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Technical Discussion

RCDC identifies the continuum of beams and groups continuous beams to be designed and detailed together.

RCDC designs beams for the combined effects of Flexure, Shear and Torsion.
Diagonal reinforcement as per IS 13920 where applicable.
Each beam is designed at least at 13 stations along the length of the beam.
Each section is designed for each load combination to arrive at required areas of longitudinal reinforcement at top and bottom and shear reinforcement.
Shear due to torsion is computed. The check as per clause 41.4.3 of IS 456 is performed to ensure that the shear due to torsion is taken by the outer two
legged stirrups.

When zoning the rebar configuration is arrived at to ensure that all sections in a zone are satisfied.
All cover is assumed to be cover to longitudinal reinforcement.
Assumption of number of layers of reinforcement:
At design time the number of layers of reinforcement is assumed as under to arrive at the effective depth, d:
1. D < 400 mm 1 layer
2. 400 mm >= D <=1200 mm 2 layers
3. 1200mm > D <= 1350 mm 3 layers
4. 1350 mm > D <= 1800 mm 4 layers
5. 1800 mm > D <= 2250 mm 5 layers
6. 2250 mm > D <= 2700 mm 6 layers
7. 2700 mm > D <= 3250 mm 7 layers
8. D > 3250 mm 8 layers
Detailing Philosophy:
1. The reinforcement required is computed as per the effective depth for the number of layer of reinforcementas per table above.
2. Rebars will be arranged in multiple layers if requiredand the style of detailing selected. The maximum number of layers usedwill be limited to
thoseassumed when computing the effective depth.
3. In case it is not possible to provide the required reinforcement using the largest rebar arranged in the maximum possible layers the number of layers will
be automatically increased. With the increase in number of layers the effective depth and the reinforcement required will be computed again.
4. When providing rebars across the section of the beam, the minimum and the maximum spacing criteria and the preferred number of rebars will be
considered. The rebars wil be symmetrically arranged across the section.
5. In case the number of bars are varying across the section, the auto detailing will ensure that the symmetry will be maintained.eg. 6 bars will reduce to 4
and not 5 bars OR 5 bars will reduce to 3 and 4 bars.

BS EN : calculation of longitudinal moment for torsion.


Area of reinforcement required for torsion has been added to longitudinal reinforcement at top and bottom.

BS EN : calculation of shear reinforcement for torsion.


Shear due to torsion is added to the main shear. If numbers of legs are more than two then, Check is performed to ensure that the shear
due to torsion has been taken by the outer two legged stirrups.

Material Properties
A. Concrete
IS code provides for material properties for grades of concrete up to M60. RCDC allows for design of concrete members using concrete grades till M100. For
all the grades above M60, extension of the values and formulations defined in the code are made.
Currently in RCDC, EN code provides for grades of concrete up to C50/60.

B. Steel
Material properties for various grades of steel are computed using the formulations defined in the code.

Clear Cover
All cover is assumed to be cover to longitudinal reinforcement.

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Calculation of Ductile Shear

Through recent interaction with Professors involved in formulation of code IS 13920, we have confirmed following two important points regarding calculation of
Ductile Shear

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1) It is required to calculate Dead+Live component as simply supported action.


2) It is also proposed to check the ductile shear across the entire length of beam.

RCDC so far was working out Dead+ Live component of Ductile shear based on the shear-force directly read from analysis. RCDC has been calculating and
providing for ductile shear only in the end zones and in the middle zone, RCDC was providing shear reinforcement as required from normal load combinations.
From this release, RCDC would calculate simply supported shear and use that in the calculation of ductile shear. As regards the calculation of ductile shear in the
mid-zone of the beam, RCDC would provide user a choice to select any one of the following 1) End zones, 2) Full length.

Logic of calculation of simply supported shear in RCDC

The simply supported shear is calculated as below for the DL and LL cases independently and added when calculating ductile shear

V-left = Shear at left end from analysis

V-left-ss (Shear at left end as per simply-supported action) =

= V-left M-left/L + M-right/L

Calculation of ductile-shear at any section from left to right can be worked out as below -

V-x = Shear at x left end from analysis

V-x-ductile = Maximum of (V-x M-left/L + M-right/L Sway shear-right), (V-x M-left/L + M-right/L + Sway shear-left)

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Getting Started

Start the software, enter the project data and select the analysis file.

Select the level to design.

In case it is desired to group across levels, select the levels as above. The software will check for the similarity of the level prior to proceeding. The beam
arrangement at selected levels will have to be exactly same.

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Beam Continuity Detection

RCDC reads the beam geometry and then detects the beam continuum. The list of beams and columns along with their continuum is displayed in two possible
views. Design Grouping and Beam column continuum. Beam numbering is based on Top to bottom and left to right convention.

Design Grouping View


This view displays all the beams as per the design continuum grouping that they fall in and their analysis references.

Other design settings such as ductility design, cantilever beam and depth of flange can be edited / set in this view.

Beam Continuum View

This view displays the beam-column continuum that has been detected by RCDC. Under the beam description the analysis reference of the beam is displayed.

Following editing options are available in the view:

1. Merge Beam Groups:


Two beam groups can be merged with each other.
i. Select the group to merge

ii. Select the destination and the method to group

2. Split Beam Groups


Any beam group can be split into two by selecting a support and selecting Split in the context menu.

3. Merge Beams
Select any two continuous beams in a group and select merge beams from the context menu
4. Split beams
If RCDC has identified some beam to comprise more than one analysis member and it is desired to split them into two beams, select the beam and split it.

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General and Reinforcement Settings

All the general settings and setting relating to detailing can be set in this window.

Torsion can be ignored below any value specified by the user.

These settings apply to the auto design. Post design, the material properties for individual beams can be redefined.

User can also select from two possible detailing styles


1. Default style
2. Hanger bar style In this style, the top bars will continue to be same throughout the beam(the same reinforcement can be set for all sections at top.)

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User can also select from three possible detailing styles

1. Default style All three sections will be detailed as per best fit arrangement. In this scenario the three diameters could be different.
2. Max Dia All three sections will have the same diameter bar. This will be decided as per the diameter used in the section with the largest required area
of reinforcement.
3. Min Dia This is the classical hanger bar system. All three sections will have the same diameter based on the least diameter required in the section with
the least required area of reinforcement

Other Auxiliary Settings

Some settings can be done in the Design Grouping Table in the Input tab.

1. Ductility Setting: Ductility setting for any beam can be set in the table. By default, if ductile code design is selected, all primary beams will be designed for
ductility.

2. Depth of Flange (DF): The depth of the flange of the beam can be set. This setting is used to compute the flange width for the computation for side face
reinforcement.

3. Top of Beam: The top of the beam with reference to the floor level can be set. This will be accounted for in the detailed elevations. Positive value will indicate a
raised beam and negative value will indicate a sunk beam.

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IS CODE
Ignore Torsion in beams less than the value set will be ignored in design
Torsion
Ductile Beams will be designed and detailed for ductility. The effect of ductile shear due to the sway of the beams
Design can be considered at all sections along the length of the beam or at support only
Flanged Beams can be designed as flanged (T or L) sections. Slabs designed in RCDC can be imported to get the
Beams flanged action. Df (depth of flange) can be entered in the input table. Alternatively user can define the Df
(flange depth) in the input screen. Slabs designed in RCDC will can be imported to get the flanged action.
All beams or only secondary beams can be designed as flanged sections. Sections where bending is at the
bottom can be designed as flanged sections.
ACI CODE
Ignore Torsion Torsion in beams less than the value set will be ignored in design
Ductile Design Select if the frame is a Special Moment Frame of an Intermediate Moment Frame
(Select Frame
Type)
Flanged Beams Beams can be designed as flanged (T or L) sections. Slabs designed in RCDC can be imported to
get the flanged action. Df (depth of flange) can be entered in the input table. All beams or only
secondary beams can be designed as flanged sections

EURO CODE
Ignore Torsion Torsion in beams less than the value set will be ignored in design
Ductile Design Select if ductility class is Medium or High
(Select Frame
Type)
Flanged Beams Beams can be designed as flanged (T or L) sections. Slabs designed in RCDC can be imported to
get the flanged action. Df (depth of flange) can be entered in the input table. All beams or only
secondary beams can be designed as flanged sections

T1 Fundamental period of the building in the horizontal direction of interest


Tc Corner period at the upper limit of the constant acceleration region of the
elastic spectrum
Alpha Ratio of the design ground acceleration to the acceleration due to gravity

Top Detailing Style Three different detailing styles are available for top reinforcement
1.Best Fit : Each section is detailed with the most optimum rebar diameter
2.Max Dia : Largest required rebar diameter is used at all sections, number of bars may vary as
per requirement
3.Min Dia : Smallest required rebar diameter is used at all sections, number of bars may vary as
per requirement. Rebars in the first (outermost) layer may be smaller that those in inner layers
Bottom Detailing Two different detailing styles are available for bottom reinforcement
Style 1.Best Fit : Each beam is detailed with the most optimum rebar diameter
2.Max Dia : Largest required rebar diameter is used in all beams in a set of continuous beams,
number of bars may vary as per requirement
Percentage 1.Minimum percentage to be used. Ductility requirements may over rule this
Reinforcement 2.Maximum percentage to be used. Ductility requirements may over rule this
3.Nominal Steel : this is the percentage of reinforcement to be used at sections where there is
no tension in any load combination

Crack Width Crack width design check. Define the permissible crack width and the code as per which the check
Check is to be preformed

Concrete Grade Concrete Grade used for design of the cross section
Steel Grade Steel Grade used for design of the cross section
Clear Cover Cover to the outermost most layer of longitudinal reinforcement
Max Aggregate 2 size Size of the aggregate used in the concrete. This is used to define the spacing between
longitudinal reinforcement
Material Properties In case the material properties are imported from analysis file by default these are used for
From Analysis design. Editing of these is permitted when the user un selects this option.

1 Rebar Diameter The minimum and maximum rebar diameter settings for various types of reinforcement viz.
top, bottom, shear and face reinforcement
2 Stirrup Spacing The minimum and maximum Stirrup spacing and its round off factor

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3 Available Rebar The rebars that can be used in the project. The minimum and maximum rebar diameters will
Diameters refer to the available rebar list for implementation

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6mm Dia

Option to allow user to select 6mm as minimum dia for shear design.

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Reinforcement Settings

All the setting relating to curtailment of reinforcement and shear zones can be defined in this window.

1 Top Steel The preferred curtailment location for top steel at end and continuous supports as a fraction of the
curtailment effective length
location

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2 Bottom Steel The preferred curtailment location for bottom steel as a fraction of the effective length. The Mid Span
curtailment setting is for the span reinforcement i.e location from support from where the bar stops. The end and
location continuous support settings are for the support reinforcement i.e projection of the bar into the span.
3 Shear Zones for Definition of the end zones, for ductile beams default is fraction of beam depth
Ductile beams
4 Shear Zones for Definition of the end zones, for non ductile beams default is fraction of beam length
Non Ductile
beams

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Detailing and Drawing Settings

Select Detailing & Drawing Settings to access the window where various settings can be done.

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Stirrup Text In Elevation This is the label that will be displayed in the beam elevation
Number of Rebars and Rebar Spacing 36-4L-T8@150 C/C
Rebar Spacing 4L-T8@150 C/C
Number of Rebars 36-4L-T8

Use Couplers for Laps and Splices Use mechanical couplers for Laps and Splices

Mark Unique Only unique sections will be marked and reproduced as sections. Any repetition of a section will
Sections be ignored
Show Spacer Bars Display spacer bars separating reinforcement in multiple layers
Curtailment Round Rounding off factor for the curtailment dimension
Off

Mark Beam Span Dimensions Display beam span dimension in the elevation
Mark Support Dimensions Display support dimension in the elevation

1 Effective Span For Definition of the effective span for top and bottom reinforcement; this can be either Clear
Curtailment span OR Center to Center span
2 Provide Curtailment Location from where the curtailment (rebar projection) is to be computed; this can be
from either from Support Face OR Support Center
3 Mark Curtailment from Location from where the curtailment (rebar projection) dimension is to be marked; this can
be either from Support Face OR Support Center
4 Mark Span From Location from where the beam span dimension is to be marked; this can be either from
Support Face OR Support Center

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Crack Width Check

Crack Width Check

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Crack width checks can be performed as per IS 456 or IRS codes.

General Formulation as per IS 456

The Expression for Crack-Width in IS 456 is as below -

Where:

General Formulation as per IRS

The Expression for Crack-Width in IRS is as below -

Where:

The terms used are:


Wcr = Maximum crack-width
Acr = Maximum distance to concrete surface from surface of bar
Eps-m = Strain in reinforcement normalized after effect of strain hardening
Eps-1 = Strain in reinforcement from bending moment and Neutral Axis location
Es = Youngs modulus of steel
Cnom = Nominal cover to reinforcement
H = Depth of section
B = Width of section
D = Effective depth of section
X/ Dc = Location of neutral axis from compression face

Basic Principles of the design:


1. Calculations are done for pure gravity load combinations and at service loads
2. M = Modular ratio of concrete = 280 / (3 x Permissible bending stress in concrete)
3. Ec = Youngs Modulus of concrete = 5000 x (Fck)
4. Stress in compression steel = Stress in concrete at that location x 1.5 x M xEc
5. Stress in tensile steel = Stress in concrete at that location x M xEc
6. The neutral axis location is calculated on the basis of cracked section formulation and tension in concrete is neglected.
7. The NA location is calculated such that Compressive force in concrete equals tensile force in steel and the moment of forces about NA matches
applied BM

General Formulation as per BS EN

1) The crack width wk may be calculated from Expression (7.8):

The terms used are:

Sr,max = is the maximum crack spacing

esm = is the mean strain in the reinforcement under the relevant combination of loads,

including the effect of imposed deformations and taking into account the effects of tesnsion stiffering.

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Only the additional tensile strain beyond the state of zero strain of the concrete at the same level is considered.

ecm = is the mean strain in the concrete between cracks.

2) esm - ecm may be calculated from the expression:

The terms used are:

ss = is the stress in the tension reinforcement assuming a cracked section. For pretensioned members,

ss may be replaced by ?sp the stress variation in prestressing tendons from the state of zero strain of the concrete at the same level.

ae = is the ratio Es/Ecm

Stress-Limit Check

* For IRS code, in addition to crack-width check, stress-limit check is performed for some extra combinations. The same has been incorporated in RCDC using
same theory of finding NA and cracked moment of inertia.

Salient Features of design:


1. For beams, the calculations are done at 13 sections along beam.
2. Tensile and Compression steel is considered as per actual detailing.
The Acr and C-nom is considered for outermost layer of reinforcement.
However total Ast is considered for calculation of neutral axis and tress in reinforcement.

Crack Width check report is generated as under:

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Flanged Beam

RCDC can design beams with flanged action (T or L). As per design principles of flanged beam, RCDC uses this action only for mid-span bottom reinforcement. For
appropriate use of this functionality, following are important points to be noted

1) RCDC can import data for slabs at the same level as that of beams from the slab design file
2) RCDC processes this data and intelligently identifies beams that can be designed with flanged effect
3) In case user, does not have slab design file ready, user may input values of slab-thickness manually to avail this functionality. However in this case, RCDC
would not be able to check checking things like a) Possibility of sunk slab, b) Possibility of cut-out etc., which can affect flanged action and design.

Logic of working out effectiveness of flange action

When user imports slab-data in beam design file, RCDC processes this data to collect following information

1) It co-relates beams and corresponding slabs along the length of the beam
2) It can identify cut-outs in slab
3) It can locate levels of slabs and co-relate the same with beam-tops

As a result of this processing, RCDC uses following principles to determine the flange action

1) Based on various thicknesses of slabs available on either side of beam, RCDC uses the least thickness for flange action.

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2) All peripheral beams are designed as L beam.


3) If there is a cut-out on one side of the beam for more than 60% of mid-zone, then that beam is treated as L beam.
4) If there is a cut-out on both side of the beam for more than 60% of mid-zone, then that beam is marked as normal (without flange action) beam.
5) If the top of slab on one side of the beam does not match with the beam-top for more than 60% of mid-zone then that beam is treated as L beam.
6) If the top of slab on both sides of the beam do not match with the beam-top for more than 60% of mid-zone then that beam is treated as normal beam.

Effective width of flange-action is calculated as per the provisions in code for simply-supported and continuous beams.

Cantilever beams cant be designed with flange action in RCDC.

RCDC also allows user to choose this action for primary and secondary beams separately.

If user has imported slab data from slab design file, then -

1) During redesign stage, a T beam can be designed as L or normal,

2) Further L beam can be designed as normal,

3) A normal beam cant be designed as T or L beam

4) L beam cant be designed as T beam.

Note:

1. Flanged beam cant be grouped with Regular beams

2. While identifying the flanged beam currently we are not checking the slab top reinforcement which is perpendicular to the beam length.

Isolated Flanged beam is not considered.

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Beam Design Output

Post design of beams the design results are displayed in a table.

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Edit Design

The design of any beam can be changed by selecting the Design beam option. The initial design settings can be changed by the user to arrive at revised design.

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The settings that the user can modify for a given beam group are:

1. Sizes of the beams


2. Concrete grade
3. Steel grade
4. Clear cover
5. Number of layers of reinforcement at top and bottom
6. Depth of flange
7. Ductility requirement

Option to provide Diagonal Reinforcement is available for a single span beam that has shear wall along its length at both the ends

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In Plan Grouping

RCDC allows user to select beams (individual as well groups) to be grouped in plan. During this process, the software internally checks following
1) Total number of beams in the group are same
2) The sizes of beams being grouped are same
3) The types of support conditions are same
4) The length of individual beam (at a given location in beam-group say 3rd beam in the group) is within +/- 10% of average length of all beams in all
groups at the same location (Average of length of 3rd beam in all beam-groups that are grouped).
If the above conditions are not met with, the software would not allow the grouping.

When grouping two sets of continuous beams, the user can select between the two groups being in the same order of continuity or being mirror images of each
other.
Groups can be added, removed or edited by the user.

RCDC finds the maximum individual forces at 12 sections (BM, Torsion and Shear Force) in all the beams at the same position in other groups. Thus it finds
maximum design forces at any given section and designs for the worst case scenario.

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Please note that this grouping is only for the purpose of design and design calculations. The drawings and the quantities are generated individually for each group.

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Beam Auto Grouping

Auto Grouping:

Beams groups can be automatically grouped using this feature.


Beam Auto grouping is based on this type of beam, end condition and reinforcement arrangement in the beam.
This will be available after autodesign.
This option is available in modify menu.

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Beam Grouping across Levels

Beams can be grouped vertically across a series of typical levels.


Select multipe levels in the select levle window.The selected levels will be checked to ensure that they are similar. Vertical grouping will be automatically done.
When computing the design force envelope, for each section the envelope will be generated across levels and across multiple load combinations.

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Ignore Beam

Ignore Beam / Beam group

With this option user can ignore the beam/ beams group if required.
This Option is available in design input tab in all windows on right click and modify menu.

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Drawings,reports and estimation will not be generated for ignored beams.


Ignored beam will be highlighted in light grey layer if general arrangement drawing is generated from RCDC.

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Beam Detailing

The detailing of any beam can be set / edited by selecting the Detail option.

In this view reinforcement is presented graphicaly. Red indicates required & blue indicates provided. (The graph above the calculated reinforcement in red and
the provided in blue.)

The following actions can be performed in this window:

1. Edit Section Reinforcement

The reinforcement at any given section can be edited by selecting the section and pressing F2.

A detailing box will appear showing the current detailing. This box can be edited as desired.

1. Edit reinforcement of multiple sections together

Select multiple sections using the mouse and press F2. The edit box will appear showing the details of the maximum required Reinforcement. The edited
reinforcement will be applied to all the sections. Selection can be done across the zones also.

2. Copy reinforcement from one section to another


Place the cursor on the source section and select Copy Reinforcement from the context menu. Go to the target section and paste the selected
reinforcement. If the new detailing satisfies the requirements of the target section the change will be made, else it will be ignored. This can also be done
across the zone.

3. Edit reinforcement of a Zone


Reinforcement of a zone can be edited by selecting the zone and pressing F2.

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5. Copy reinforcement from one Zone to another


Place the cursor on the source section and select Copy Reinforcement from the context menu. Go to the target section and paste the selected
reinforcement. If the new detailing satisfies the requirements of the target section the change will be made, else it will be ignored.
6. Redefining Zones
The length of zones and number of zones can be redefined. The definition of zones is a function of the reinforcement provided at different sections. A
zone is a collection of consecutive sections with the same reinforcement.
a. Select some sections and set the same reinforcement along them
b. The zone length will automatically change as per the sectional detailing provided

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Detailing Tools

Detailing tools to quickly redefine the detailing of beams are available.

1. Quick Detail
Select the beam group to edit and click on Quick Detail from the context menu.

The Quick Detail tool allows the user to set the desired reinforcement option across all the sections of all the beams in the group. The options include
a. Bar diameter
b. Number of bars
c. Bar spacing (For Shear reinforcement)
d. Combination of a and b or a and c

These options can be exclusively set for:


a. Top reinforcement
b. Bottom reinforcement
c. Shear reinforcement
d. Face reinforcement
e. Detailing style

2. Edit section reinforcement


Reinforcement of any section of any type of reinforcement can be edited by selecting the section and pressing F2 .
Edit longitudinal reinforcement:

Where D1 and D2 are two different rebars in the same layer and N1 and N2 are the number of each rebar.

Edit Shear Reinforcement

Edit Face / Diagonal Reinforcement

Ef=Each Face,total number of bars are twicethe number entered here.

3. Copy Paste
Reinforcement of a given type can be copied and pasted from any section to one or many sections of a similar type. The sufficiency of the reinforcement will
be checked and the paste allowed only if it is satisfied.

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Copy from one location:

Paste to Many locations:

Result of the operation

At some sections the operation is allowed in others it is disallowed. These are clearly indicated. The error message can be cleared by pressing the 'Esc' button.

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Edit Beam Description

Pre-design

The Beammark can be changed directly in the table.

Post Design

The edit beam option can be accessed from the modify menu.

The Table can be copied to any spreadsheet by using the copy table option.Similarily Beam Description can be pasted by copying the same from any spreadsheet
and using the paste option.

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In-Plan Editing

Pre Design:

1. Ignore/Include

2. Select Group
3. Split Group
4. Remove Group
5. Ductile

Post Design :-

1. Quick Elevation
2. Design
3. Detail
4. Ignore/Inculde

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Editing Beam Mark

For staad file column numbers are generated by RCDC sorted as per the centre line location.

The Beam & marks for column would be C1-F1,C31-F31....etc


For E-Tabs file , Beam number will be with column number from E-tabs & model No sorting is done.
The Beam mark can be edited by the user in the following ways-

Pre-design

The Beam mark can be changed directly in the table.

Post Design

The edit Beam option can be accessed from the modify menu.

The Table can be copied to any spreadsheet by using the copy table option.
Similarily Beam Description can be pasted by copying the same from any spreadsheet and using the paste option.

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Design Reports

The following reports are generated

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1. Design Calculations For selected beams


2. Design Summary
3. Project Settings
4. Bill of Quantities
5. Failure Diagnostics
6. Crack Width Check
7. Member size changed.
a. Summary
b. Reinforcement type wise (Main steel, Shear reinforcement, Face bars)
c. Reinforcement diameter wise

The design reports are generated and displayed on screen

User has the option to

1. Print the page directly from RCDC. Options to define the page setup and view the print
2. Save the file as a HTML file.

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Technical Discussion Page 24 of 25

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Drawing Reports

The following drawing reports are generated in DXF format.

1. Beam general arrangement drawings


2. Detailed beam drawings For selected beams
a. Beam elevation
b. Beam cross Section
3. Beam schedule

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View Design Data

Various design data can be viewed from the view menu.

Member Forces

The forces for the primary load as well as the load combinations can be viewed in this tab.

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View Load Combinations

List of the load combinations used for design can be viewed in this tab.

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Technical Discussion Page 25 of 25

Preferred Bar Spacing

1 Preferred Bar Spacing The preferred rebar spacing and the number of rebars in beam of a given width can be set. The default setting is with
reference to a 60mm vibrator needle. The setting can be done for small rebars, diameters <= 16 and large rebars, diameter
>=20
2 Provide Two Bars In Zone At locations where there is no bending moment in any load combination user can choose to provide only two bars
With Zero Bending Moment disregarding the maximum bar spacing criteria.

S-Cube Futuretech Pvt.Ltd. www.s-cube.in

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