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Annals ofDAAAM for 2009 & Proceedings of the 20th International DAAAM Symposium, Volume 20, No, l, ISSN 1726-9679

ISBN 978-3-901509-70-4, Editor B, Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria, EU, 2009

Make Harmony Between Technology and Nature, and Your Mind will Fly Free as a Bird

4th UPS

GRAPH THEORY FOR MORE EFFICIENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Abstract: Coordination of all participants performing' business (Majstorovic, 2001), Each network diagram must meet the

tasks is of, great importance and decisive impact on the following requirements:

efficiency of its execlit ion, Integrated observing of excution of

there is only one initial and one final event of the project;

the business project provides significantly better planning of

there is at least one path from the initial to the final event of

implementation process and increases the efficiency of the project;

managing these projects. Recognizing the need for continued

specialized software solutions for computer-aided project for .each event there is at least one path to the final event of

I the project;

management, we decide t create a comprehensive software

the existence of cycles is not allowed,

package that will enable us faster and more efficient operation

in the future. In this paper we describe the application of well-

known Floyd-Warshall algorithm for finding the critical path in , In terms of graph, theory; graph vertices represent the

project time analysis. events, and its edges represent project. activities. pue to the hICk

Key words: project management, critical path method, graph of multiply arcs and loops" the network diagram is a strict,

theory, floyd-warshall algorithm directed graph p(Veljan, 2001), Therefore, in our analysis, we

, "

can apply all the known algorithms from mathematical graph

, theory that will help us in solving our tasks, I

1. INTRODUCTION ;

we des~ribe the .application of well-known Floyd-Warshall

In terms of the increasing division 'of' labor and

algorithm for finding the critical path ({?PM - Critical Path

specialization,' planning and management 'projects becoming

Method) in project tinW analysis, In this analysis, each activity

more complex. Coordination of the participants in performing

is associated with a numeric value that represents its duration.

the business task is of great' importance and' decisive impact on

From the standpoint of graph theory, these numerical values

the efficiency of its execution. Integrated observing" of

can be interpreted as a weight value of edges, so in this case,

execution of business project provides significantly better

the network diagram is an strict weighted directed graph D,

planning of implementation process and increasest-' the

which is very suitable for performing the aforementioned

efficiency of managing these projects, Network planning

Floyd-Warshall's algorithm

methods have the advantage compared-to other methods which

have complete look' at the process of bussines project

realization, because they provide a clear enough view of 3. MODIFIED FLOYD-WARSHALL ALGORITHM

realization' of the 'entire work, unambiguous view of logical

course of mutual dependence" of parts and' 'processes, more Original Floyd-Warshall algorithm compares all possible

precisely and more accurately determine parts of the project paths through the strict' weighted directed graph D between

deadlines and the project as a whole as well as they determine each pair of vertices (Cormen et al., 2001), If' we assume that a

the most burdened pathfrum time aspect (Andrijic, 1982)', strict . weighted directed graph has no negative cycles, and

, Recognizing the need for continued specialized software

i network diagram for time analysis is just such a graph, Floyd-

solutions for computer-aided project management, we' are going Warshall algorithm finds the shortest path between each pair of

to create an comprehensive software package that will enable vertices in a single passage,

us faster and more efficient operation in the future, Despite the Considering that the longest path between initial and final

existence of similar software packages, we decided for this' step vertex of network diagram, as well as paths between all pairs of

because of the need fOI' concrete customizing software solutions internal vertices (due to possible multiple critical paths between

to real problems that we encounter every day, ' any pairs of nodes), is crucial for determination of critical path,

we will modify the Floyd-Warshall algorithm to find the

2. MAIN IDEA longest paths between vertices instead of the shortest ones, First

we will describe modified Floyd-Warshall algorithm for finding

Noticing a strong corelation between the concepts of critical paths in the network diagram.

network planning and concepts of mathematical graph theory, Let D be strict weighted directed graph and let

along 'with a detailed study of th many algorithms used in VD = {VI, V2, "" VII} be set of n vertices of graph D, insome

graph theory, we concluded that the mentioned algorithms can order. We will define an recursive function LongestPath(i,j, k):

very effectively used to solve specific 'problems encountered in LongestPath(i, j, k) = Maximal(LongestPath(i,j, k-L),

project management. LongestPath(i, k, k-l) + LongestPath(k,j, k-l));

The basis of network planning is the network diagram that LongestPath(i,j, O) =ArcWeight(i,j);

consists of activities, 'or parts of projects, 'which can be

for which We claim that, as a result, returns the longest possible

considered as separate entities from' the feasibility and

path starting at the Vi and ending at the Vj, using only the

economic point of view, and events, or moments of time where

vertices VI, "" Vk as an intermediate points along the path,

one or more activities begin or end, Each activity, as well as the

entire project, has a initial event and final event. An activity The basis of the algorithm is an adjacency matrix WeD) of

which initial event is i, and final event is j we will mark as Ai) weighted 'directed graph D, which gives us the value of the

function ArcWeight(i,j) for all vertices pairs (Vi, Vj)' Algorithm

1826

carried out in n steps.

00 O O 00 8 00 00 00

The proof of correctness of the basics of Floyd-

Warshallovog algorithm, that is the above recursive formula

00 00 O 00 8 8 15 00

W(D)=

induction, according to the cardinal number k of vertices set 00 00 00 00 O 00 6 00

{VI, V2, ... , vd E VD, which are used as an intermediate points 00 00 00 00 00 O 7 00

along the path.

00 00 00 00 00 00 O 2

Basis: For k = O set of vertices that we use as an

intermediate points along the path is an empty set. Thus, the 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 O

longest path beginning at the Vi and ending at the Vi' which does Fig. 2. Adjacency matrix WeD)

not contain any vertex as an intermediate point, is either equal

to the weight of arc starting at the Vi and ending at the Vj' if this

We geF the yalues of the latest beginnings by detracting the

arc exists, or it is not defined (i.e. has value 00) if there is no

results of Floyd-Warshall algorithm from the value of the

such arc. Those are the exact values that we can 'find in

earliest start of the final event. Final results will be as the

adjacency matrix WeD), or, in other words, the return values of

following figure:

function ArcWeight(i,j). This proves induction basis.

Assumption: We assume that the recursive function

LongestPath (i, j, k) returns the longest possible path starting at

the Vi and ending at the Vj' using only vertices VI, ... , Vk as an

intermediate points along the path.

Inductive step: Let us prove the claim for k+ l. Therefore,

we ar looking for the longest possible path starting at the Vi and

ending at the Vj, using only the vertices from the set

{VI, V2, ... , v), Vk+} as an intermediate points along the path:

There are two candidates for this path: it's either the path which

uses only the vertices from the st ' {vj, V2, ... , Vk} and Vk+1 is Fig. 3. Network diagram with completed time analysis' and

not used, or there is all' longer path that goes from Vi to Vk+l, and determined critical path .

further from Vk+1 to Vj' We know that the longest possible path

from Vi to Vi that uses only vertices VI, ... , Vk isdeterrnined by I" Critical project .activities are those activities in which have

function Longestl'ath, j, k). It is also obvious that, if thhe is a the same earliest and latest start (Heldman & Cram, 2004). In

langet path from Vi to Vj through the vertex Vk+' then its lenght our example, those activitis are A13, A36, A6? and A78 (marked

is the sum ofthe longest paths from Vi to V k+ I and from vj., I to Vj with thicker arrows), and they form, it critical path in time

(using only the set of vertices {VI, V2, ... , Vk}). Therefore: analysis of observed project.

LongestPath(i, j, k+ 1) = Maximal(LongestPath(i, j, k),

LongestPath(i, k+], k) + LongtestPath(k+1,j, k)); 5. CONCLUSWN ) ,

which proves the inductive step. J r : l ..

Since both the basis and the inductive step have been The presented problem is a simple 'example. of finding

proved, it has now been proved by mathematical induction that unique critica! path in project time analysis. Used the modified

our formula holds for all natural n. Q.E.D. Floyd-Warshall algorithm also allows the determination of

multiple critical paths; due to the fact that it determines the

4., iMPLEMENTATION EXAMPLE longest paths between each pair of vertices, not only between

the initial. and final vertex .. Once w,e determine .the critical

Functioning of the Floyd-Warshallov algorithm for finding project activities, vye can determine all the critical paths in,a

critical times in the project time analysis we will show using way that for every internal vertex of criticalpath (excluding

the following network diagram, initial and final vertex), verify the existence of an alternative

critical paths from the initial vertex to the observed one, which

does, not pass, all previously tested internal vertices of critical

Pflth., , ,I - I I J

software pack;age, which we plan to develop. In this direction

we face our further work.

6. REFERENCE

organizacijama udruzenog rada (Mathematical Methods of

Fig. !. Example' of network diagram Programming in Organizations of Associated Labor)

Svjetlost;ISBN, Sarajevo ,

The final results of modified Floyd-Warshall algorithm are Cormen, T.H.; Leiserson, C.E.; Rivest R.L. & Stein C. q001)..

the longest paths between each pair of vertices of strict Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd Edition, The Ml'T Press,

weighted directed graph D. In the terminology of network ISBN 0-262,03293-7, Cambridge

planning these numerical values represent the earliest Heldman, W. & Cram, L. (2904). IT Project +, Sybex, ISBN 0-

beginnings of the project activities. 782!-43l8-0, San Francisco-London ,

The next step is to determine the latest baginnings of Majstorovic, V. (2001). Production and Project Management,

project activities. For this purpose, we observe the network . DAAAM, ISBN 3-90! 509-23-2, Mostar-Wien

diagram starting from the final event and all the activities 'in the Veljan, D. (200!). Kombinatorna i diskretna mqtematika

reverse direction, which is achieved by transforming the (Combinatorial and Discrete Mathematics), Algoritam,

adjacency matrix. ISBN 953-6450-74-7, Zagreb

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