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Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

Derivatives Chain Rule Variants


Definition and Notation The chain rule applied to some specific functions.

If y = f ( x ) then the derivative is defined to be f ( x ) = lim


h 0
f ( x + h) f ( x)
h
. 1.
d
dx
( n
)
f ( x ) = n f ( x ) f ( x )
n 1
5.
d
dx
( )
cos f ( x ) = f ( x ) sin f ( x )

If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent
2.
dx
e (
d f ( x)
)
= f ( x) e ( )
f x
6.
d
dx
( )
tan f ( x ) = f ( x ) sec 2 f ( x )

f ( x)
( ) (sec [ f ( x) ]) = f ( x) sec [ f ( x) ] tan [ f ( x)]
d d
equivalent notations for the derivative. notations for derivative evaluated at x = a . 3. ln f ( x ) = 7.
dx f ( x) dx
( f ( x ) ) = Df ( x )
df dy d
f ( x ) = y =
df dy
= = f ( a ) = y x = a = = = Df ( a ) f ( x)
dx dx dx dx x = a dx x = a 4.
d
( )
sin f ( x ) = f ( x ) cos f ( x ) 8.
d
(
tan 1 f ( x ) = )
1 + f ( x )
2
dx dx
Interpretation of the Derivative
If y = f ( x ) then, 2. f ( a ) is the instantaneous rate of Higher Order Derivatives
The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as
1. m = f ( a ) is the slope of the tangent change of f ( x ) at x = a . 2
d f dn f
line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the 3. If f ( x ) is the position of an object at f ( x ) = f ( ) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( ) ( x ) = n and is defined as
2 n

dx dx
equation of the tangent line at x = a is time x then f ( a ) is the velocity of
given by y = f ( a ) + f ( a )( x a ) . the object at x = a .
f ( x ) = ( f ( x ) ) , i.e. the derivative of the ( n )
( )
f ( x ) = f ( n 1) ( x ) , i.e. the derivative of
first derivative, f ( x ) . the (n-1)st derivative, f ( n 1) x . ( )
Basic Properties and Formulas
If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, Implicit Differentiation
Find y if e2 x 9 y + x3 y 2 = sin ( y ) + 11x . Remember y = y ( x ) here, so products/quotients of x and y
1. ( c f ) = c f ( x ) 5.
d
(c) = 0 will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The trick is to
dx
(f g ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y (from the chain rule).
2.
6.
dx
( x ) = n xn 1 Power Rule
d n
After differentiating solve for y .
3. ( f g ) = f g + f g Product Rule
7.
d
( )
f ( g ( x )) = f ( g ( x ) ) g ( x ) e2 x 9 y ( 2 9 y ) + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11
f f g f g dx
11 2e 2 x 9 y 3x 2 y 2
4. = Quotient Rule This is the Chain Rule 2e2 x 9 y 9 ye2 x 9 y + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11 y =
g g2 2 x3 y 9e2 x 9 y cos ( y )
( 2 x y 9e x
3 2 9 y
cos ( y ) ) y = 11 2e 2 x 9 y 3 x 2 y 2
Common Derivatives
d
dx
( x) = 1
d
dx
( csc x ) = csc x cot x
d x
dx
( a ) = a x ln ( a ) Increasing/Decreasing Concave Up/Concave Down
Critical Points
d
( sin x ) = cos x
d
( cot x ) = csc 2 x
d x
(e ) = ex x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) provided either Concave Up/Concave Down
dx dx dx 1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
1. f ( c ) = 0 or 2. f ( c ) doesnt exist.
d
( cos x ) = sin x
d
(sin 1 x ) = 1 2 d
( ln ( x ) ) = x , x > 0
1
f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I.
dx dx 1 x dx
Increasing/Decreasing 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then
( ln x ) = x , x 0
d d 1
( tan x ) = sec 2 x d
( cos x ) = 1 2
1
1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
dx dx 1 x dx f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I.
f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I.
( log a ( x ) ) = x ln a , x > 0
d d 1
( sec x ) = sec x tan x d
( tan x ) = 1 + x 2
1 1
dx dx dx 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then Inflection Points
x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the
f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I.
concavity changes at x = c .
3. If f ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then
f ( x ) is constant on the interval I.

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

Extrema Related Rates


Absolute Extrema Relative (local) Extrema Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities
1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time
if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c. you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.
2. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one
2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x ) The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north. The angle changes at
f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c.
if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. pushed towards the wall at 14 ft/sec. How fast 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance
is the top moving after 12 sec? between them changing when = 0.5 rad?
1st Derivative Test
Fermats Theorem If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) then x = c is
If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at
1. a rel. max. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) > 0 to the left
x = c , then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) .
of x = c and f ( x ) < 0 to the right of x = c .
We have = 0.01 rad/min. and want to find
Extreme Value Theorem 2. a rel. min. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) < 0 to the left x is negative because x is decreasing. Using
x . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,
If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval of x = c and f ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c .
Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating,
x x
x 2 + y 2 = 152 2 x x + 2 y y = 0 sec = sec tan =
[ a, b] then there exist numbers c and d so that, 3. not a relative extrema of f ( x ) if f ( x ) is
After 12 sec we have x = 10 12 ( 14 ) = 7 and
50 50
We know = 0.5 so plug in and solve.
1. a c, d b , 2. f ( c ) is the abs. max. in the same sign on both sides of x = c .
so y = 152 7 2 = 176 . Plug in and solve x
sec ( 0.5 ) tan ( 0.5 )( 0.01) =
[ a, b] , 3. f ( d ) is the abs. min. in [ a, b] .
2nd Derivative Test for y . 50
If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that 7 x = 0.3112 ft/sec
Finding Absolute Extrema 7 ( 14 ) + 176 y = 0 y = ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!
To find the absolute extrema of the continuous f ( c ) = 0 then x = c 4 176
function f ( x ) on the interval [ a, b] use the 1. is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) < 0 .
Optimization
following process. 2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) > 0 . Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for
1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a, b ] . 3. may be a relative maximum, relative one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of
2. Evaluate f ( x ) at all points found in Step 1. minimum, or neither if f ( c ) = 0 . variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.
3. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) .
Ex. Were enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are
Finding Relative Extrema and/or 500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0,2).
4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function field is a building. Determine dimensions that
value) and the abs. min.(smallest function Classify Critical Points
will maximize the enclosed area.
value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) .
2. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd
derivative test on each critical point.
Minimize f = d 2 = ( x 0 ) + ( y 2 ) and the
2 2

Mean Value Theorem Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of constraint is y = x 2 + 1 . Solve constraint for
If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] and differentiable on the open interval ( a, b ) x + 2 y = 500 . Solve constraint for x and plug
x 2 and plug into the function.
into area.
f (b ) f ( a ) x2 = y 1 f = x 2 + ( y 2)
2

then there is a number a < c < b such that f ( c ) = . A = y ( 500 2 y )


ba x = 500 2 y
= y 1 + ( y 2) = y 2 3 y + 3
2
= 500 y 2 y 2
Newtons Method Differentiate and find critical point(s). Differentiate and find critical point(s).
f ( xn ) A = 500 4 y y = 125 f = 2y 3 y = 32
If xn is the n guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn +1 = xn
th
By 2nd deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is nd
By the 2 derivative test this is a rel. min. and
f ( xn )
the answer were after. Finally, find x. so all we need to do is find x value(s).
provided f ( xn ) exists. x = 500 2 (125) = 250 x 2 = 32 1 = 12 x = 12
The dimensions are then 250 x 125. The 2 points are then ( 1
2 )
, 32 and ( 1
2
, 32 )
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins