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Paper Title
Image Compression Using Run Length Encoding (RLE)
Authors
Kamalpreet Kaur, Jyoti Saxena, Sukhjinder Singh
Abstract
The goal of image compression is to remove the redundancies by minimizing the number of bits required to represent an image. It is used for reducing the redundancy that is nothing but avoiding the duplicate data. It also reduces the storage memory to load an image. Image Compression algorithm can be Lossy or Lossless. In this paper, DCT and DWT based image compression algorithms have been implemented using MATLAB platform. Then, the improvement of image compression through Run Length Encoding (RLE) has been achieved. The three images namely Baboon, Lena and Pepper have been taken as test images for implementing the techniques. Various image objective metrics namely compression ratio, PSNR and MSE have been calculated. It has been observed from the results that RLE based image compression achieves higher compression ratio as compared with DCT and DWT based image compression algorithms.
Keywords
Image Compression, JPEG, RLE, Fourier transform, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Quantization
Citation/Export
MLA
Kamalpreet Kaur, Jyoti Saxena, Sukhjinder Singh, “Image Compression Using Run Length Encoding (RLE)”, May 17 Volume 5 Issue 5 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 1280 – 1285
APA
Kamalpreet Kaur, Jyoti Saxena, Sukhjinder Singh, May 17 Volume 5 Issue 5, “Image Compression Using Run Length Encoding (RLE)”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 1280 – 1285

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________

1

Research Scholar, 2Professor and 3Assistant Professor

1,2,3

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Giani Zail Singh Campus College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda-151001 (Punjab)

Abstract: The goal of image compression is to remove the redundancies by minimizing the number of bits required to represent an image. It is

used for reducing the redundancy that is nothing but avoiding the duplicate data. It also reduces the storage memory to load an image. Image

Compression algorithm can be Lossy or Lossless. In this paper, DCT and DWT based image compression algorithms have been implemented

using MATLAB platform. Then, the improvement of image compression through Run Length Encoding (RLE) has been achieved. The three

images namely Baboon, Lena and Pepper have been taken as test images for implementing the techniques. Various image objective metrics

namely compression ratio, PSNR and MSE have been calculated. It has been observed from the results that RLE based image compression

achieves higher compression ratio as compared with DCT and DWT based image compression algorithms.

Keywords: Image Compression, JPEG, RLE, Fourier transform, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Quantization.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Image compression aims to represent an image in the fewest reconstructed image as close to the Original Image as

number of bits without losing vital information content possible. Image Compression systems are composed of two

within an original image. Image compression is an important distinct structural blocks: an Encoder and a Decoder.

step of digital image processing for reducing the amount of Compression is typically a three step process (Figure 1):

data to represent a digital image. It find applications in the 1. Mapper: uncorrelate the data

field of video-conferencing, remote sensing, facsimile 2. Quantizer: round off data

transmission (FAX), documents and medical imaging etc. 3. Coder: assign codes to data

Image compression can be achieved by removing one or

more of the three basic data redundancies and briefly

outlined below:

less than optimal code words are used. Examples of image

coding schemes that explore coding redundancy are the Figure 1: Process of Compression

Huffman coding and Arithmetic coding techniques.

Let n1 and n2 denote the number of information carrying

Inter pixel redundancy: This redundancy exists as image

units (usually bits ) in the Original and Encoded Image

neighboring pixels are not statistically independent. It

respectively, the Compression that is achieved can be

results from correlations between the neighboring pixels of

quantified numerically via the compression ratio:

an image.

CR = n1 /n2

Psycho visual redundancy: It is due to data that is ignored

by the human visual system (i.e. visually non essential

As shown in figure-1, the coder is responsible for

information).

reducing the coding, inter pixel and Psycho visual

redundancies of Input Image. In first stage, the Mapper

Image Compression techniques reduce the number of bits

transforms the input image into a format designed to reduce

required to represent an image by taking advantage of these

Inter pixel redundancies. The second stage, Quantizer block

redundancies. An inverse process called decompression

quantizes Mappers output in accordance with a predefined

(decoding) is applied to the compressed data/image to get

criterion. In third and final stage, coder creates a code for

the reconstructed image. The objective of compression is to

Quantizer output and maps the output in accordance with the

reduce the number of bits as much as possible, while

coding algorithm. These blocks perform, in reverse order,

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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 1280 1285

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the inverse operations of the encoders symbol coder and This scheme results decompressed image that is not like to

Mapper block. As Quantization is irreversible, an Inverse the Original Image, but reasonably close to it.

Quantization is not included.

1. Decoder: look up data values for codes

2. Inverse Mapper: undo the mapping step

Figure 2: Process of Decompression above in figure-3. In this prediction transformation

decomposition process is completely reversible. The

There is no way to reverse the data loss caused by Quantization process results in loss of information. The

Quantization Entropy Coding after the Quantization step, however, is

Lossless. The Decoding is a reverse process. Firstly,

1.1. Benefits of Image Compression Entropy Decoding is applied to compressed data to get the

quantized data. Secondly, de Quantization is applied to it

It provides a potential cost savings associated with and finally the inverse transformation to get the

sending less data over switched telephone network reconstructed image.

where cost of call is usually based upon its duration. Major performance considerations of a Lossy Compression

It not only reduces storage requirements but also overall scheme include:

execution time.

It also reduces the probability of transmission errors 1. Compression ratio

since fewer bits are transferred. 2. Signal-to- noise ratio

It also provides a level of security against illicit 3. Speed of encoding and decoding.

monitoring.

Lossy Compression techniques include following schemes:

2. IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

The Image Compression techniques are broadly cl 1. Transformation Coding

into two categories depending upon whether or not an exact 2. Vector Quantization

replica of the Original Image could be reconstructed using 3. Fractal Coding

the compressed image. These are lossless and lossy 4. Block Truncation Coding

techniques and have been briefly discussed below: 5. Sub band Coding.

In Lossless compression techniques, the Original that encodes the Original Image with few bits. The objective

Image can be perfectly recovered from the compressed of Image Compression is to reduce the redundancy of the

(encoded) image. These are also called noiseless since they image and to store or transmit data in an efficient form. Fig

do not add noise to the signal (image).It is also known as 4 shows the block diagram of the general image storage

Entropy Coding since it uses statistics/decomposition system. The main goal of such system is to reduce the

techniques to eliminate/minimize redundancy. Lossless storage quantity as much as possible, and the Decoded

Compression is used only for a few applications with Image displayed in the monitor should be similar to the

stringent requirements such as medical imaging. Original Image as much as can be. The essence of each

block will be introduced in the following paragraph.

2.2. Lossy Compression Technique

Lossy schemes give much better compression

ratios as compared with Lossless schemes. These types of

schemes are commonly used as the quality of the

reconstructed image is satisfactory for most applications.

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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 1280 1285

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Camera Chrominance. The meaning of Luminance and Chrominance

C Transform to is described as follows

R-G-B Downsample

Y-Cb-Cr Encoder

coordinate Chrominance

coordinate

Luminance: It is the brightness of the light, which is

proportional to the total energy in the visible band.

Performance Chrominance: It describes the perceived color tone of

MSE HDD light, which depends on the wavelength composition of

Object

SNR

light. Chrominance is in turn characterized by two

Monitor

C

attributes hue and saturation.

Transform to

R-G-B Upsample

R-G-B Decoder

coordinate

coordinate

Chrominance 1. hue: Specify the color tone, which depends on

V the peak wavelength of the light

2. saturation: Describe how pure the color is,

Figure 4: General Image Storage System which depends on the spread or bandwidth of

the light spectrum

The presence of cameras in cell phones is becoming The RGB coordinates/components commonly used for

extremely commonplace as the price of inclusion plummets. color display mixes the Luminance and Chrominance

As more and more people are equipped with these cameras attributes of light. In many applications, it is desirable to

it becomes feasible to develop a range of applications that describe a color in terms of its Luminance and Chrominance

utilize the camera for purposes other than simply taking a content separately, to enable more efficient processing and

snapshot. One such application is to use the camera to transmission of color signals. Towards this goal, various

sample the data contained in a visual code marker and to use three-component color coordinates have been developed, in

this as a code to reference information. A typical use might which one component reflects the Luminance and the other

be to include a visual code marker next to the advertisement two collectively characterize hue and saturation. One such

for a movie. By taking an image of the marker the phone can coordinate is the YUV color space. The [Y Cb Cr] T values

decode the data and then query a backend database for the in the YUV coordinate are related to the [R G B] T values in

local screening times of the movie. To achieve this type of the RGB coordinate by

application the camera must be able to reliably identify and

decode visual markers.

Y 0.299 0.587 0.114 R 0

3. IMAGE COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION Cb 0.169 0.334 0.500 G 128

Cr 0.500 0.419 0.081 B 128

The purpose of the Image Compression algorithm is to

reduce the amount of data required to represent the image (1.1)

with less degradation in the visual quality and without any Similarly, if we would like to transform the YUV

information loss. In Image Compression three redundancies coordinate back to RGB coordinate, the inverse matrix can

(Inter pixel redundancy, coding redundancy and Psycho be calculated from (1.1), and the inverse transform is taken

visual redundancy) can be identified and exploited. There to obtain the corresponding RGB components.

are various issues related to Image Compression methods

such as: 3.2 Image Compression Coding

We can use different image compression techniques, What is the so-called Image Compression coding?

but which one is better? Image Compression coding is to store the image into bit-

Which parameters are of significance while stream as compact as possible and to display the decoded

compressing an image using Image Compression Image in the monitor as exact as possible. Now consider an

techniques? Encoder and a Decoder as shown in figure-5. When the

Comparing the performance of compression technique is encoder receives the Original Image file, the Image file will

difficult unless identical data sets and performance measures be converted into a series of binary data, which is called the

are used. bit-stream. The Decoder then receives the encoded Bit-

stream and decodes it to form the decoded Image. If the total

3.1. Image Compression & Color Specifications data quantity of the bit-stream is less than the total data

The Y, Cb, and Cr components of one color image are quantity of the Original Image, then this is called Image

defined in YUV color coordinate, where Y is commonly Compression. The full Compression flow is as shown in Fig.

called the Luminance and Cb, Cr are commonly called the 5.

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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 1280 1285

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

statistical characteristics and the Variable Length Coding

Original Image Decoded Image theory to reduce the storage requirement. This is the most

Bitstream important part of the Image Compression algorithm; there

are a lot of relevant processing methods proposed in

Encoder 0101100111... Decoder literature. The best-known methods are as follows:

(Differential Pulse Code Modulation) is a Lossless coding

method, which means that the Decoded Image and the

Figure 5: Basic Flow of Image Compression Coding

Original Image have the same value for every corresponding

element.

The Compression Ratio (CR) is defined as follows:

= 1 (1.2)

2 Orthogonal Transform: Karhunen-Loeve Transform

(KLT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are the two

where n1 is the data rate of Original Image and n2 is that of most well-known Orthogonal Transforms. The DCT-based

the Encoded bit-stream. Image Compression standard such as JPEG is a Lossy

In order to evaluate the performance of the Image Coding method that will result in some loss of details and

Compression technique, it is necessary to define a unrecoverable distortion.

measurement that can estimate the difference between the

Original Image and the Decoded Image. Two commonly Subband Coding: Subband Coding such as Discrete

used measurements are the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Wavelet Transform (DWT) is also a Lossy coding method.

the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), which are defined The objective of Subband coding is to divide the spectrum

in (1.3) and (1.4), respectively. f(x,y) is the pixel value of of one image into the Lowpass and the Highpass

the Original Image, and f(x,y)is the pixel value of the components. JPEG 2000 is a 2-dimension DWT based

Decoded Image. Most Image Compression systems are Image Compression standard.

designed to minimize the MSE and maximize the PSNR.

W 1 H 1 Run-length encoding: Run Length Encoding is a very

f ( x, y) f '( x, y)

2

simple form of data compression in which runs of data (that

x 0 y 0

MSE (1.3) is, sequences in which the same data value occurs in many

WH

consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value

255

PSNR 20 log 10 (1.4) and count, rather than as the Original run. This is most

MSE useful on data that contains many such runs: for example,

relatively simple graphic images such as icons, line

The General Encoding architecture of Image Compression drawings, and animations.

system is shown is Fig. 6. The fundamental theory and

concept of each functional block will be introduced in the 4. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

following sections. In this paper, image compression using Run Length

Encoding (RLE) has been applied on three test images

namely Baboon, Lena and Pepper using MATLAB platform.

Reduce the These test images are shown in figure 7 to which image

Original correlation Entropy compression algorithm using RLE is applied for the

Quantization Bitstream generation of compressed and decoded image.

Image between Coding

pixels

Figure 6: General Encoding Flow of Image Compression

The correlation between one pixel and its neighbour pixels

is very high, or we can say that the values of one pixel and

its adjacent pixels are very similar. Once the correlation

between the pixels is reduced, we can take advantage of the

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IJRITCC | May 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 1280 1285

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Graphical analysis in terms of compression ratio for the

three test images namely Baboon, Lena and Pepper using

image compression algorithms namely RLE, DCT and DWT

is depicted in figure 8.

Decoded Images in the Second Column

Various image objective quality metric such as compression

ratio, PSNR, MSE are calculated and represented in Table1

along with original and compressed size of the image. It has

been observed that image compression using RLE provides

storage capacity or compression ratio 45% for Baboon, 44%

for Lena, 35% for Pepers. While in the case image

compression by Reza Jafari et al [9]., using DCT; it is 34%

for Baboon, 31% for Lena and 29% for Paper and using Figure 8: Compression Ratio Analysis

DWT; it is 35% for Baboon, 33% for Lena and 31% for

Papper. This shows that image compression using RLE is 5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE

better approach as compared with DCT and DWT for a

given set of test images in terms of saving storage capacity. In this paper, the improvement of image compression

Table 1: Image Metrics of Various Test Images for RLE through Run Length Encoding (RLE) is demonstrated.

Experimental results show that the higher data redundancy

Test Image helps to achieve more compression. By considering Baboon,

Metrics Baboo Lena Pepper Lena and Pepers as inputs, it is observed that RLE based

n image compression achieves higher compression ratio, as

Compression ratio 45 44 35 compared with Reza Jafari et al.

PSNR (db) 27 32 37 As future work, compression of images for storing and

MSE 133 38 14 transmitting images can be done by developing other lossy

Original Size (KB) 138 100 91 and lossless methods of image compression.

Compressed Size 76 56 58

(KB)

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_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 1280 1285

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

REFERENCES

[1] M. I. Khalil, Image Compression using New Entropy

Coder, Intl Journal of Computer Theory and

Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 39-41, Feb. 2010.

[2] E. Kannon and G. Murugan, Lossless Image

Compression Algorithm for Transmitting Over Low

Bandwidth Line, Intl Journal of Advanced Research in

Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 2, no.

2, pp. 28-34, Feb. 2012.

[3] Shrusti Porwal et.al, Data Compression Methodologies

for Lossless Data and Comparison between Algorithms,

Intl Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology,

vol. 2, no. 2, Mar. 2013.

[4] Pallavi M. Sune and Vijiya K. Shandilya, Image

Compression Technique based on Wavelet and Huffman

Coding Intl Journal of Advanced Research in Computer

Science and Software Engineering, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 524-

528, Apr. 2013.

[5] Gaurav Vijayvargiya and Sanjay Silakari, A Survey:

Various Techniques of Image Compression, Intl Journal

of Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 11,

no.10, Oct. 2013.

[6] Rajesh. K. Yadav and S. P. Gangwar, Study Analysis of

Wavelet based Image Compression Techniques Int1

Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol.4,

no.1, pp. 1-7, 2012.

[7] Prabhakar. Telagarapu, V. Jagan Naveen, A. Lakshmi,

Prasanthi and G. Vijaya SanthI Image Compression

using DCT and Wavelet Transformations Intl Journal of

Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern

Recognition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.61-74, Sep, 2011.

[8] Sachin Dhawan, A Review of Image Compression and

Comparison of its Algorithms, IJECT, vol. 2, Issue 1,

pp.22-26, Mar 2011.

[9] Reza Jafari and Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Increasing

Image Compression Rate using Steganography, Expert

System With Applications, vol. 40, pp: 6918-6927, 2013.

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