a distinct advantage.

b. The interrogator has the opportunity to study the subject by personal


observation or study of document, where as the subject knows nothing about the
interrogator.

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c. The interrogator has a position of authority over the subject. The subject
knows this, and in some cases, he realizes that his future might well depend
upon his association with the interrogator.

4. It is possible for an interrogator to lose the initiative during interrogation of a


subject. If this should occur, postponement of the interrogation and a reassessment of
the situation are advisable. If the interrogation is resumed, it might be advantageous to
introduce a different interrogator. Following are some example of lose of initiative:

a. The interrogator becomes angry and completely loses his composure and
self-control because of the arrogant actions of the subject. As a result, the
interrogator loses sight of his objective and concentrates his efforts on humbling
the subject.
b. During the interrogation the interrogator fails to note significant
discrepancies in the subjects story. The interrogator may lose the initiative as the
subject gains confidence from his success and resorts to further deception
leading the interrogator away from the objective of the interrogation.

c. The interrogator becomes, overly friendly with the subjects and allows him
to lead the interrogation. The subject reports only what he believes to be
important and neglect several significant items of information which could have
been obtained had the interrogator maintained the initiative.

Accuracy

5. The interrogator must make an effort to obtain accurate information within the
limitations of the subjects knowledge ability. He must be certain that he
understands the subject correctly by repeating questions at varying intervals. The
interrogator however is not an analyst and should not reject or subordinate
information because it conflicts with previous information. Conversely, the
interrogator should not accept all information as the truth; he must view all
information with skepticism, and, to the extent his capabilities and time permit,
attempt to confirm or deny information received. The interrogators primary
mission, however, is collection of information, not evaluation. The great
importance is the accurate reporting of information is to the using elements. The
interrogator must check his notes against the finished report to insure that it
contain and identify appropriately the information as heard, seen or assumed by
the subject.

Use of Force

6. The use of force as an aid to interrogation is prohibited by law and international


agreements and is not authorized by the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Experience
indicates that the use of force is not necessary to gain co-operation of subjects of
interrogation at best, use of force is a poor technique, since it may induce a subject to
tell what he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. The subject may not possess the
information sought, but he will fabricate information to please the interrogator and bring
an end to the force being applied. This leads to doubt as to the truth of the information
obtained and may cause more harm than good. The use of force is not to be confused
with the application of psychological techniques to assist the interrogator in the
successful interrogation of difficult subjects.

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Security

7. The interrogator, by virtue of his position, possesses much classified information.


He constantly must be aware that his job is to obtain information, not impart it to the
subject. The necessary for safe guarding military information is an over-present and
over-important requirement. This becomes very clear when one considers that among
these persons with whom the interrogator has contact will be those who are attempting
to collect information for the enemy. The interrogator must be alert to detect any attempt
to elicit information from him.

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COUNTER INTELLIGENCE INTERVIEWS


INTRODUCTION

1. A great deal of information used by Counter Intelligence Agencies is obtained


from interviews of varying kinds. This range from interviews arising from investigations
to interviews of would be informants. The circumstances may differ widely according to
the Armed Forces Counter Intelligence responsibilities, the country involved and the
race and nationality of the subject. However, certain principles are common to all.

AIM

2. The aim of this chapter is to show how interviews should be planned and
conducted.

DEFINITION OF INTERVIEW

3. A Counter Intelligence interview is a directed conversation in order to acquire


maximum amount of usable information by examining through questioning regarding a
counter intelligence matter from a person, where he/she is not deprived of his/her
liberty.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INTERVIEW AND INTERROGATION

4. Though the purpose of interview remains same as interrogation but still there
are some differences between a Counter Intelligence Interview and a Counter
Intelligence Interrogation. These are:

Interview Interrogation
a. In interview, the subject is not a. In interrogation, the subject is
deprived of his liberty and may leave at deprived of his liberty and placed under
will. arrest.
b. The subject has the choice of place b. In interrogation, the subject has no
and time of interview. choice of time and place.
c. The subject is not bound to appear c. The subject is bound to appear and
for interview and will be set free after will not be set free.
interview.
d. All general approaches and d. All general approaches and
approach techniques can not be used approach techniques can be utilized
in interview. Friendly and sympathetic basing on the type of the subject.
general approach should be the main
weapon.

TYPES OF INTERVIEW

5. Interviews fall into two categories:

a. Those where the subject wishes to volunteer information to the Counter


Intelligence Agency.

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b. Those where the information is required by the Counter Intelligence
Agency and has to be acquired from a subject who may or may not be co-
operative.

AIM OF THE INTERVIEW

6. The aim should be decided before the interview. There may be a need
adjustment in the light of information given during the interview.

STAGES OF INTERVIEW

7. General. An interview should be conducted methodically. There are four


stages in interview which are given as follows:
a. Planning Stage.
b. Preparatory Stage.
c. Interview Stage.
d. Termination Stage.

8. Planning Stage. Since the aim constitutes the basic reason for the interview,
the interview should be planned in the light of the estimated extent of the subjects
knowledge. Points should be listed which must be covered in order to achieve the aim.
A list of questions may be prepared as a result of this consideration. However, care
should be taken that the use of questions should not inhibit the subsequent course of
the interview.

9. Preparatory Stage. In preparing for the interview the following points should be
considered:
a. Availability of the subjects.
b. Means of recording the interview.
c. Accommodation permanent/temporary, for waiting room and interview
room.
d. Background knowledge of subject records, informants.
e. Collation of relevant information.
f. Freedom from interruptions.
g. Legal aspects involved.
h. Whether other interested Counter Intelligence Agencies need to be
present.
j. If subject is a woman, it may be advisable to have another woman present
throughout the interview

10. Interview Stage. Once the planning and preparation is completed the
interview is to be commenced. This is the stage where the process of extracting any
information starts. this stage can be divided into two phases:

a. Initial Phase:

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(1) Introduce yourself.

(2) Identify the subject.

(3) State the reason for the interview (beware of disguised reasons
since the true reason for the interview will become apparent as a result of
subsequent questioning).

b. Detail Interview Phase. Under normal circumstances the subject


should tell his own story first. This has the advantage of providing a frame work
of the extent of the subjects knowledge. It also gives the interviewer a chance to
assess the attitude of the person being interviewed. However, control of the
interview should not be lost at this stage and if a subject is clearly given to a
rambling account of irrelevancies then he should be stopped and the interview
conducted on a question and answer basis. Assuming that the subject has been
allowed to tell his own story, the interview should expend this account by
questioning, in order to achieve his original aim.

11. Termination Stage. In terminating the interview, the interviewer should:

a. Recapitulate on the information acquired. Before doing this, the subject


should be invited to correcting accuracies in the record for the interview.

b. Where necessary warn the subject not to disclose the information to any
unauthorized persons.

c. Check the subjects future availability and method of contacting counter


intelligence again, should the subject remember any thing further which he thinks
will be useful.

d. Terminate the interview.

12. Questioning Technique in Interview. No hard and fast rules can be laid down
regarding the questioning technique which should be applied in interviews. Each subject
is different in his response to questions and each interviewer different in manner,
speech and experience. Some general points, which may be useful as a guide to the
beginner in interviewing, are as follows.

a. The Counter Intelligence interview is not concerned with the evidential


value of the information thus revealed.

b. Leading questions are bad technique unless they are deliberately


employed. They tend to suggest the answer and prompt the subject. Compound
leading questions are open to misinterpretation.

c. Irrelevant questions are a useful means of establishing rapport and may


sometimes be used to mislead the subject.

d. The use of questions to which the answer is already known may be a


means of testing the reliability of the subject.

e. Repeated questions may be used to check accuracy and whether a


person is lying.

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13. Some Dos and Donts. For an interviewer there are some dos and donts.
These are:

a. Develop the technique of using precise and simple worded questions.


These are easier to understand and difficult to misinterpret.

b. Exploit the subjects knowledge by obtaining all the detail necessary as


and when a point emerges.

a. Never lose control through :

(1) Losing your temper or becoming emotionally involved.

(2) Allowing the subject to dictate the course of the interview and
becoming the interviewer rather than the subject.

d. Beware of divulging the extent of your own information unless as a


deliberate ploy. The danger may exist of compromising a source in certain
interviews.

CONCLUSION

14. There are various limitations and restrictions imposed in interview; one
interviewer has to be matured and efficient enough. He has to have devotion, sincerity,
confidence and will to make a sound performance. He should be tactful, patience,
courteous, social, good memory, good acting and other qualities of an interrogator are
equally important for him. Above all careful planning, efficient conduct of interview,
discreteness of the interviewer and dexterity in unearthing the fact definitely help to
achieve the desired goal.

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QUALITIES AND SKILL OF AN INTERROGATOR


INTRODUCTION

1. Interrogation is an important weapon at the hands of interrogator to obtain


information from various types of subject. The success of an interrogation depends
upon the ability and tactfulness of the interrogator in handling and dealing with the
subject under interrogation. The use of properly qualified and thoroughly trained
interrogators is a fundamental requirement for efficient conduct of interrogation.
Interrogators are to be selected with much care taking into consideration certain
personal qualities, skill and abilities as discussed in this topic.

AIM

2. The aim of this topic is to discuss desired personal qualities; skill and abilities of
an interrogator.

PERSONAL QUALITIES

3. The obvious personal qualities which an interrogator should possess are an


interest in human nature and suitable personality characteristics which will enable him
to gain the co-operation of a subject to be interrogated. Ideally, these and other
personal qualities would be inherent in an interrogator; however, in most cases an
interrogator can correct some deficiencies in these qualities if he has the desire and is
willing to devote much time to study and practice. Some of the personal qualities
desirable in an interrogator are:

a. Motivation. An interrogator must be motivated, for example, by interest


in human relations, intellectual curiosity, a desire to react positively to the
challenge of personality interplay, or an enthusiasm for the collection of
information. Whatever the motivation, it is the most significant factor that without
motivation other qualities lose their significance. An interrogator must approach
each interrogation as a separate entity. He should look forward to start the
interrogation and must be confident that the subject will cooperate. He must have
the will to do a good job. Such an attitude on the part of the interrogator will be
felt by the subject and will increase the chances of cooperation.

b. Alertness. The interrogator must be constantly aware of the shifting


attitudes so that subject can be analyze correctly, techniques can be adapted to
the requirements of the case and can be altered when necessary. The
interrogator must note the subjects every gesture, word, and voice inflection and
determining why the subject is in a certain mood or why his mood suddenly
changed and from the subjects mood and actions the interrogator can best
determine how to proceed with the interrogation. The interrogator must watch for
any indication that the subject is withholding additional information. He must
watch for tendency to resist further questioning, for diminishing resistance and for
contradictions or other tendencies.

c. Good Memory. An interrogator must possess a good and sharp


memory, which will enable him to notice contradictions in the subjects
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statements and question him thereon without the necessity of referring to any
written note. A good memory will also help the interrogator in preparing a good
report without any exaggeration.

d. Good Actor. An interrogator must be a good actor. To ware down


subjects resistance interrogator will apply different techniques, which in clues
showing sympathy, anger, hate, distrust, friendliness and desire to help. Until and
unless one is a very good actor, will fail to present himself in different character.
Skilled interrogator can cause the subject to feel despondent and perhaps even
bring subject to tears. Remember interrogation techniques will not succeed
unless the interrogators are convincing actors.

e. Patience and Tact. These qualities in an interrogator assist him to create


and maintain a favorable atmosphere between himself and the subject, thereby
enhancing the success of the interrogator. The validity of a subjects statements
and the motives behind these statements may be obtainable only thorough the
exercise of tact and patience. The display of impatience will encourage the
difficult subject to think that if he remains unresponsive for a little longer, the
interrogator will give up. By being tactless, the interrogator loses respect in the
eyes of the subject, and as a result, may lose his co-operatives. An interrogator
displaying patience and tact will be able to terminate an interrogation and to re-
institute further interrogation without having aroused apprehensions or
resentment.

f. Understanding of Basic Psychology. An interrogator can best adapt


himself to the personality of the subject and control of the subjects reaction when
the interrogator has an understanding of basic psychological factors, traits,
attitudes, drives, motivations, and inhibitions.

g. Objectivity. The interrogator must have the ability to maintain a


dispassionate mental attitude regardless of the emotional reactions he may
actually experience or which he may simulate during the course of an
interrogation. Without this required objectivity, the interrogator may
unconsciously distort the information acquired and may be unable to vary his
interrogation techniques effectively.

h. Self Control. An exceptional degree of self-control is required by the


interrogator to avoid displays of genuine anger, irritation, sympathy, or weariness
which may cause him to loss the important when employing interrogation
techniques, which require the display of simulated emotions or attitudes. Another
important thing is if he loses temper that can then no longer clearly think ahead
and logically planning the next interrogation plan.

j. Adaptability. An interrogator must be able to adapt himself to the many


and varied personalities which he will encounter. He should try to imagine himself
in the subjects position. By being able to so adapt, the interrogator can smoothly
shift his techniques and approaches during interrogations. The interrogator must
also be able to adapt himself to the operational environment. Interrogators will, in
many cases, be required to function effectively under a variety of unfavorable
physical conditions.

k. Perseverance. A tenacity of purpose, in many cases, will make the


difference between an interrogator who is merely good and one who is superior.
An interrogator, who becomes easily discouraged by opposition, non-cooperation

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and other difficulties, will neither aggressively purpose the objective to a
successful conclusion nor seek leads to other valuable information.

l. Appearance and Demeanor. The personal appearance and behavior of


the interrogator may influence, to a great degree, the conduct of the interrogation
and the attitude of the subject toward the interrogator. A neat, organized, and
professional appearance will favorably influence the subject. A firm, deliberate
and business like manner of speech and attitude will create a proper environment
for the conduct of a successful interrogation. If the interrogators personal
manner reflects fairness, strength, receptive to answer it encourage the subjects
to speak.
m. Neutrality. Interrogator must assess the subject from neutral point of
view. He must be able to recognize his biases and its influence on his conduct of
interrogation and reporting. Sometimes interrogators jump at the conclusion that
a certain person could not have committed the offence, usually because of
persons family background or position or because he has a good alibi. Likewise,
many interrogators immediately assume that a certain person is lying because he
has a past criminal record, or because he is very nervous or for some other
reason. Through his neutrality one interrogator must overcome these
weaknesses.

SPECIAL SKILL AND ABILITY

4. The interrogator must possess, or acquire through training and experience, a


number of special skills and knowledge. These are:

a. Writing and Speaking Ability. The interrogator must be a good speaker


in communicating himself to other and must be able to prepare and to present
written and oral reports in a clear, complete, concise and accurate manner.
Since the interrogation is not an end in itself, its full value can be realized only
with the timely dissemination of the information obtained, in a usable form, to the
appropriate agencies.

b. Linguistic Skill. Fluency in the Bangle language obviously in


necessary, but knowledge of a foreign language(s) is equally necessary.
Language ability should include knowledge of military terms, foreign idioms,
abbreviations, colloquial and slang usages, and local dialects. Although a trained
interrogator who lacks a foreign language skill can interrogate successfully
through an interpreter, the results obtained by the linguistically proficient
interrogator will be more timely and comprehensive. Interrogator who deals with
tactical interrogation should have some special skill and ability.

c. Specialized Knowledge. Interrogator who conducts tactical interrogation


should have some special knowledge. This specialized knowledge includes
following:

(1) Mission Organization and Operation. The interrogator should


have a working knowledge of the organization, methods of operations, and
missions of his own establishment as well as those of the subject.

(2) Identification of Enemy Uniforms and Insignia. Through his


knowledge of uniforms, insignia, decorations, and other distinctive
devices, the interrogator may be able to determine the rank, branch of
service, type of unit, and military experience of the prisoner of war.

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(3) Enemy Order of Battle. Order of battle is defined as the


identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the
personnel, units, and equipment of any military force. Information
regarding order of battle improves the accuracy of the information
obtained and frequently results in new identifications of enemy units. Aids
which may be used to identify units are names of units, names of
commanders, home station identifications, code designations and
numbers, uniforms, insignia, guides, documents, and equipments and
vehicle markings.

(4) Enemy Organization. The interrogator should be familiar with


standard units of an enemys organization so that he may avoid being
misled by false or inaccurate information and will recognize new
information when it is developed in an normal dispositions of enemy units,
coupled with access to previously developed information, will aid the
interrogator in securing additional information to substantiate previous
intelligence and to detect untruths.

(5) Enemy Material. The interrogator should be familiar with the


capabilities, limitations, appearance, and employment of standard
weapons and equipment so that he may recognize and identify changes,
revisions and innovations. Some of the more common subjects of interest
to the interrogator include small arms, infantry support weapons, artillery,
army aviation, automotive and communication-electronics equipment.

(6) Data on Enemy Personalities. Familiarity with the names, ranks


and background of enemy officers and other key individuals is a valuable
aid to the interrogator. Such data can be used as an effective tool to gain
new, or to confirm existing, information.

(7) Enemy Military Signs and Symbols. The interrogator will often
find it necessary to examine captured enemy documents containing signs
and symbols of various kinds. Familiarity with these signs and symbols
enable him to obtain maximum information from documents, which are
useful, both as an aid to interrogation and as a source of information.

(8) Area Familiarity. The interrogator should be completely familiar


with social, political, and economic institutions; geography; history; and
culture of the area in which he is operating and of the enemy home
country. Since may prisoners of war will readily discuss nonmilitary topics,
the interrogators knowledge of the geography, economics or politics of the
enemy country may be used to induce reluctant prisoners to talk. Once the
prisoner has started to talk, the interrogator may then gradually introduce
significant topics into the discussion.

(9) Map Reading. The interrogator should be proficient in all aspects


of map reading since maps are used extensively in all types of
interrogation.

CONCLUSION

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5. Interrogators are selected for their personal qualities and special skill abilities but
they cant be perfect at the beginning. To become a successful interrogator each
interrogator should follow four k,s and these are: keep studying, keep practicing, keep
reviewing, and keep interrogating. Remember a perfect and proficient interrogator is a
person who possesses following basic qualities:

a. One who has self-confidence and shown it.

b. One who is courteous in the face of discourtesy.

c. One who keeps his words within his temper.

d. One who wins respect by being respectful and respectable.

e. One who turns up with a smile if he is turned down.

f. One who understands people and makes himself understood by people.

g. One who has faith in his purpose, his organization, and in himself.

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TYPES OF SUBJECTS & USE OF INTERPRETERS

INTRODUCTION

1. Interrogation is generally a battle of wits between two counterparts i.e. the


interrogator and the subject. In this duel, the interrogator with his knowledge and
experience will try to dominate the subject in order to overcome subjects resistance on
the other hand to refrain the interrogator from the same subject will reciprocate likewise.
The subjects of any interrogation is a variable factor. The possible range of subject
personalities is as great as the range of human personalities. An individual being
interrogated, might be classified any number of ways for the purpose of study and
analysis and for the purpose of determining the interrogation techniques most likely to
succeed.

AIM

2. The aim of this topic is to analyze various types of interrogation subjects vis--
vis their handling.

TYPES OF SUBJECTS

Factors

3. Persons who are to be interrogated are classified in number of ways basing on


different factors. Following are the factors on which interrogation subjects are classified:
a. The field of interrogation.

b. Subjects involvement.

c. Subjects psychological responds.

d. Subjects mental state.

The Field of Interrogation

4. Basing on Fields of Interrogation. The subject in an interrogation may be


the POW, the witnesses, informants, suspected member of HIS etc and their fields of
operation may be different thus, they also need different handling. So basing on fields of
interrogation we have follow types of subjects:
a. Counter Intelligence Interrogation subjects (person involved in HIS
activities or works against the state security.)

b. Tactical Interrogation subjects (POW, line crossers returned personal


refugee etc and these have been discussed separately.)

c. Counter Insurgency Interrogation subjects (persons involved in


Insurgency.)

d. Criminal Interrogation subjects (persons involved in criminal activities.)

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e. Counter Terrorist Interrogation subjects (persons involved in terrorism.)

Subjects Involvement

5. From the View Point of Subjects Involvement. The subjects can be


separated into three general categories; informants, witness and suspects. These are
defined as under:

a. Informant. An informant is a person who has access to


informations in course of his ordinary occupation and is willing to pass on such
information to any one interested in them. An informant may give information for
a number of reasons, such as idealism, personal gain or revenge etc.
Interrogator must determine the informants motive because the possibility of
distortion of truth varies according to the motive for offering information. On
preparing for interrogation of an informant, the interrogator should proceed
discreetly and he should respect the informants personal rights. Informants
always work for their interest thus while handling them interrogator must not
violate security regulations and while conducting interrogation of an informant the
interrogator should adhere to following basic steps:

(1) Obtain background information concerning the informant.


(2) Put informant at ease.
(3) Let informant tell his story in his own words.
(4) Review the story seeks information on given leads. Seek
information on secondary targets.
(5) Terminate interrogation leaving good impression.

b. Witness. A witness is a person who gives information concerning a fact


of which he has direct personal knowledge. The intelligence value of witness is
two folds: first he provides direct evidence and second he is a source of leads,
which may help in further interrogation if properly exploited. Sometimes a witness
may not be interested in involving himself with the case considering his
reputation, social or professional standing, and moral codes and in order to do so
he may like deliberately. The witness may give false statement because of the
fear of reprisal from the suspects. Before handling a witness an interrogator
should try to gain information about the witnesss background, character,
personality, reliability and specific relationship to the subject of the case. The
interrogator must know his case well in order to exploit the witness and extracts
all facts the witness may possess. Witness should be encouraged to tell the case
he has been experienced and interrogator should impress upon witness the
confidential nature of the interrogation. Beside these there are some
circumstantial factors which are of special interest to the interrogator because
they affect the evaluation of information received. These factors are:

(1) Physical condition of witness.


(2) Mental condition of witness.
(3) Female witness is more emotional.
(4) Age-Young people are more fanciful.

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(5) His location and circumstance at the time and place of occurrence.

c. Suspect. A suspect is any person believed to be associated with


prohibited activities. Handling of suspect is much more delicate than that of
handling the informants and witnesses. The purpose of interrogating a suspect is
to detect and prevent activities which threaten the security of the state and to
gather information of intelligence value. However, there are two general groups
of suspects:

(1) Suspects whose guilt is definite or reasonably certain.


(2) Suspects whose guilt is doubtful or uncertain.

In dealing with suspects whose guilt is definite or reasonably certain, the


interrogator will usually switch over to the techniques of unearthing the whole
story to establish who, what, when, where and how. But in case of suspects
whose guilt is doubtful or uncertain, the interrogator needs to establish suspects
involvement first and then should switch over to the techniques of flashing detail
story.

Subjects Psychological Responds

6. Basing on Subjects Attitude Towards the Interrogator or Towards the Act


of Interrogation. The types of persons an interrogator may encounter will vary greatly
in personality, social class, civilian occupation, military specialties and political and
religious beliefs. Their physical conditions may range from near death to perfect health
their mental abilities may from well below average to well above average, and their
security consciousness may range from the lowest to the highest. Each subjects
reaction to the process of interrogation and attitude towards the interrogator will not be
the same. Thus whatever may be the types of subjects basing on their involvement;
subject will fall into the three broad categories depending on their attitude towards the
interrogator or towards the act of interrogation:

a. Co-operative and Friendly. Co-operative and friendly subject offers little


resistance to the interrogation, and normally will speak freely on almost any topic
approached, other than on that which will tend to incriminate or degrade him
personally. To secure the maximum value from this type of subject, the
interrogator must take care to establish and to preserve a friendly and co-
operative atmosphere by not inquiring into those private affairs of the subject
which are beyond the scope of the interrogation. At the same time, he must avoid
becoming overly friendly and losing control of the interrogation.

b. Neutral and Non-partisan. A neutral and non-partisan subject is co-


operative to a limited degree. He normally takes the position of answering
questions asked directly, but seldom volunteers information. In some cases he
may be afraid to answer for fear of reprises by the enemy. This often is the case
in a conflict involving irregular forces or in internal defense operational
environments where the people may be fearful of insurgent reprisal should they
people may be fearful of insurgent reprisal, should they co-operative with
government forces or submit to interrogation or questioning. With the neutral and
non-partisan subject, the interrogator must ask questions in specific and in the
detail required by the circumstances.

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c. Hostile and Antagonistic. A hostile and antagonistic subject offers the
most difficult interrogation problem. In many cases he will refuse to talk at all and
will offer a real challenge to the interrogator. The exercise of self-control,
patience, and tact are particularly important when dealing with him. As a rule, it is
considered unprofitable to expend excessive time and effort in interrogating
hostile and antagonistic subjects at the lower echelons. Trained Interrogator
should handle this type of subject because they need comprehensive and
concentrated interrogation effort.

Subjects Mental State

7. Basing on Subjects Mental State. Considering subjects mental state the


interrogator will probably decide that subject fits approximately into one or more of the
following specific categories:

a. The confident, contemptuous type, frequently voluble.

b. The silent, insolent types whose whole attitude is a challenge.

c. The fearful, nervous type.

d. The apparently straight forward, helpful type, whose declared intention is


to tell all the knows (often the behavior of a professional agent who is well
supplied with convincing cover stories).

e. The impassive type who shows no measurable reaction.

f. The psycho pathological liar type.

CONCLUSION

8. In Interrogation, subjects may be prisoners of war, defectors, refugees, agents or


suspected agents of insurgent as well as friendly civilian personnel and because of
these variations, the interrogator must make a careful study of every subject to evaluate
the subjects character and use it as a basis of interrogation. Remember that an
interrogators success depends to a considerable extent upon correct assessment of his
subject and effective interrogation technique which is most appropriate for the occasion.

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USE OF INTERPRETERS
General

1. When available interrogators lack the linguistic ability to interrogate the subjects,
then the use of an interpreter becomes necessary, though the use of interpreters must
be considered an unsatisfactory substitute for direct communication.

Limitations

2. The following restrictions limit the use of interpreters:

a. The difficulty of establishing rapport because of the lack of personal


contact.

b. The increase time requirement more than twice that is required normally.

c. The possibility of misunderstanding; shades of meaning, tonal inflections


and certain idiomatic expressions are almost impossible to convey through an
interpreter.

d. The restriction on use of certain techniques of interrogation, such as rapid


fire questioning.

e. The additional security risk is posed because the interpreter will become
aware of intelligence requirements and may obtain much classified information
during the course of interrogation.

f. The presence of an interpreter may cause an otherwise co-operative


subject to remain silent during the interrogation. Since the giving of information to
the enemy is forbidden, some subjects may be willing to give information only if
they can be sure that there will be no retribution from their fellow PM, civilian
internees, or others. The presence of a third party at the interrogation may cast
doubt upon this assurance.

Desired Capabilities

3. To be effective, an interpreter should possess certain qualities or capabilities.


Some of these are:
a. He should be completely fluent in the Bangle and English language as
well as the language of the subject. This fluency is important in both oral and
written methods of expression.

b. He should be able to adjust his personality to that of the subject, and to


that of the interpretation. (This is particularly important in where social caste
systems exist- the interpreter may be of a distinct, separate class from that of the
subject; thereof, he must make a great adjustment in his attitude toward the
subject).

c. Other qualities desirable in an interpreter are discussed in the next


paragraph.

Selection of Interpreters
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4. Interpreters should be selected from the military or reliable civilian personnel of


art all possible. In selecting an interpreter, the following factors must be given
consideration:

a. Security Clearance. Normally, it will be required that the interpreter has


a security clearance. This is dictated by the continual attempts of the enemy to
penetrate our intelligence organizations and to learn intelligence requirement.

b. Local Dialect. In addition to the normal desired language capabilities the


interpreter should have a good understanding of local dialects slang expressions.

c. Personality. Where possible, the personality of the interpreter should


mirror that of the interrogator. This is specially true in case where special,
interrogation techniques, such as Mutt and Jeff, are employed. As a general
rule, the interrogator should be one who is capable of arousing feelings of
respect and confidence.

d. Area Knowledge. Undoubtedly the greater the degree of area


knowledge, the greater the value of the interpreter to the interrogator. However,
if at all possible, the interpreter should not be a person from the immediate
geographic area. Many persons hesitate to talk to a person with home they are
aware if data of an offensive nature is to be divulged. On the other hand, the
interpreter may be besieged by friends asking him to negotiate on their behalf.

e. Social Status. This is a consideration in those countries in which social


stratification exists. On the whole, a person who qualifies as an interpreter is an
educated person and should be able to adapt himself to changing circumstances.
To ease the situation where a disparity of a class may exist between the
interpreter and the subject, the interrogator should explain to the subject that the
conversation is between the two of them and the interpreter is merely an
inconvenience imposed by the language barrier. In conjunction with social status,
women are often relegated to an inferior role in certain societies. Their presence,
therefore, may not be appropriate in cases where a man is being interrogated. It
may be inappropriate even in cases where an other woman is being interrogated,
since she may dislike being interrogated in the presence of the other woman.

Training of Interpreters

5. Generally speaking, the establishment of special schools for interpreters is not


feasible. Consequently, the interrogator himself will be responsible for properly orienting
the interpreters as to the nature of his duties, the standards of conduct expected, the
techniques of interrogation to be employed, and any other requirements which the
interrogator considers necessary. Trained interrogators in use of interpreter are
essential. Skill in this type of communication is neither natural nor easily learned.
Special attention should be given to the development of language proficiency in the
technical fields in which the interpreter is expected to be employed. The accuracy of
translation should be stressed. Periodic testing and evaluation of the interpreter should
be conducted; evaluation should be made without the interpreters knowledge.

Method of interpretation

6. Select the method of interpretation, either alternate or simultaneous, to be used


during the interrogation. The choice between them has to be made on the basis of the

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interrogators evaluation of the interpreters evaluation of the interpreters ability and
personal characteristics and in conjunction with other factors influencing the
interrogation. Each method has certain advantages, disadvantages and peculiarities
which the interrogator must recognize:

a. Alternate Method. In the alternate method, the interrogator speaks


entire thoughts, sentences or even paragraphs and then pauses to permit the
interpretation of all that has been said. This method requires the interpreter to
have an exceptionally good memory; it has the disadvantage of making the
interpreters presence more evident, thus tending to break down the desired eye-
to-eye contact between the interrogator and the subject. It does, however, allow
the interpreter to rephrase statements to insure better understanding in the
second language. This is significant when the other language has a sentence
structure which differs from that of the language employed by the interrogator.

b. Simultaneous Method. In the simultaneous method, the interpreter


speaks right along with the interrogator, keeping up with him as closely as
possible, usually a phrase or so behind. With this method, the highly skilled
interpreter can more closely follow and deliver the exact mental attitudes,
connotations and find shades of meaning conveyed by either the subject or the
interrogator. Simultaneous interpreting enhances rapport between the subject
and the interrogator and promotes attentive listening since there will be no long
pauses during which the two principals are not involved. Simultaneous
interpreting has the disadvantage of greater error; especially where there is a
difference in sentence structure between the languages. This method also
requires a very high degree of proficiency in language.

Approach and Questioning

7. At the beginning of the interrogation, the interrogator must instruct the subject as
to the role of the interpreter. The subject is told to talk directly to the interrogator, and to
avoid such phrases as Tell him that......, I would like to have you say .... The
interrogator and subject must use simple, direct language and take care to avoid the
use of ambiguous questions or statements. They must also control their rate of speech
and while talking, avoid looking at the interpreter. The interpreters role is to give an
accurate translation and to abstain from engaging the subject in personal conversation
during the course of the interrogation. During the process of interrogation the interpreter
should assume a secondary role.

Recording and Reporting

8. Both the interrogator and the interpreter should take kaput in preparing the
record and the all ambiguities and to insure explanation of works which cannot be
translated into exact language.

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APPROACH AND APPROACH TECHNIQUES

INTRODUCTION

1. Interrogation is the personality conflict between the interrogator and the


interrogatee or subject. In the process of interrogation interrogatees resistance should
be overcome and ascendancy of the interrogator is required to be established. General
approach and approach techniques are the means to establish desired rapport to
overcome the possible resistance or are means to achieve the aim of the interrogator.
These are adopted basing on the background information the interrogatee.

AIM

2. The aim is to explain the General Approach and Approach Techniques involved
in various types of interrogation.

GENERAL APPROACHES

3. Types. General Approach is basically the atmosphere that the interrogator


plans to create during the interrogation process. There are mainly four types general
approaches are available to an interrogator to plan and proceed with. These are as
follows:

a. Cold and Mechanical Approach. In this approach, questions are


put in an impersonal, monotonous, machine like-manner. (Preparation is most
important aspect here. If the regular series of questions falter or lacks fluency, or
the interrogator shows emotion, the effect is lost).

b. Bullying and Hectoring Approach. In this approach, questions are put


with much sound and fury, interspersed with threats and insults, designed to
threaten or anger the subject.

c. Gullible Approach. In this approach, the interrogator apparently


gratefully accepting any information offered. This is designed to build up a false
confidence in the subject which can be shattered by a sudden change of manner.

d. Friendly and Sympathetic Approach. In this approach, the interrogator


concentrates on developing rapport with the subject.

APPROACH TECHNIQUES

4. General. Approach techniques are the means by which an interrogator


establishes contact with the subject with maximum efficiency. The techniques outlined
below are not new by any means, nor all the possible or acceptable techniques
discussed. The varieties of techniques are limited only by the initiative, experience,
imagination, and ingenuity of the interrogator. Some techniques which have proven
effective are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.

a. Direct Approach Technique. The direct approach is the questioning of a


subject without having to use any type of approach. The direct approach is often
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called no approach at all, but it is the most effective of all the approaches.
Statistics tell us that in World War II, it was 85 percent to 95 percent effective. In
Vietnam, it was 90 percent to 95 percent effective. The direct approach works
best on lower enlisted personnel as they have little or no resistance training and
have minimum security training. Due to its effectiveness, the direct approach is
always to be tried first. The direct approach usually achieves the maximum co-
operation in the minimum amount of time and enables the interrogator to quickly
and completely exploit the subject for the information he possesses. The
advantages of this technique are its simplicity and the fact that it takes little time.
For this reason, it is frequently used at the tactical echelons where time is limited
and in preliminary interrogation. In this technique of interrogation often the
interrogator makes no effort to conceal the purpose.

b. Silent Approach Technique. The silent approach may be successful


when employed against either the nervous or the confidanttype subjects. When
employing this technique, the interrogator says nothing to the subject, but looks
him squarely in the eye, preferably with a slight smile on his face. It is important,
not to look away from the subject but force him to break eye contact first. The
subject will become nervous, begin to shift around in his chair, cross and re-cross
his legs and look away. He may ask questions, but the interrogator should not
answer until he is ready to break the silence. The subject may blurt out questions
such as, Come on now, what do you want with me? When the interrogator is
ready to break the silence, he may do so with some detached question such as;
You planned this operation a long time, didnt you? The interrogator must be
patient when employing this technique. It may appear for a while that the
technique is not succeeding but it will usually be used when a reasonable chance
will be given.

c. File and Dossier Approach Technique. The file and dossier


approach is the interrogator prepares a dossier containing all available
information obtained from records and documents concerning the subject or his
organization. Careful arrangement of the material within the file may give the
illusion that it contains more data than what is actually there. The file may be
padded with extra paper, if necessary. Index tubs with titles such as education,
employment, criminal record, military service, and other are particularly effective.
The interrogator confronts the subject with the dossiers at the beginning of the
interrogation and explains to him that intelligence has provided a complete record
of every significant happening in the subjects life; therefore, it would be useless
to resist interrogation. The interrogator may read a few selected bits of known
data to further impress the subject. If the technique is successful, the subject will
be impressed with the voluminous file, conclude that every thing is known and
resign himself to complete co-operation during the interrogation. The success of
this technique is largely dependent on the simplicity of the subject, the volume of
data on the subject, and the skill of the interrogator in convincing the subject.

d. We know all Approach Technique. The We know all approach


convinces the subject that we already know everything. It is a very successful
approach for subjects who are immature, in a state of shock, or in a state of fear.
The interrogator must organize all available data on the subject including
background information, knowledge about the subjects immediate tactical
situation, and all available order of battle information on the subjects unit. Upon
initial contact with the subject, the interrogator asks question, pertinent and non-
pertinent, from his specially prepared list. When the subject hesitates, refuses to
answer, provides an incomplete response or an incorrect response, the

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interrogator himself supplies the detailed answer. Through the careful use of the
limited number of known details, the interrogator must convince the subject that
all information is already known; therefore, his answers are of no consequence. It
is by repeating this procedure that the interrogator convinces the subject that
resistance is useless as everything is already known. When the subject begins to
give accurate and complete information to the questions, to which the
interrogator has the answers, the interrogator begins interjecting questions for
which he does not have the answers. After gaining the subjects co-operation, the
interrogator still tests the extent of that co-operation by periodically using
questions for which he has the answers. This is very necessary; if the
interrogator does not challenge the subject when he is lying, the subject will then
know that everything is not known and that he has been tricked. He may then
provide incorrect answers to the interrogators questions. There are some
inherent problems with the use of the we know all approach. The interrogator is
required to prepare everything in detail, which is very time consuming. He must
commit much of the information to memory as working from notes may show the
limits of the information actually known.

e. Harassment Approach Technique. A subject who is hostile, but lacks


will-power and has shown a fondness for physical comfort and convenience, is
more likely to be susceptible to harassment. The harassment may the many
forms; for example, the subject may be called for interrogation at any time of the
day or night, questioned for a few minutes and then release only to be recalled
shortly thereafter. This treatment is continued until he talks and he finally
decided to co-operate with the interrogator. Caution must be exercised to
prevent subject from providing false or inaccurate information simply as a means
to gain respite from the harassment. This harassment should never reach the
point of physical torture.

f. Rapid Fire Approach Technique. The rapid-fire approach involves a


psychological ploy based upon the principles that everyone likes to be heard
when he speaks, and it is confusing to be interrupted in mid sentence with an
unrelated question. This technique may be used by an individual interrogator or
simultaneously by two or more interrogators in questioning the same subject. In
employing this technique the interrogator asks a series of questions in such a
manner that the subject does not have time to answer a question completely
before the next question is asked. This tends to confuse the subject and he is
apt to contradict himself, as he has little time to prepare his answers. The
interrogator then confronts the subject with the inconsistencies, causing further
contradictions. In many instances, the subject will begin to talk freely in an
attempt to explain himself and deny the inconsistencies pointed out by the
interrogator. In attempting to explain his answers, the subject is likely to reveal
more than he intends, thus creating additional leads for further interrogation. The
interrogator must have all his questions prepared before approaching the subject,
because long pauses between questions allow the subject to complete his
answers and render this approach ineffective. Besides extensive preparation, this
technique requires an experienced, competent interrogator, who has
comprehensive knowledge of his case and fluency in the language of the subject.
This technique is most effective immediately after capture, because of the
confused state of the subject.

g. Repetition Approach Technique. Repetition is used to induce co-


operation from a hostile subject. In one variation of this technique the interrogator
listens carefully to a subjects answers to a question and then repeats both

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question and answer several times. He does this with each succeeding question
until the subject becomes so thoroughly bored with the procedure that he
answers questions fully and candidly to satisfy the interrogator and to gain relief
from the monotony of his method of questioning. The repetition technique must
be used carefully, as it will generally not work when employed against introverted
subjects or these having great self-control. In fact it may provide an opportunity
for a subject to regain his self-control and delay the interrogation. In employing
this technique, the use of more than one interrogator or a tape recorder has
proven to be effective.

h. Mutt and Jeff Approach Technique. The Mutt and Jeff (Friend and
foe) approach involves a psychological ploy with takes advantage of the natural
uncertainty and guilt which a subject has as a result of being detained and
questioned. Use of these techniques necessitates the employment of two
experienced interrogators who are convincing actors. Basically, the two
interrogators will display opposing personalities and attitudes toward the subject.
For example, the first interrogator is very formal and displays an unsympathetic
attitude toward the subject. He might be strict and Order the subject to follow all
required courtesies during questioning. The goal of the technique is to make the
subject feel cut off from his friends. At the time the subject acts hopeless and
alone, the second interrogator appears (having received his cue by a hidden
signal or by listening and observing out of view of the subject), scolds the first
interrogator for his harsh behavior, and orders him from the room. He then
apologizes to soothe the subject, perhaps offering him coffee and a cigarette. He
explains that the actions of the first interrogator were largely the result of an
inferior intellect and lack of human sensitivity. The inference is created that the
second interrogator and the subject have, in common, a high degree of
intelligence and an awareness of human sensitivity above and beyond that of the
first interrogator. The subject is normally inclined to have a reeling of gratitude
toward the second interrogator, who continues to show a sympathetic attitude
toward the subject in an effort to increase the rapport and control the questioning
which will follow. Should the subjects co-operation begin to fade the second
interrogator can hint that since he is of high rank, having many other duties, he
cannot afford to waste time on an uncooperative subject. He may broadly infer
that the first interrogator might return to continue his questioning. When used
against the proper subject, this trick will normally gain the subjects complete co-
operation. In the employment of this approach technique, the unfriendly
interrogator should resort only to verbal condemnation of the subject; under no
circumstances should be ever employ physical abuse or threats of abuse or other
mistreatment. Although this approach technique is usually performed by two
persons, one interrogator can also play both roles provided he is an expert.
When a single interrogator acts out both parts he feigns impatience and
unfriendliness by getting up from his chair and addressing the subject somewhat
as follows, Dubey, I thought that there was something basically respectable and
honorable in you but apparently there isnt. The hell with it, if thats the way you
want to leave it, I dont give confess. The interrogator then sits down in the chair
again, and after a brief pause, with no conversation at all may say, Dubey, youd
tax the patience of a saint the way youve been acting. But I guess there is
something worthwhile in you anyway. Or the interrogator may even apologize for
his loss of patience by saying, Im sorry, thats the first time Ive lost my head like
that. The interrogator then starts all over with the reapplication of the
sympathetic approach that formed the basis for his efforts prior to above
described outburst of impatience. Now, by reason of the contrast with which he
has been presented, the subject finds the interrogators sympathetic,

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understanding attitude to be must more appealing. This places him in a much
more vulnerable position for a disclosure of the truth. The Mutt & Jeff approach
technique is particularly appropriate in the interrogation of a subject who is
politely apathetic the person who just nods his head as though in agreement with
the interrogator, but says nothing in response except possibly a denial of guilt.
With a subject of this type, a change in the interrogators attitude from friendly to
unfriendly and back to friendly again will at times produce a change in the
subjects attitude. He may then become more responsive to the interrogators
efforts at truth disclosure.

j. Establish Your Identity Approach Technique. In this technique the


interrogator insists that the subject have been identified as an infamous criminal
wanted by higher authorities on very serious charges and he has finally been
caught posing as someone else. In order to clear himself of these allegations,
the subject will usually have to supply detailed information on his unit to establish
or substantiate his true identity. The interrogator should initially refuse to believe
the subject and insist that he is the criminal wanted by the ambiguous higher
authorities. This will force the subject to give even more detailed information
about his unit in order to convince the interrogator that he is indeed who he says
he is. This approach works well when combined with the futility or we know all
approach.

k. Incentive Approach Technique. The incentive approach is a method of


rewarding the subject for his co-operation, but it must reinforce positive behavior.
This is done by satisfying the subjects needs. Granting incentives to an
uncooperative subject leads him to believe that rewards can be gained whether
he co-operated or not. Interrogators may not withhold a subjects rights under the
Geneva Conventions, but they can withhold the privileges. The granting of
incentives must not violate on the Geneva Conventions, but there can be things
to which the subject is already entitled. This can be effective only if the subject is
unaware of his rights or privileges. Incentives must seem to be logical and
possible. An interrogator must not promise anything that cannot be delivered.
Interrogators do not make promises but usually infer them while still side-
stepping guarantees. If an interrogator made a promise that he could not keep
and he or another interrogator had to talk the subject again, the subject would not
have any trust and probably would not co-operate. Instead of promising
unambiguously that a source will receive a certain thing, such as political
protection, an interrogator will offer to do what he can to help the subject in
achieving desired goal; as long as the subject co-operates. The incentive
approach can be broken down into the incentive short term (received
immediately) and incentive long term (received within a period of time). The type
of incentives offered depends on the subject, when he expects to receive the
incentive offer.

l. Price and Ego Approach Technique. The pride and ego approach
concentrates on tricking the subject into revealing pertinent information by using
flattery or abuse. It is effective with a subject who has displayed weaknesses or
feeling of inferiority which can be effectively exploited by the interrogator. There
are two techniques in this approach: the pride and ego up approach and the
pride an ego down approach. A problem with the pride and ego approach
techniques is that since both variations rely on trickery, the subject will eventually
realize that he has been tricked and may refuse to co-operate further. If this
occurs, the interrogator can easily move into a fear up approach and convince
the subject that the questions he has already answered have committed him and

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it would be useless to resist further. The interrogator can mention that it will be
reported directly or indirectly to the subjects organization that he has co-
operated fully, and he or his family may suffer possible retribution when this
becomes known and the subject has much to fear if he is returned to his own
people. This may even offer the interrogator the option to go into a love-of-family
approach in that the subject must protect his family by preventing his people from
learning of his duplicity or collaboration. Telling the subject that you will not report
the fact that the prisoner talked or that he was a severe discipline problem is an
incentive that may enhance the effectiveness of the approach.

(1) Pride and Ego up Approach Technique. The pride and ego up
approach is must effective on subjects with little or no intelligence or on
those who have been looked down upon for a long time. It is very effective
on low ranking enlisted personnel and a junior grade officer as it allows
the subject to finally show someone that he does definitely have some
intellect. The subject is constantly flattered into providing certain
information in order to gain credit. The interrogator must take care to use a
flattering somewhat-in-awe tone of voice and to speak highly of the
subject throughout the duration of this approach. This quickly engenders
positive feelings on the subjects part, as he has probably been looking for
this type of recognition all his life. The interrogator may blow things out of
proportion using items from the subjects background and making them
seen noteworthy or important. As everyone is willing to hear himself or
herself praised the subject will eventually rise to the occasion and in an
attempt to seek more congratulatory comments from the interrogator that
reveal pertinent information. Effective targets for a successful pride and
ego up approach are usually the socially accepted reasons for flattery:
appearance, family background, caste pride, patriotism, school spirit, good
military demeanor, and so forth. The interrogator should closely watch the
subjects demeanor for indications that the approach is getting through to
him. Such indications include, but are not limited to, a rising of the head, a
look of pride in the eyes, a swelling of the head, a swelling of the chest, or
a stiffening of the back.

(2) Pride and Ego Down Approach Technique. The pride and ego
down approach is based on the interrogator attacking the subjects sense
of personal worth. Any subject who shows any real or imagined inferiority
or weakness about himself, his loyalty to his organization, or his capture in
embarrassing circumstances can be easily broken with this approach
technique. The objective is for the interrogator to pounce on the subjects
sense of pride by attacking his loyalty, intelligence, abilities, leadership
qualities, slovenly appearance, or any other perceived weakness. This will
usually stimulate the subject into becoming defensive, and he will try to
convince the interrogator that he is wrong. In his attempt to convert his
pride, the subject will usually involuntarily provide pertinent information in
attempting to defend himself. The subject who is susceptible to this
approach is also prone to make excuses and give reasons why he did not
do a certain thing, often shifting the blame to others. (Possible targets for
the pride and ego down approach are the subjects loyalty, technical
competence, leadership abilities, soldierly qualities, or appearance). If the
interrogator uses a ironic, sharp tone of voice with appropriate
expressions of distaste or disgust, the subject will readily believe him. One
way of applying this technique is that the interrogator laughs at the subject
to put down him (the subject). Nobody likes to be laughed at laughing at

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a cool and composed subject is an act which usually upsets him more
than anything else and causes him to lose confidence in his position. One
word of caution, the pride and ego down approach is also a dead end in
that, if it is unsuccessful, it is very difficult for the interrogator to recover
and move to another approach and re-establish a different type of rapport
without losing all credibility.

m. Emotional Approach Technique. This technique is employed to play on


the subjects emotions. Through observation of the subject, the interrogator often
can determine the dominant emotions of the subject. Those may include fear,
greed, revenge, hate, love and others. To successfully employ the technique, the
interrogator pressure on the subjects emotional problems by going into detail
and creating a sorrowful picture of the subjects plight. A skilled interrogator can
cause the subject to feel downhearted and perhaps even bring him to tears.
Subsequent questioning usually is simple. The interrogator proceeds with this
method much the same way as in the Mutt and Jeff technique. The interrogator
uses a series of temperamental outbursts by raising his voice, pounding on the
table, and generally conducting himself in such a manner as to create a feeling of
insecurity and anxiety in the subject. This subject is not permitted to relax or
recover his composure until he has demonstrated complete co-operation. This
technique should be employed only by an experience interrogator. Once
emotional approach technique is taking effect within the subject, whether the
emotional chords of likes, dislikes, hate, temper, anger, fear, jealousy, love,
patriotism, greediness, vanity, revenge, or any others are struck, then tension
within the subject will increases. The more emotionally aroused the subject,
within limits, the less he will under control of his reasoning and caution faculties.
Some of the symptoms of emotional tension are:

(1) Sweating. Sweating with ruddy or flushed face indicates anger,


embarrassment, and extreme nervousness. Sweating with pale face, cold
sweat, may indicate shock or fear. Sweating hands may indicate tension.

(2) Color changes. A ruddy, flushed face may indicate shame,


anger, and embarrassment. A pale, blanched face indicates fear and may
be an index of guilt, although not definite.

(3) Dry Mouth. Continual swallowing by the subject, licking of the


lips, and drinking excessive amounts of water are indication of tension.

(4) Clenching of Hands. The clenching of the hands indicates


tension and may be coupled with anger. The wringing of the hands,
rubbing against the clothing, twisting and knotting handkerchiefs, or
manipulating objects are indicators of tension.

(5) Elbows. Close watch of the elbows may reveal whether or not
the approach is having its effect. If the elbows are hanging, the subject is
relaxed. If they are held close to the sides or become tense, the matter
under discussion is critical and is affecting the subject strongly.

(6) Heartbeat Pulse. Although these are not visible, close


observation may reveal symptoms of an increase. The neck veins may
stand out. When knees are crossed, there is a tendency for the free foot to
move with the heartbeat.

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(7) Breathing. Controlled breathing indicates critical question. It may
be betrayed by a slight gasp, a sudden intake of breath a holding of the
breath, or a sudden removal of the breath.

(8) Fidgeting, General Nervous Symptoms. Constantly moving


about in the chair pulling of the ears, rubbing of the face, picking or
weakling the nose, crossing and uncrossing the knees or legs, shifting the
position of the feet (there is a tendency to brace the feet on critical
questions), rubbing the hair, eyes, or eyebrows, biting or shaping of
fingernails, all may indicate tension.

n. All or any of these symptoms may have a reasonable explanation other


than indication of guilt or knowledge about the matter under discussion. But the
interrogator should use them by calling these acts to the attention of the subject
and by pointing out that they indicate a tension not warranted in a person who
pretends innocence or lack of knowledge about the matter under discussion.
While applying this technique the interrogator will often encounter the defense
mechanisms of Rationalization and Projection within the subject. These may be
dealt as follows:

(1) Rationalization. The feeling of rationalization or self-justification


is rather general and can be easily utilized. Probably the subject has
admitted nothing as yet, but there are feelers for self-justification. Go
along with the subjects ideas. Play into the spirit of self-justification. Make
the subject feel that his actions were justified methods by allowing the
subject to blame the circumstances for what happened by being
sympathetic and by showing a fatherly or brotherly interest/ attitude.

(2) Projection. Suggest and play up any explanatory circumstances


present in the case. Help to place the blame on some one of something
else. Show an understanding of the problems and impulses of the
subject. In asking for a written statement play up the enclosure of all
possible explanatory circumstances. The emotional approach overrides
the subjects rational for resisting by using and manipulating his emotions
against him. During combat interrogation it will be found that the main
emotion of any subject at the time of capture most likely will be either love
or fear. Love or fear for one person may be exploited or turned into hate
for someone else. For example, the person who caused the subject to be
in the position in which he now finds himself. The subjects fear can be
built upon, or increased to as to override his rational side. If the situation
demands and the subjects fear is so great that he can not communicate
with the interrogator, the interrogator may find that he has to decrease the
subjects fear in order to effectively collect information from him. There are
two major variations of the emotional approaches: Emotional love,
Emotional hate:

(a) Emotional Love Approach Technique. For the emotional


love approach to be successful, the interrogator must focus on the
anxiety felt by the subject about the circumstances in which he
finds himself. The interrogator must direct the love the subject feels
toward the appropriate object: family, homeland, comrades and so
forth. If the interrogator can show the subject what the subject
himself can do to alter or improve his situation, the approach has a
chance of success. This approach usually involves some incentive,

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such as communication with the subjects family, a quicker end to
the war to save his comrades lives, and so forth. A good
interrogator will usually orchestrate some futility with an emotional
love approach to hasten the subjects reaching the breaking point.
Sincerity and conviction are extremely important in a successful
attempt at an emotional love approach as the interrogator must
show genuine concern for the subject and for the object to which
the interrogator is directing the subjects emotion. If the interrogator
ascertains that the subject has great love for his unit and fellow
soldiers, he can effectively exploit the situations by explaining to the
subject that his providing information may shorten the war or battle
in progress, thus saving many of his comrades lives. But, his
refusal to talk may cause their deaths. This places a burden on the
subject and may motivate him to seek relief through co-operation
with the interrogator.

(b) Emotional Hate Approach Technique. The emotional


hate approach focuses on any genuine hate, or possibly a desire
for revenge, the subject may feel. The interrogator must correctly
pick up on exactly what it is that the subject may hate so that the
emotion can be exploited to override the subjects national side.
The subject may have negative feelings about his countrys regime,
his immediate superiors, officers in general, or his fellow soldiers.
This approach is usually most effective on a member racial or
religious minority who has suffered discrimination in both service
and civilian life. If a subject feels that he has been treated unfairly in
his unit, the interrogator can point out that if the subject co-operates
and divulges the location of that unit, the unit can be destroyed,
thus affording the subject an opportunity for revenge. By using a
conspiratorial tone of voice, the interrogator can enhance the value
of this technique. Phrases such as, You know them no loyalty for
the way they treated you, when used appropriately, can expedite
the success of this technique. One word of caution, do not
immediately begin to criticize a certain fact of the subjects
background or life until your assessment indicates that the subject
feels a negative emotion toward it. The emotional hate approach
can be much more effectively used by drawing out the subjects
negative emotions with questions that elicit a thought-provoking
response. For example Why do you think they allowed you to be
captured? or Why do you think they left you to die? Do not
criticize the subjects forces or homeland unless you are certain of
his negative emotions. Many subjects may have great love for their
country, but still may hate the regime in control. The emotional hate
approach is most effective with the immature or timid subject who
may have no opportunity up to this point for revenge, or never had
the courage to voice his feelings.

p. Increased Fear up Approach technique. The increased fear up


approach is most effective on the younger and more inexperienced subject or on
a subject who appears nervous or frightened. It is also effective on a subject who
appears to be the silent, confident type. Subjects with something to hide, such as
the charge of a war crime, or having surrendered while still having ammunition in
his weapon, or breaking his military oath are particularly easy to break with this

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technique. There are two distinct variations of this approach: the fear up (harsh)
and the fear up (mild).

(1) Fear up (Harsh) Approach Technique. In the fear up (harsh)


approach, the interrogator behaves in a heavy, overpowering manner with
a loud and threatening voice. The interrogator may even feel the need to
throw objects across the room to increase the subjects implanted feelings
of fear. Great care must be taken when doing this so that any actions
taken would not violate the Geneva Conventions. This technique is to
convince the subject that he does indeed have something to fear and that
he has no option but to co-operate. A good interrogator will implant in the
subjects mind that the interrogator himself is not the object to be feared,
but is a possible way out of the trap. The fear can be directed toward
reprisals by international, the government of the host country, or the
subjects own forces. Shouting can be very effective in this variation of the
fear up approach.

(2) Fear up (Mild) Approach Technique. The fear up (mild)


approach is better suited to the strong, confident type of interrogator as
there is generally no need to raise the voice or resort to heave-handed,
table banging violence. It is a more correct form of blackmail when the
circumstances indicate that the subject does indeed have something to
fear. It may be a result of accident; the soldier was caught on the wrong
side of the border before hostilities actually commenced (he was armed,
he could be a terrorist), or a result of his action (he surrendered contrary
to his military oath and is now a traitor to his country, and his own forces
will take care of the disciplinary action). The fear up (mild) approach must
be a credible distortion of the truth; a distortion that the subject will
believe. It usually involves some incentive; the interrogator can intimate
that he might be willing to alter the circumstances of the subjects capture,
as long as the subject co-operates and answers the questions. In most
cases, shouting is not necessary. The actual fear is increased by helping
the subject to realize the unpleasant penalty that the facts may cause and
then presenting an alternative, which of course can be effected by
answering some simple questions. The fear up approach is dead-end, and
a wise interrogator may want to keep it in reserve as trump car. After
working to increase the subjects fear, it would be difficult to convince him
that everything will be difficult to convince him that everything will be all
right if the approach is not successful.

q. Decreased Fear Down Approach Technique. The decreased fear


down approach is used primarily on a subject who is already in a state of fear
due to the horrible circumstances of his capture, or on a subject who is in fear for
his life. This technique is really nothing more than calming the subject and
convincing him that he will be properly and humanely treated, or that for him the
war is mercifully over and he need not go into combat again. When used with a
calming, calm tone of voice, this often creates rapport and usually nothing else is
needed to get the subject to co-operate. While calming the subject, it is a good
idea to stay initially with non-pertinent conversation and to carefully avoid the
subject, which has caused the subjects fear. This works quickly in developing
rapport and communication, as the subject will readily respond to kindness.
When using this approach, it is important that the interrogator meets the subject
at the subjects perspective level and not expects the subject to come up to the
interrogators perspective level. It a prisoner is so frightened that he has

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withdrawn into a shell or regressed back to a less threatening state of mind, the
interrogator must break through to him. This may be affected by the interrogator
putting himself on the same physical level as the subject and may require some
physical contact. As the subject relaxes somewhat and begins to respond to the
interrogators kindness, the interrogator can then begin asking pertinent
questions. This approach technique may backfire if allowed to go too far. After
convincing the subject that he has nothing to fear, he may cease to be afraid and
may feel secure enough to resist the interrogators pertinent questions. If this
occurs, reverting to a harsher approach technique usually will rapidly bring the
desired result to the interrogator.

r. Change of Scene Technique. The idea in using this approach is to get


the subject away from the atmosphere of an interrogation room or setting. If the
interrogator confronts a subject who is very apprehensive or frightened because
of the environment of an interrogation, this technique may well prove effective. In
some circumstance, the interrogator may be able to invite the subject to a nearby
tea stall or snacks bar (it must be a setting which the interrogator can control) for
tea, snacks and pleasant conversation. During the conversation in this more
relaxed environment, the interrogator steers the conversation to the topic of
interest. Through this is a somewhat indirect method, he will attempt to elicit the
desired information. The subject may never realize that he is being
interrogated. Another example is an interrogator posing as a guard (if the
subject is a prisoner), engaging the subject in conversation, and thus eliciting the
desired information. This technique requires skill and patience on the part of the
interrogator.

s. Futility Approach Technique. The futility approach is used to make the


subject believe that it is useless to resist and to convince him to co-operate with
the interrogator. The futility approach is most effective when the interrogator can
play on doubts that already exist in the subjects mind. There are really many
different variations of the futility approach. There is the futility of the personal
situation you are not finished here until you answer the questions futility in that
everyone talks sooner or later, futility of the battlefield situation and futility in the
sense that if the subject does not mind talking about his missions. They are also
history. If the subjects unit had run out of supplies (ammunition, food, fuel, and
so forth), it would be relatively easy to convince him that all of his forces are
having the same logistical problems. An insurgent who has been ambushed may
have doubts as to how he was attacked so suddenly and the interrogator should
be able to easily talk him into believing that the security forces knew where he
was all the time. The interrogator might describe the subjects frightening
recollections of seeing death on the battlefield as an everyday occurrence for his
forces all up and down the lines. Factual or seemingly factual information must
be presented by the interrogator in a persuasive, logical manner and in a matter
of fact tone of voice. Making the situation appear hopeless allows the subject to
rationalize his actions, especially if that action is cooperating with the
interrogator. When employing this technique, the interrogator must not only be
fortified with factual information, but he should also be aware of, and be able to
exploit, the subjects psychological, moral, and sociological weaknesses.
Another way of using the futility approach technique is to blow things out of
proportion. If the subjects unit was low on, or had exhausted, all food supplies,
he can be easily led to believe that all of his forces had run out of food. If the
subject is hinging on cooperating, it may aid the interrogation effort if he is told
that the other entire subjects have already cooperated. A subject who may want
to help save his comrades lives may need to be convened that the situation on

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the battlefield is hopeless, and that they all will die without his assistance. The
futility approach is used to paint a block picture for the prisoner, but it is not
completely effective in itself in gaining the subjects cooperation. The futility
approach must be orchestrated with other approach techniques.

CONCLUSION

5. The successful conduct in initial approach phase eventually paves the way
for selecting and applying the correct approach technique which actually induces
the subject to willingly provide accurate information to the interrogator. The
amount of time spent will be cost effective if the interrogator correctly assess the
subject and selects the appropriate approach technique which will break the
subject and bring out the desired information.

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QUESTION TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION

1 Questions should be comprehensive enough to insure that the topic of interest is


thoroughly explored. Answer should be obtained to establish: who, what, when, why
and how. Questions should be presented in a logical sequence to be certain that
significant topics are not neglected. A series of questions following a chronological
sequence of events is frequently employed. But this by no means the only logical
method of asking questions. Adherence to a sequence should not deter the interrogator
from exploiting information leads as they are obtained. The interrogator must consider
the probable response of the subject to a particular question or line of questioning and
should not, if at all possible, ask direct questions likely to inducing a refusal to answer or
to antagonize the subject. Experience has shown that where interrogatee or subject is
cooperative the interrogator should proceed with direct questions.

AIM

2. The aim is to discuss the techniques involved in questioning a subject in


interrogation.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

3. The manner of questioning and the nature of the questions will be based on the
mission and the situation. The following general guidelines are applicable to the
questioning:

a. Prepared Questions
b. Control Questions
c. Non-pertinent Questions
d. Repeated Question
e. Direct and Leading Questions
f. Compound Questions
g. Negative Questions
h. Brief and Precise Questions
j. Simply Worded Questions
k. Followup Questions

a. Prepared Questions. When the topic under inquiry is particularly


technical or when the legal aspects of the interrogator to have list of prepared
questions to follow during the course of the interrogation. In other cases where
the interrogator will touch on several fields of interest, it may be desirable to
prepare an interrogation guide or outline to insure that all topics are explored. In
the use of prepared questions or interrogation guides, the interrogator must be
careful to avoid restricting the scope and flexibility of the interrogation.

b. Control Questions. To maintain control and to check on the


truthfulness of the subject, the normal questions should be interspersed with
control questions, answers of which are known. Failure to answer these
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questions or erroneous answers indicates that the subject may not be
knowledgeable on the topic or that his answers to the questions are also
erroneous.

c. Non-pertinent Questions. Frequently it may be desirable, or even


mandatory, that the true objective of the interrogation be concealed from the
subject. By carefully intermingling pertinent with non-pertinent questions, the
interrogator can conceal the true purpose of the inquiry and lead the subject to
believe that some relatively insignificant matter is the basis for the interrogation
by asking pertinent questions in a casual manner, stressing questions and details
which are not important, and dwelling on non-pertinent topics which the subject
appears reluctant to discuss. The interrogator may also ask non-pertinent
questions to gain further rapport with the subject. The subject may be reluctant to
discuss the matter of interest, but quite willing to discuss more pleasant things.
The interrogator may relax the subject by first discussing irrelevant topics using
non-pertinent questions, and then switching back to pertinent questions for
desired information. Another use of non-pertinent questions is to break the train
of thought of the subject. This is of particular importance if it is suspected that
the subject is lying. Since a person must concentrate in order to lie effectively,
the interrogator can break this concentration by suddenly interjecting a
completely unrelated question, then switching back to the pertinent topic.

d. Repeated Question. As a means of ensuring accuracy, particularly


when the interrogator suspects that the subject is lying; questions should be
repeated at varying intervals. Since a lie is more difficult to remember than in
truth, especially when the lie has been composed on the spur of the moment, the
interrogator can establish discrepancies by re-phrasing and disguising the same
questions, which the subject has already answered. Repetition also serves to
insure accuracy on points of detail, such as place names, dates, component
parts of technical equipment, and similar topics.

e. Direct and Leading Questions.

1. The manner in which questions are worded has a direct manner on


the subjects response. A question may be posed in a number of ways, for
example:

(a) Where did you go last night?

(b) Did you go to the club last night?

(c) You did go to the club last night, didnt you?

(d) You did not go to the club last night, did you?

2. The first example is a simple direct question which requires a


narrative reply. Such an answer usually produces the maximum amount of
information and provides a greater number of leads which can be followed
up by the interrogator. The other three examples are leading questions in
that they suggest answers. The subject merely answers Yes or No,
leading questions tend to prompt the subject to give the reply he believes
the interrogator wants to hear and to limit the amount of detail in the reply.
As a general rule, leading questions do not serve purpose of interrogation
as it does not allow to obtain complete and accurate information. This

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does not mean, however those leading questions should always be
avoided by the interrogator. They can be sued very effectively as a means
of verification, as a means of strategy, or as a means of pinpointing
specific details.

f. Compound Questions. Compound questions normally should be


avoided because these are easily evaded and sometimes hard to understand.
An example of a compound question is What type of training did you receive at
intelligence basic training center and what type of training did you receive later at
intelligence advanced training center? The subject may answer both, only one,
or neither on the answer received may be ambiguous, incomplete, or both.
Perfect answers to compound questions rarely are received.

g. Negative Questions. The interrogator should avoid asking negatively


phrased questions because they are confusing and may produce misleading or
false information. Suppose for a moment the interrogator poses a question such
as: You do not know whether Farhana went to the club last night? The reply is
Yes. Does the subject intend to say Yes, I know, or did he mean Yes, it is
true that I do not know, or did he mean, Yes, Farhana was there. If the
ambiguity is caught at the moment that the answer is received, another question
can be asked to clarify the doubt. If the interrogator fails to note the negative
question, in all probability he will extract an answer that the subject never
intended to give. In other case, the delay or the resulting loss of an important
point detracts from the effectiveness of the interrogation.

h. Brief and Precise Questions. All questions should be brief and to the
point. There should be no doubt in the subjects and as to what the interrogator
wants to know. If the subject cannot understand the question, he certainly cannot
be expected to answer it. And if he does answer it, the answer may lead the
interrogator to arrive at an erroneous conclusion.

j. Simply Worded Questions. All questions should be simple, avoiding


big words. This is especially important when using an interpreter: for even with
simple words and questions, the complexities of language and normal translation
difficulties create enough communication problems.

k. Followup Questions. During the course of the interrogation the


subject may give statements indicating that he has information of intelligence
value other than that which is the objective of the current interrogation. He also
may mention other persons who may be profitably interrogated. These leads may
appear while the subject is telling a story or replying to a question. Leads
frequently appear in compound answers to simple and direct questions as shown
in the following example: The interrogator asks, Where did you go on 28
March? The subject replies, I drove home to Nasirabad to borrow some money
from my brother, Rasheed. The interrogators question asked only where but
he learned not only Where but Why and Who was contacted. Thus, several
new avenues of questioning have been opened. The interrogator must remain
alert to detect and utilize these leads with further questions to insure that the
subject does not intentionally introduce obviously inviting leads as a means of
evading the topic under inquiry at the moment.

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SUMMARY

4. Important Aspects. In the above paragraphs various types of questions


are discussed. However, from the above discussion few aspects have come up which
need importance. These are:

a. When the matter is technical in nature and when preciseness is desirable


because of the legal framework, prepared questions are used. In other cases he
should prepare a guide to ensure that all fields are explored.

b. To maintain control and to check on the truthfulness of the subjects,


normal question should be interspersed with control ones, those with known
answers.

c. Non pertinent questions should be asked frequently with intermingling


pertinent question in order to conceal the true purpose of the inquiry, to gain
further rapport with the subject and to break the chain of thought.

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STAGES OF INTERROGATION

INTRODUCTION

1. Interrogation process involves logical and systematic methods starting from its
planning and preparation till the submission of its report. This process can generally be
divided into four major steps or stages, and again some of these steps or stages can be
subdivided or classified into phases. Division of the whole interrogation process is
arranged for convenience and to identify separately the aim of each stage and phase.

AIM

2. The aim of this lesson is to provide an outline on stages of interrogation.

PROCESS OF INTERROGATION

3. The process of interrogation can be generally divided into following four stages:

a. Preparation and Planning Stage. This stage is again subdivided as


follows:

(1) Preparatory Phase

(a) Secret or discreet preparation (if necessary)

(b) Open preparation

(2) Planning Phase.

(a) Mental Planning

(b) Physical Planning

b. Interrogation Proper Stage.

(1) Initial Approach Phase

(2) Detail Approach Phase

(3) Exploitation or Actual Interrogation Phase

c. Termination Stage

d. Reporting Stage

4. The considerations and actively pattern of the above mentioned stages and
phases are likely to vary with the varying types and levels of interrogation, categories
and types of interrogatee or subject and the circumstances of interrogation. So,
whenever an interrogator is involved in the interrogation process, he should carefully
examine merits and requirements of each stages and phases basing on the types and
levels of interrogation and assessment of subjects and the circumstances.

5. Keeping the aforementioned in view we can identify the following factors affecting
the considerations for the interrogation process:

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a. Types or field of interrogation.

b. Levels of interrogation.

c. Types and categories of subject.

d. Circumstances covering the case/occurrence, reasons for interrogation


and time restraint.

PREPARATION AND PLANNING STAGE

6. Interrogation must be carefully planned and prepared so that the aim of the
interrogation may be achieved without waste of time or effort. It is important that the aim
should be clearly defined. Time spent in planning and preparation of interrogation will
pay divided in the shape of time saved in the process of establishing ascendance over
the interrogatee or subject and gaining his co-operation. As all human being are not
alike, all interrogation, therefore, cannot be the same and as such every interrogation
must be planned and prepared accordingly because different individual requires
different handling. Successful planning depends upon an accurate assessment of the
character of the interrogatee and the degree of resistance he is likely to offer and
preparations must be made for the exploitation of any weakness of the subject. It should
be remembered here that each and every person has got his own weakness and it is
the job of the interrogator to be aware about that.

7. The aim of this stage is to prepare and plan for smooth and successful conduct
of an interrogation. The nature, extent and details of preparation and planning will
depend upon the factors mentioned above.

Preparatory Phase

8. Activities of this phase for different major types of interrogation are mentioned
separately in the following paragraphs.

a. Counter Intelligence Interrogation. Here preparatory phase generally


consists of following two sub-phases:

(1) Secret Preparation. If necessary, information on the subject will


be collected discreetly by following means:

(a) Secret inquiry.

(b) Putting him under surveillance.

(c) Secret search of his residence and/or office.

(d) Tapping his telephone, if he has got any.

(e) Bugging his residence or office.

(f) Studying his personal file, if available.

(2) Open Preparation.

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(a) Open search of his residence and/or office, if necessary.

(b) His body search immediately after arrest (if arrested).

(c) Examination of documents available with the subject.

b. Battle Field or Combat Interrogation. In this type of interrogation,


preparations taken for the interrogation are generally overt or open in nature,
especially if it concerns Prisoner of War (PW). Here, depending on the level of
interrogation and the category of the subject following preparation can be taken:

(1) Body search, if necessary, soon after the capture/arrest. Arrest may
not be required in all cases.

(2) Examination of documents/papers carried along by the subject.

(3) If possible background inquiry on subjects like returned personal,


enemy agents, line crosser, refugees etc.

(4) Study of personal file, if available.

c. Counter Insurgency, Terrorist/ Criminal Interrogation. Secret and


open preparation can be taken for the subjects like insurgents, suspected
insurgents sympathizer (generally not for regular armed insurgents) depending
on the types and levels of interrogation. These are as follows:

(1) Secret Preparation

(a) Secret inquiry.

(b) Surveillance.

(c) Bugging residence and place of work, if possible and


necessary.

(d) Study of personal file (indices card), if available.

(2) Open Preparation

(a) Body search immediately after arrest.

(b) Examination of documents available with subject.

(c) Establishing the subjects involvement or his continued


presence in village/locality, from the neighbors/villagers, if possible.

9. Consideration for Arrest and Detention. If the subject is required to be


arrested then following points should be kept in mind for making arrest and to arrange
his detention:

a. The arrest of a subject is the first of a planned succession of mental and


psychological stresses in the interrogation process which is designed to
overcome subjects intension to resist. To achieve the maximum effect the arrest

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should take place when the subject is off his guard, relaxed, and in familiar
surroundings. There are good reasons for the almost traditional method of
carrying out an arrest in the small hours, when the subject is asleep at home.

b. The arrest must be swiftly and efficiently made and the arresting party
must display a completely professional attitude. The slightest show of hesitation,
confusion or diffidence will spoil the effect.

c. The subject must be searched quickly and kept under close observation
until he arrives at the place of detention; the house in which he was arrested
must be searched and the reaction of any persons who could be connected with
the subject must be noted. It may be necessary for such persons to be searched
also. A part from the obvious things of an incriminating nature, the searchers
must seize any articles such as personal letters, photographs or books which
could be of assistance to the interrogators in assessing the character of the
subject.

d. Thought must be given to the mind of accommodation in which the subject


is to be detained and the conditions of his detention depending of the first
assessment of his character.

A man who is obviously fearful should be kept in conditions which increase his
apprehension; a man who is prepared for discomfort and ill-treatment may be
knocked of balance by kindness and consideration. Whatever is done must be
done deliberately. Nothing must happen to the detainee which has not been
planned. Similar considerations will apply to the timings of the initial questioning;
one man may be disconcerted if ignored for a considerable time after arrest,
whereas another would use the respite to build up his resistance.

Planning Phase

10. Once the preparatory phase of interrogation has been completed and the subject
has been arrested and detained, where necessary, the planning for his interrogation
should cover two aspects; physical and mental planning.

11. Mental Planning. This aspect of the planning involves the following:

a. Study of official records relating to the subject to be interrogated with a


view to make an assessment as to how much informations about the subjects
character, personality and activity are there in the official records

b. Study and scrutiny of all official papers relating to the case or occurrence
in connection with which the subject is to be interrogated.

c. Assessing the nature and extent of information required to be obtained or


extracted from the subject during the interrogation.

d. On the basis of study of official records relating to the subject, to assess


how much he is expected of knowing and how much he is expected to tell or
confess.

e. Deciding the general techniques and question techniques to be adopted to


extract the required information. These are to be re-examined and re-aligned, if
necessary, basing on the outcome of Initial Approach Phase.

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f. To determine other necessary aspect of interrogation.

12. Physical Planning. The aspect of physical planning involves the following:

a. Selection or choice of a suitable interrogation room which should be free


from disturbance, noise or outside interference. The interrogation room should
have no decoration which may distract attention and it should be secure and well
protected.

b. Installation of scientific or technical aids to interrogation room, such as lie


detector, video or audio recording system etc, if considered necessary.

c. Sitting arrangements for the interrogator or interrogators and the


interrogatee.

d. Physical security should be ensured while interrogation. Nobody should


enter the interrogation room without prior consent of the interrogators.

e. Light refreshment facilities can be arranged for short term incentives.

INTERROGATION PROPER STAGE

General

13. Interrogation proper or the actual interrogation process has four distinct phases:

a. Initial Approach Phase.


b. Detailed Approach Phase.
c. Exploitation or Actual Interrogation Phase.

An interrogation process chart is at Annex A

Initial Approach Phase

14. General. The first phase of this stage is the initial approach. It is designed to
give the subject an opportunity to tell his own story and to give the interrogator an
opportunity to assess his character. The aim of this phase is to control the subject,
assess the subject so as to find out the proper approach and question technique, obtain
background information and material for future use and to establish rapport, if
necessary. Most subjects are anxious to tell a story of same kind and will welcome the
opportunity to do so. The degree of truth in the story will vary according to the character
of the subject and the kind of case. Normally, this phase of an interrogation is not aimed
to extract information relating to the objective. However, if the subject comes up with
relevant information then follow-up questions can be asked depending on the situation.

15. Purpose. The initial approach phase actually begins when the interrogator
first comes in contact with subject and continues until the interrogator selects the
appropriate approach technique after assessing the subject and begins to apply the
technique. Each interrogator is different but all initial approach phase have the following
purpose in common:

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a. Establish and maintain control over the subject during and the
interrogation.

b. Establish and develop rapport between the interrogator and the subject.

c. Assess the subject and subjects reaction for applying the correct general
approach and approach technique.

d. Build up subjects picture and obtain material for future.

e. Remaking of the previously worked out plan.

16. Establish and Maintain Control. The interrogator should appear to be the
one of them who controls all aspects of the interrogation. He must act quickly and firmly.
However, everything that he says and does must be within the limits of the Geneva
Conventions as well as within the standards of human conduct. As a general rule
friendly and sympathetic general approach is inherent in this phase unless other factors
are predominant to determine other general approaches.

17. Establish and Develop Rapport. Rapport between the interrogator and
the subject is actually nothing more than a two-way flow of communication. It can
involve showing kindness and humanity in an otherwise harsh situation. Rapport is
established when the subject reacts to the interrogators statement. Rapport must be
maintained throughout the interrogation. If the interrogator has established good rapport
initially and then abandonees the effort, the subject would rightfully assume that the
interrogator cares less and less about him as the information is being obtained. If this
occurs, the subject may stop answering questions. Rapport may be developed by:

a. Asking about the circumstances of capture. It helps the interrogator to get


insight into the subjects actual state of mind and more importantly, to discover
his possible breaking points.

b. Asking background questions about the subject. It assists the interrogator


to gain further rapport. Apparent interest can be built by asking about his family,
civilian life, friends, liking, disliking, and so forth.

c. Offering realistic incentives; such as immediate (coffee, cigarettes and so


forth), and long-term (repatriation, political shelter, release, rehabilitation and so
forth).

d. Feigning experience similar to those of the subject.

e. Showing concern for the subject through the use of voice vitality and body
language.

f. Helping the subject to rationalize his guilt.

g. Showing kindness and understanding toward the subjects predicament


unpleased situation.

h. Declare free from blame. Exonerating the subject from guilt.

j. Gratifying the subject.

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18. Assess the Subject and Subjects Reaction. After establishing control over
the subject and rapport, the interrogator continually assesses the subject to see if the
general approaches, techniques and question techniques, chosen in the planning and
preparation phase will certainly work. It should be remembered that:

a. The approaches chosen in planning and preparation are only tentative and
are based on the information available from documents, the guards and from
personal observation.

b. The earlier decided approach and question techniques may lead the
interrogator to select incorrect techniques which will minimize the chance of
achieving co-operation form the subject. Therefore a careful assessment of the
subject is absolutely necessary to avoid wasting valuable time in the detail
approach phase.

c. The assessment of the subject can also be made while he is in the


detention cell through qualified guards, or posing as guards or through video/tape
recording or by other means.

d. A team of two or three interrogators is to be employed on the case (and


this is often advisable, especially with a difficult subject) they all should be
present and able to observe the subjects every reaction.

e. The reactions of the subject at this phase will reveal much. An innocent
man in such a situation will protest and demand explanations. A man who knows
there are good reasons for his arrest will react differently; although he may
protest, his innocence and annoyance will be faked. However, their reactions can
also be faked.

f. At lower level this phase acts as the foundation for further conduct of the
interrogation. Sometimes at such levels time restraint may become a limitation in
properly achieving the aim of the phase. On the other hand, at higher levels this
phase can be utilized to confirm the assessment related to subject made by the
lower levels, to detect changes in his attitude and overall mental state.

19. Build up Subjects Picture and Obtain Material for Future. When the
subjects initial protests have been dealt with, he should be made to talk. He can be
asked to give his life story to narrate his movements in the immediate past, to give his
version of the arrest. He can be questioned as regard to his identity, source of income,
occupation, knowledge of local geography, political and industrial conditions. Whatever
the subject says at this time should be accepted, even though the interrogator knows it
to be false. His aim is to build up a picture of the subjects character and to obtain
material for the future conduct of the interrogation. At this stage subjects involvement is
carefully avoided so that his activity nears cooperation is required.

20. Remaking of Plan. At the end there should be a temporary break in the
interrogation and the interrogator will consider subjects statements and behaviors.
Interrogator at this stage may have to re-examine subjects documents and any material
that may have been collected by the searchers. The knowledge thus gained, together
with known data before arrest, will facilitate the re-making of the interrogation plan. This
will prepare the foundation for the next phase of interrogation by correctly selecting the
approach techniques or by confirming the previous selection.

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21. May Skip the Next Phase. If, however, the subject is found co-operative
and willing to provided information or is not providing any resistance what so ever, then
the interrogator may straight way skip the next phase i.e. detail approach phase, which
aims to overcome the resistance of the subject, and can move on to actual interrogation
or exploitation phase. Sometimes this assessment may prove to be wrong and if it is so,
then it will be apparent during the exploitation phase which may force the interrogator to
re-assess the situation and he may have to restart from initial or detail approach phase.

Detail Approach Phase

22. Aim. In this phase, personal conflict between the interrogator and the subject
is evident. Here the interrogator aims to overcome the resistance of the subject by
employing appropriate approach and question techniques. It must be remembered that
detail approach phase is needed when initial approach phase could not make any head
way. The main aim of this phase is to bring the subject to the breaking point.

23. Approach and Question Techniques. Approach and Question Technique


should be based on the interrogation plan. And the plan should be flexible enough to
accommodate the changing patterns and new demands. Moreover, in light of the
information received, it should constantly be reviewed. These techniques should be
designated to fit the case and the case should not be manipulated to fit the techniques.

24. Conduct. Detail Approach Phase is conducted in the following manner

a. Exert Pressure. During this phase the pressure on the subject must be
continuous; he must be allowed no peace until he agrees to co-operate. As it
becomes clear that his resistance is weakening, the pressure must be intensified
and as soon as he starts co-operating, conduct of the interrogator should be as
such so that he remains in the co-operative state.

b. Avoid third Degree. All through during this phase prohibition


regarding the use of force should be kept in mind. Nothing should be done to the
subject which can be termed as third degree.

c. Bring to the Breaking Point. Before switching over to exploitation


phase the interrogator should be able to recognize subjects breaking point.
Every subject has a breaking point but an interrogator never knows what it is until
it has been reached. There are, however, some good indicators which reveal that
the source is nearer to his breaking point or has already reached to it. For
example, if during the approach, the subject leans forward with his facial
expression indicating an interest in the proposal or is more hesitant in his
argument, he is probably nearing the breaking point. The process must be
followed until the subject begins to answer pertinent questions.

d. Identification of Breaking point. Once the interrogator determines


that the subject is nearing to the breaking point, he should interject a question
pertinent to the objective of the interrogation. If the subject answers it, the
interrogator can move into the questioning phase. If the subject does not answer,
the interrogator must realize that the subject was not as close to the breaking
point as was thought. In this case, the interrogator must continue with his
approach or switch to an alternative approach or questioning technique and
continue to work until he again feels that the subject is near to the breaking point.
This process must be followed until the subject begins to answer pertinent
questions.

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e. Partial Breaking Point. It is entirely possible that the subject may co-
operate for a while and then becomes unwilling at answering further questions. If
this occurs, the interrogator can either reinforce the approaches that initially
gained the subjects co-operation or move into a different approach and question
technique.

f. Question of Time. At this point, it is important to note that the amount of


time that is spent with a particular subject depends on several factors. Time
constraint and the convenience with which the information has to be extracted
are some of the major factors.

Exploitation or Actual Interrogation Phase

25. What is Exploitation Phase? Once this phase has been reached the
relationship between the interrogator and the subject can move from conflict to co-
operation. Although several interrogators may have been working on the subject during
the detail questioning, the exploitation should normally be done by one or two
interrogators only. (His aim should be to build up and promote personal relationship
between himself and the subject, a partnership in which he is accepted as the dominant
partner and the subject is his willing assistant.)

26. Selection of Interrogator. The interrogator chosen for the task will normally,
but not necessarily be the one who achieved the final break, since by that act he has
already proved his psychological superiority to the subject. However, the final choice will
depend upon the character of the subject and his reactions to the appliance of his
collapse.

27. Treatment of the Subject. As the subject is now to be treated (within


certain limits) as a partner, the circumstances of the interrogation should change
noticeably. Accommodation, diet and general facilities should be improved and
reasonable attention should be paid to the subjects wishes in respect to rest and
relaxation, but unnatural incentive must be avoided.

28. May Provide Writing Materials. It will often be found useful to provide writing
materials to the subject. In many cases subjects who have ceased resisting may be
allowed to empty their minds of guilty knowledge. To do so writing materials may be
given and they are likely to spend their spare time in writing.

29. Displaying a Firm Grasp on the Interrogation. The importance of careful


preparation during this exploitation phase cannot be over emphasized. The interrogator
must not only know exactly what he wants from the subject, but also be able to analyze
and discus the information as he receives it. He has won ascendancy over the subject
by his tactical skill and perseverance; he will only keep it by displaying a firm grasp on
the subject matter and a high standard of intelligence and professional ability. He must,
therefore, be provided with detail briefs on the case or subject matter and allowed plenty
of time to study them.

30. Other Leads and Side Issues. The exploitation phase will not end until the
aim of the interrogation has been completely achieved. It may go on beyond this point if
interesting side issues emerge or if the subject proves to have other knowledge of
intelligence interest. However, if during the course of actual interrogation subject seems
to possess information on matter which is more important than the present and which

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needs immediate handling then the interrogator may follow the new lead. But soon after
that he should be able to back to interrogation on previous objective.

TERMINATION STAGE

Importance of Proper Termination

31. Although the termination stage is only the third stage of the four stages, it is the
last stage in which the interrogator will actually deal with the subject. The interrogator
must leave the subject ready to continue answering questions in the future if necessary.
The termination of the interrogation must be conducted properly. If the interrogator
mishandles the termination stage and he later finds that the subject has lied or he needs
to question the subject further, he must start again with different approach technique.
Moreover, termination of interrogation at any level directly affects the conduct and
outcome of the interrogation carried out at next level.

32. Circumstances to Terminate. A number of circumstances can cause an


interrogation to be terminated. An interrogator must be able to identify such
circumstances as soon as these occur. Some circumstances of terminating an
interrogation are given below:

a. The subject remains uncooperative throughout the detail approach phase;


i.e. interrogator fails to bring him to a breaking point within a given or
considerable time.

b. Either the subject or the interrogator becomes physically or mentally


unable to continue.

c. All pertinent information has been obtained from the subject.

d. The subject possesses too much pertinent information for all of it to be


exploited during the interrogation session.

e. Information possesses by the subject is of such value that his immediate


evacuation to the next echelon is required.

f. The interrogators presence is required elsewhere.

g. The interrogator loses control of the interrogation and cannot recover it.

33. Termination Procedures. Whatever the reason for the termination of


interrogation, the Interrogator must remember that there is a possibility that someone
may want to question the subject at a later date. For that reason:

a. He should terminate the interrogation without any loss of rapport


whenever possible.

b. The interrogator reinforces his successful approach techniques to facilitate


future interrogations.

c. He tells the subject that he may be talked to again.

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d. When appropriate, he tells the subject that the information he provided will
be checked for truthfulness and accuracy.

f. He offers the opportunity for the subject to change or add to any


information he has given.

34. Additional Termination Procedures for PW Subject. During termination


the interrogator must make proper disposition of any documents captured with the
subject. A subjects military identity document must be returned to him. If a PW subject
does not hold an identity card issued by his government, the subject will be issued a
temporary identity card by own appropriate authority. The identity card will be in the
possession of the subject at all times. Some capture documents will contain information
that must be exploited at higher echelons. Any such documents may be seized by the
interrogator and evacuated through intelligence channels. The interrogator must issue a
receipt to the subject for any personal documents he decides to seize. He must fulfill
with the accounting procedures established for captured documents by the military
police. The accounting procedures required for seizing documents captured with a
subject are time-consuming but necessary. The interrogator can save time by preparing
receipts and documents tags during the preparation phase. He completes the
termination stage by instruction the escort guard to return the subject to the earmarked
place and to keep him away from any subjects who have not yet been interrogated.

REPORTING STAGE

35. Report is the ultimate outcome of the interrogation process, as far as the
interrogators are concerned. It can be in oral or written from, formal or informal, and the
exact type or format for the report rendered will depend on the direction of the agency or
individual directing the interrogation. If standardized format of report for different types
of interrogation is available, it should be utilized. Oral reports usually are rendered when
the value of the information to be reported depends upon the speed with which it
reaches the using agency; they should be followed by written reports. While submitting
a report, recommendation for future or further actions and disposal of subject should be
mentioned clearly the interrogators obtain may be valueless, unless it is reported to
concerned agency in usable form. This means that the report must be accurate and
complete, so far brief.

CONCLUSION

36. It is to be understood that interrogation is a logical way of questing a subject in


order to extract valuable information. Without following a methodical way in preparing,
planning, interrogating, terminating and finally in reporting, there can never be much of
fruit of an interrogation process. One has to go to the depth of it, realize each and every
phase by heart to apply those during the practical interrogation successfully.

Annex:

A. Interrogation Process Chart

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ANNEX A
INTERROGATION PROCESS CHART

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Interrogation Process

Preparation and Interrogation Proper


Planning Stage Stage Termination Stage Reporting Stage

Initial Approach Phase


Preparatory Phase

Secret or Discreet
Detail Approach Phase
Preparation

Exploitation
Open Preparation
Phase

Planning Phase

Mental Planning

Physical Planning
)Physical Planning
)Physical Planning

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USE OF FORCE IN INTERROGATION

INTRODUCTION

1. Use of force or third degree to extract information from a person is an age old practice in human society
though its application and usefulness never went unchallenged even in its early days of use. Through the ages it was
felt and thoroughly proved that use of force or third degree can not always extract truthful and objective information
from a person. Therefore, it is not only a question of violation of basic human rights or a countrys constitution but it
is also a matter of concern for any interrogator as it negatively affects the outcome of an interrogation.

AIM

2. The aim of this topic is to given idea on aspects of use of force in interrogation.

SCOPE

3. This topic will cover the followings:


a. Understanding the use of force or third degree.
b. Rules for avoiding the third degree.
c. Disadvantages of third degree.

UNDERSTANDING USE OF FORCE OR THIRD DEGREE

4. The meaning of third degree or use of force is described below:

a. It is difficult to define use of force or third degree in specific terms. The vary concept of third
degree various in its understanding and extent from man to man, professionals to professionals and
organizations to organizations. However, there are two things which have been consistently been held by
the courts to be third degree during an interrogation are, physical force and any threats of physical force.

b. Example of physical force is hitting or even slapping a subject. A threat of physical force can be
made either physically by the interrogator (the shaking of the fist near the subjects face) or it can be done
vocally (listen, you, I am going to beat you stupid if you dont confess!)

c. It is universal for the courts to rule out confessions whenever they are satisfied that force or the
threat of physical force was used during an interrogation.

d. A situation that can be construed as third degree when it is causing the suspects physical
suffering. This suffering is not directly inflicted by the interrogator, rather it is caused indirectly. Examples
of indirect physical sufferings are not letting the subject to have any food, not allowing him any sleep, not
permitting him to go to the toilet.

e. However, it is difficult for the courts to define and agree upon just what constitutes the third
degree in these instances. For example, the subject is not allowed to go to the toilet until the confession is
obtained some four hours later. Is this third degree? Some might strongly believe,absolutely not!, while
others will be just as positive, of course that is third degree!

f. Another method that the courts have declared to be third degree is psychological mistreatment. For
examples prolonged questioning, interrogators working in relays for several days etc. Even though no
physical harm has been inflicted, no threats of physical harm were made, and the subject was allowed food,
sleep and toilet privileges; the courts might consider that these circumstances constitute third degree.

g. Here again there is a great disagreement in the courts as to just when such happenings become
third degree. For example, what is prolonged questioning? Is it anything after one hour, two hours, five
hours, twelve hours, or twenty four hours? Or is it even longer? And of course, even a time could be agreed
upon, it would apply equally to a twenty-two year old youth in fine health condition and a sixty-five year
old subject suffering from cancer?

5. Thus, there are four actions that can be classified as third degree:
a. Use of physical force;
b. Threat of physical force;
c. Indirectly causing physical suffering; and
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d. Psychological mistreatment.

RULES FOR AVOIDING USE OF FORCE OR THIRD DEGREE

6. Rules for avoiding use of force or third degree are as follows:

a. It is extremely easy to avoid the first point that is considered to be third degreethe use of physical
force. The rule is: Never strike the subject nor cause him bodily harm.

b. Of course, if the subject tries to escape or attempts to harm someone, proper and sufficient
physical force must be used to restrain him. But, what we are referring to is no physical force during an
interrogation.

c. The second third-degree situation is threat of physical force. Here the rule is: Never directly state
or imply that physical force which will be used if the subject does not confess.

d. What constitutes direct threat of bodily harm is obvious. However, implied threats are not so
obvious. For this reason, the interrogator must be very careful not to say anything or make any gesture that
the subject could interpret as a threat. For example, to say, You better confess, could be interpreted by a
normal person be a threat, since there is an implication that something drastic will happen if he does not
confess. Thus, the word better should never be used as it was in the proceeding sentence. Rather, if used, it
should be as: Kader, you will feel better inside if you tell the truth. But if you keep telling this ridiculous
story, you will continue to feel miserable inside. You are acting like a big-time criminal, which is so
contrary to your normal nature.

e. The third category is causing physical suffering. Since this is open to wide and varying
interpretation, the best general rule to follow is: Let the subject have the same considerations as the
interrogator.

f. For example, before the interrogation begins the subject may be permitted go to the toilet and have
a drink of water. The interrogator can also go to the toilet and have a drink before the interrogation begins.
Then during the interrogation if the subject requests for water or want to go to the toilet can be politely
brushed aside. Kader, I could get you a big drink of water and in five minutes you would want another
drink. You know why? Because you are not telling the truth and it is working on your nervous system. You
could drink 20 gallons and still be thirsty, since you are not telling the truth. Tell me the truth that is the
only drink that will satisfy your thirst.

g. However, as soon as the interrogator leaves the room for a drink of water or go to the toilet, the
subject would be given an opportunity to do the same. Naturally, if the subject has diarrhea he is permitted
to go to the toilet as often as is necessary. But on the whole, if the interrogator undergoes the same
conditions as the subject in regard to eating, sleeping, and resting, courts should not interpret that any third
degree, under this third category, was used.

h. The last classification of what can be interpreted as third degree is psychological mistreatment.
What was just stated in rule three basically applied here also.

j. For example, as far as prolonged questioning is concerned, if the same interrogator is with the
subject the entire time, this should not constitute third degree under the classification of psychological
mistreatment.

DISADVANTAGES OF THIRD DEGREE

7. The following is not a complete list of reasons why the third degree has become outmoded in modern
interrogations. Nor you should consider these reasons as being listed in the order of their importance, for all of them
are important. Although they are more representative of the traditional third degree- the use of physical force- many
of them also applies when the other three third degree situations are resorted to.

a. The person who uses the third degree has not only set himself up as the judge who has found the
subject guilty, but he has also established himself as a god who has the power to inflict bodily harm to
the offender. This is true regardless of the subject guilt or how heinous the crime might be. Remember,
your purpose is to learn the truth. You represent law and order. Maintain the dignity of your profession and
organization.

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b. The obviously guilty subject might be innocent. Result? Possibly a false confession. Even young
men with fine physical and mental capacities have given false confessions when pushed too far.

c. The person who resorts to third degree usually first uses it in a big case. He undoubtedly
soothed his conscience by saying that it was an important case and that he would never use such methods
except in big cases. As time goes by, however, this type of interrogator usually weakens in his resolution
until finally he considers every case a big case The third degree becomes about the only interrogational
device he knows and he is continually resorting to it. If hitting a subject is the best technique an
interrogator knows, then any third-rate, punch drunk boxer is a better interrogator than he is.

d. Whenever an interrogator uses force he is committing a crime, under CrPC 349 or 351. And even
if the interrogator does not resort to force, but is deliberately responsible for one of the other situations that
constitute third degree, he is possibly committing a crime. Thus, the interrogator becomes a criminal in
trying to catch a criminal. Then too, if the subject is tried the interrogator will undoubtedly have to commit
perjury to cover up his actions. Now he has committed yet another crime in trying to save society from a
criminal.

e. The subject might die-which has happened before and will again where third degree is used. Even
if the third degree is considered to be mild by those using it, the subject might have a weak heart and die.

f. A person using the third degree probably will be sued sooner or later. A threat of civil suit should
never stop the interrogator from doing his duty. But third degree is nor anyones duty.

g. An interrogator loses self-respect and the confidence of his fellow workers every time he uses
third degree. This will happen because both he and his associates know he is doing wrong. Also, he is
proving, he is a coward since the subject is in no position to fight back or even defend himself.

h. Resorting to the third degree shows that the interrogator is too lazy to go for proper approach
techniques to break the resistance of the subject.

j. As soon as third degree is used, the officer is admitting that the subject is smarter than he is. That
is, the interrogator was too stupid to think of the correct approach techniques to use that would gain the
confession/information. A good interrogator will outsmart the great majority of subjects by virtue of his
intelligence, training, experience, and the desire to perform his duty correctly.

k. Use of the third degree will invalidate a resulting confession. If might even completely wreck the
entire prosecution case, in that the Judge could be led to believe that the entire investigation was tainted and
that the investigators/interrogators were perjuring themselves on every point.

l. Some interrogator may believe that use of force or third degree saves time in bringing about the
information or confession that they are looking for. But actually it is other way round as there is a
likelihood of giving false information or confession by the subject to escape from this use of force. As the
possibility is there so the interrogator needs additional time to confirm the given information and incase,
the given information proves to be false or exaggerated then more time will be spent to cover up the actions
taken basing on the false or exaggerated information .

CONCLUSION

8. Use of force or third degree is not at all a technique to be followed during any interrogation. Its use only
reflects the limitation of the interrogator in his intellect, self-confidence and abilities and skills in interrogation
techniques. To cover up these limitations they use force in interrogation, but again with no or less of success in most
of the cases.

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INTERROGATION REPORT WRITING

1. Introduction. Once the interrogation is over detail report has to be initiated. The report should
be exhaustive, and meticulously planned. It is required not only for trial but also for future reference.

2. Form of Reporting. Report is the ultimate outcome of the interrogation process. It can be
in oral or written form, formal or informal and the exact type or format for the report will depend on the
direction of the agency or the individual directing the interrogation. If available, the standardized format of
report for different types of interrogation should be utilized. Oral reports usually are rendered when the
value of the information to be reported depends upon the speed with which it reaches the using agency;
they should be followed by written reports. A format is given as Annex A.

3. Assessment of the Subject. Reports of all level should have a brief assessment of the
subjects character and type. This will facilitate future interrogation or interrogation at next level. It will help
the directing authority to understand the circumstances under which reported information was extracted;
and this may also serve the academic interest in future.

4. Recommendation. While submitting a report, recommendation for future or further action


and disposal of subject should be mentioned clearly along with the findings. The most important
information that the interrogators obtain may be valueless, unless it is reported to concerned agency in
usable form. This means that the report must be accurate and complete, so far brief.

Annex:

A. Interrogation Report Format.

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ANNEX A

INTERROGATION REPORT FORMAT

Photograph of
Subject

1. Name:

2. Fathers Name:

3. Mothers Name:

4. Present Address:

5. Permanent Address:

6. Sex:

7. Religion:

8. Occupation:

9. Marital Status.

10. Children with age and sex:

a.

b.

c.

11. Details of property owned by the individual or in the name of his dependents:

a. Immoveable:

b. Movable:

12. Physical Description:

a. Identification Mark:

b. Color of Hair:

c. Height:

d. Weight:

e. Any other description of interest:

13. Occupational History of Birth:

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14. Educational History (Mention Institution with date):

Ser Level Year Division Institution Remarks


No

15. Political History (if any):

16. Police/Agent Record (if any):

17. Any other detail of Bio-data (which may be of interest but not covered above):

18. Brief Background of Arrest:

19. Brief description of operation that lead to arrest:

20. Incriminating articles found in his possession and in the premise of arrest:

21. Confession record (if any):

Note: When no confession is made then record information of interest that has been extracted from him.

22. Findings:

23. Comments:

24. Recommendations/Suggestions:

25. Name of the officer under whose order arrested:

26. Interrogated by (should include all names whoever interrogated even for brief period):

Code No Rank Name Appointment Remarks

27. Action taken there of:

28. Disposal of the individual after interrogation:

29. Record of finger prints (all fingers):

LEFT HAND

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RIGHT HAND

Sign: ....
Name: ..
Rank: ...
Code: ...
Place: .......................................
Date: ........................................

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