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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC

ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW PRESSURE
TURBINE

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT
(2013461548)

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (HONOURS) MECHANICAL
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM)
JULY 2016

AUTHOR DECLARATION
“I declared that this thesis is the result of my work except the ideas and summaries
which I have clarified their sources. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree
and not concurrently submitted in candidature of any degree.”

Signed: ………………………......

Date: ……..……………………....

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT

UiTM No: 2013461548

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SUPERVISOR DECLARATION
“I declared that I read this thesis and in our point of view this thesis is qualified in
term of scope and quality for purpose of awarding the Degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Honours) Mechanical.”

Signed: ………………………......

Date: ……..……………………....

Supervisor

DR. AMAN MOHD IHSAN BIN MAMAT

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

40540 Shah Alam

Selangor

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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW
PRESSURE TURBINE

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT

(2013461548)

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor
of Engineering (Honours) Mechanical

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

JULY 2016

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost I would like thank Allah S.W.T for his blessing that enable me to
complete my final year project on time. Followed by my project supervisor Dr Aman
Mohd Ihsan Bin Mamat for his guidance, continuous support and patience
throughout the project period. Not forgetting my beloved parents who have given me
their continuous support financially and emotionally throughout the years. A special
thanks to Nur Syazwani who have help me a lot and given me advice for the purpose
of the project, friends and family members. . Thank you everyone.

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05 to 1. Therefore.radial fibre element.034 to 1.3 for reference angle -45. However for the graph MFP versus P proves that reference angle -36 perform better compared to the other two angle. This project studies the flow field of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) for backward and forward swept of a non. The current design of LPT is only able to recover the energy at optimum condition for the exhaust with pressure ratio range of 1. However when the turbine operates at a pressure ratio above 1. a non. ABSTRACT Low pressure turbine (LPT) is a mixed flow low pressure turbine used to recover energy from exhaust of Internal Combustion engine.Turbocompounding.25 the turbine performance deteriorates due to large entropy is developed at the exit of the turbine. The mechanical works will rotate an electrical generator which is mounted on the shaft of the turbine. this proves that the base line design perform better compared to -36֯ and -54.50. the turbine operate at a region of low pressure that is between 1. The study found that entropy is largely generated at blade angle 36 ֯. It works by expanding exhaust energy into mechanical works. followed by 45֯ and lowest at 54֯.radial fibre turbine element is introduced to reduce the entropy generation at higher pressure ratio. v .20. The peak efficiency of the turbine obtained is 51. This is known as Electric. Based on the result obtained through simulation.

Keywords: Low Pressure Turbine . Electric-Turbocompounding. Non-radial Fibre element vi .

......................................................................... 1 1................. 4 1.... 3 1............... x CHAPTER I ....................................................................................................................................1 Background of project ...5 Significant of Project.......................................................................................................................................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................4 Scope of Project................................................................................................................. ...............3 Objective .......................................................................................................................................... 5 vii ...................... ii COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW PRESSURE TURBINE ...................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES ..........................................................................2 Problem Statement ................................... 1 1................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............ TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents AUTHOR DECLARATION .. iv ABSTRACT............................................................. i SUPERVISOR DECLARATION ..................... 3 1.................................................................................................................................................................

..............................2 Radial Turbine and Mixed Flow Turbine.............................. 13 CHAPTER III .......................................................................................................... 22 4............................................................................................................................... 16 3..................CHAPTER II.................................................1 Meshing of the turbine blade .....3 Total-to static efficiency (η T-S)vs Velocity Ratio..................................................4 Performance Parameters..... 18 3.............................................2 RECOMMENDATION ............. 14 3...................3............................2 Single Passage Turbine Design ........................................................................................5 Summary of efficiency and static entropy ........3.......................................2 Total-to-static efficiency vs Pressure Ratio ................................................................................................................ 41 viii ..........................................................................................................................................................2 Boundary Condition ................................................................................................................... 6 2..... 18 3..............................................................3 Numerical Approach ....................... 14 METHODOLOGY ........................ 20 3.......................................................................................... 14 3..................5 Velocity Triangle ........ 23 4................. 36 CHAPTER V .......... 38 5................ 25 4................... 38 5.......3........... 21 CHAPTER IV ................................................................................1 Introduction .................................................................. (VR) ...............4 Flow-Field analysis .. 12 2.......................................................1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 24 4................................. 11 2................................................................................6 Summary of Literature Review ............................ 8 2............................ 39 REFERENCE.......... 22 4.................... 6 2.................................................... 10 2.............3 Losses in Turbine ..........................................1 Introduction ...........0 CONCLUSION ..........................................................................................................................3 Solver and Simulation control ......................................................

..... 19 4..1 Number of node and element count…………………………………..…………………. LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 3..4 Summary of efficiency and static entropy…….. 26 ix .

..........4 Degree of freedom in Radial and mixed flow Turbine ……………............................................ mixed turbine components.............................. 15 3...............2 Camberline profile of the turbine blade.5 Camberline profile for reference angle –54 ....................... 16 3.18 3..............................................3 Camberline profile reference angle -36. 17 3............................................6 Single passage meshing process of the blade................4 amberline profile for reference angle -45 ...............12 3......................6 Inlet and outlet velocity triangle of a turbine blade ………………...17 3.....5 Loss distribution along a curve of maximum static efficiency ….....9 2........3 Difference between adial and Mixed flow turbine components ….....1 Turbocompounding schematic diagram............. 7 2..19 x ......... 8 2....................................................1 Flow chart of the project...... LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE 2...........10 2........2 Radial Vs..9 2........

................003kg/s..1 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency (η T-S ) vs.....33 4.....34 4.............009kg/s.....7 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0.............8 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0................................... Pressure Ratio(PR) . Pressure Ratio (PR)..3.......6 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0.006kg/s............006kg/s.............27 4........ 25 4.......4 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0.....003kg/s..35 xi ....... Pressure Ratio(VR) .........20 4...9 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0...12 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0...........31 4..........32 4........7 Inlet and Outlet boundary condition...29 4...009kg/s....30 4.......................2 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency (η T-S ) vs.......009kg/s....... 23 4..003kg/s.......11 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0..........3 Graph of Mass Flow Parameter vs.........28 4...............24 4..006kg/s............................................10 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0....5 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0........

.11 xii .. LIST OF EQUATION (1) Velocity atio………………………………………………………………….11 (2) Mass Flow Parameter…………………………………………………………..11 (3) Pressure atio…………………………………………………………………..11 (4) Total-to-static efficiency……………………………………………………….

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LPT . Computational Fluid Dynamics PR . Internal Combustion Engine CFD . Low Pressure Turbine ICE . Velocity Ratio MFP . Pressure Ratio VR . Absolute Flow Angle β . Revolution Per Minute α . Mass Flow Parameter RPM . Relative Flow Angle xiii .

This project focuses on exhaust energy recovery system using the Turbocompounding. The energy recovery method is used to recover wasted energy from internal combustion engine.1 Background of project Many studies have been done since the introduction of turbocharger in 1950`s in effort to reduce fuel consumption by using energy recovery method. The study of Exhaust Energy Recovery System for the internal combustion engine consist of three main scope which is Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The Turbocompounding is a system that uses 1 . Over 25%-35% of the Internal Combustion(IC) engine is wasted through exhaust gas [1]. Exhaust Energy Recovery System is a system which can be used to recover excess energy from exhaust gas to regenerate it on the auxiliary power train unit [1]. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Thermo electric generator and Turbocompounding.

[1] Radial turbine on the other hand produce high incidence loss as the direction of relative velocity of air at inlet as it does not match with the inlet blade angle.additional turbine downstream of the main turbocharger. As a result. who studied Turbocompounding technology in diesel engine. DR John Heywood has published his paper on future options for automotive engines in the year 1981 [2] and Kamo R.0 Turbogrid software with 2 million meshing element and 500 iteration. This project was conducted to study the performances and flow field of the turbine using no radial fibre element by identifying the suitable reference camberline angle at the exit. [3]. after decades of stagnation in research findings Turbocompounding is back in favour when it comes to exhaust energy recovery system. A mixed flow turbine can improve the efficiency of the turbine by optimizing the vorticity at the turbine inlet which will result in lower entropy generation Turbocompounding is not a new technology. since the late 80s there was a large number of research being carried out on turbo compounded diesel engine. a mixed flow low pressure turbine is introduced. 2 . This turbine was modelled using ANYSIS 15. To overcome this issue. This turbine is known as Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). The Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) was designed with mixed flow design configuration to get its benefits. However. it won’t be able to enter the blade passage smoothly.

the performance of the turbine deteriorates when the pressure ratio goes more than 1. However.1. III.034-1.25 as entropy is largely generated at the exit This is due to the bigger vorticity. To investigate the performance of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).radial fibre turbine.2 Problem Statement The main function of Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) is to recover excess energy form exhaust of an internal combustion engine. Therefore. This project discusses the operating performance of the turbine by varying the reference angle using a non. To establish a single passage meshing model for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. 3 .radial fibre element 1. the operating performance parameter is crucial in order to determine the efficiency of an engine.2 while the maximum peak efficiency is 76% that was obtained from PR 1. The initial design shows that the LPT was designed to be operate at good efficiency for Pressure Ratio (PR) of 1.08. a non-radial fibre turbine is used as it provides more advantage in terms of turbine performance. II. To overcome this problem. To evaluate the flow field of the non.3 Objective I.

500 iterations. velocity ratio and total to static efficiency.0 Turbogrid software. To compute for static entropy on the radial fibre for forward and backswept.To establish single passage meshing  Turbine blade was modelled using ANYSIS 15.1. 2. To evaluate the flow fill of the non.  The turbine was analyze using single passage CFD simulation  The operating performance obtained from the simulation are mass flow parameter. modal for Computational Fluid Dynamic  The CFD simulation is conducted for (CFD).  The turbine will be modelled with forward and backward swept of -54 and 36 respectively.000 rpm – radial fibre element. single passage CFD distribution 4 . pressure ratio. OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF WORK 1.4 Scope of Project. To investigate the performance of the  CFD analysis for all reference angle was conducted at the same speed Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) using non which is 50. 3.  The analysis of the turbine is done with 2 million meshing elements.  The turbine was analyzed with high meshing element (2 million) to obtain a more accurate result.

1. To analyse the performance of the turbine by varying the reference exit angle.5 Significant of Project. The significant of this project are: 1. 2. 5 . To study the effect of Turbocompounding system to enhance the waste energy recovery in the internal combustion engine.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Turbocompounding is a better choice compared to the other two method because it is easier to assemble than the Rankine cycle and cheaper than the thermoelectric device [4].1 Introduction Most heat engine is only able to convert less than 50% of its energy into useful mechanical work while the remaining will be loss [4]. As automotive industry are eagerly looking for ways to reduce emission and enhance engine performance. This turbine is known as Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). The study of energy recovery system consist of three main scope which is Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). the current trend is looking toward energy recovery system. Turbocompounding works by installing an additional turbine downstream of the main turbocharger.The function of this secondary 6 . Thermoelectric Generator and Turbocompounding.

The extra energy obtained from the electrical generator will be useful to power up electric unit for start stop system.turbine (Low Pressure Turbine) is to recover wasted energy remaining in the gas stream after it has pass through the main turbocharger (High Pressure Turbine) [5]. The Low Pressure Turbine was designed to fill the existing technology gap as no existing turbine can operate effectively at low pressure of (1. supercharges and other electric units in the vehicle. As most of the energy is expanded in the High Pressure Turbine.3). Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) can fill in the technology gap Figure 2.1: Turbocompounding systematic diagram [1] 7 . an electric Turbocompounding unit can be placed downstream of the main turbocharger. As a conventional turbine can only operate at less than 40% efficiency.05-1. In order to enhance the energy extraction from the exhaust gases. the secondary turbine needed to be operated at lower pressure ratio [5].

This is one of the main advantages of the mixed flow turbine compared to its counterpart [9]. For the radial turbine. However.2. this reduces the flow path curvature and effectively reduces the formation of secondary flow.4 2. a non-zero blade angle can still be achieved while maintaining its fibre element. Therefore it can be concluded that mixed flow turbine is more suitable to be used as it can operate at low velocity ratio (0. in comparing both of the turbine mixed flow turbine provide certain advantages comparing with its counterpart. Figure 2.3 2. In contrast with radial turbine. Thus the lower the velocity ratio. As it can be seen in Figures 2. cone angle and chamber angle.64 %) with peak efficiency of 90%. In addition to that. it also enables forward swept at the inlet without sacrificing it`s structural stability [8]. the blade angle is fixed at 90.2 Difference between a radial and mixed flow turbine components [8] 8 .2 Radial Turbine and Mixed Flow Turbine Both radial and mixed flow turbine can be used to recover excess energy downstream of the main Turbocharger. According to Japikse and Baines optimum incidence angle for mixed flow is normally in the range of −20° to −40° [10]. y radially sweeping the blade inlet as in a mixed flow. the inlet flow of a mixed flow turbine is at an angle between axial and radial design. During the early age of its development mixed flow turbine was only used as an alternator but later venture into automotive industry due to demand needed in Turbocharger application [7]. The main characteristics of a mixed flow turbine is defined as its blade angle. According to a research conducted by Srithar Rajoo and Ricardo Martinez-Botas in 2008 [7].5 the dissimilarity between mixed flow and radial turbine is the cone angle at the blade inlet. the more energy the turbine will be able to extract which will lead to greater efficiency [11].

4 Comparison in terms on degree of freedom in Radial and mixed flow Turbine [8] 9 . Figure 2.3 Difference between a radial and mixed flow turbine [8] Mixed flow turbine Less More degree degree of of freedom freedom Figure 2.

Since radial turbine varies greatly in forms of various application.2.Rohlik [13] the type of losses studied include stator loss. a correlation between various design features and turbine losses is required to select optimum design features for a given design problems. R. According to Harnold E. turbine must not be too sensitive to modifications to the gas intake and nozzle design as the matching of the turbine to engine is carried out by adapting this components. For losses in turbines. rotor loss. tip clearance. a specific parameter which is the turbine specific speed was used.S Benson in his finding also stated that specific speed is a general indication of achievable efficiency of a turbine.S. rocket auxiliary equipment. auxiliary drives in large aircraft gas turbines. Turbine losses is an important consideration that needs to be taken seriously as it crucial to overcome it to obtain optimum design for maximum efficiency. automotive drives and many more. turbines have been used in many application such as turbochargers. He also added that in turbocharges application. Benson [12] in his findings. windage loss and exit kinetic energy. Figure 2.3 Losses in Turbine According to R.5 Loss distribution along a curve of maximum static efficiency [12] 10 .

it will be plotted against Pressure Ratio (PR). The turbine performance are usually plotted on the performance map. Velocity Ratio (VR) and turbine power. This proves that exit velocity experience largest loss at higher rotational speed [12]. Pressure Ratio (PR). The turbine efficiency will be plotted against Velocity Ratio (VR) and Pressure Ratio (PR).4 Performance Parameters Turbine Performance parameter is used to analyse the performance of a turbine rotor [14]. Mass Flow Parameter (MFP). Some of the performance parameter needed to characterize the turbine performance are Total-to-static efficiency.6 over various specific speed. The performance maps are useful to analyse the turbine performance in the Turbocompounding. As for the mass flow parameter (MFP). 2.Meanwhile at high specific speed. friction losses are relatively large . high velocity is larger at turbine exit. Besides that the curve also proves that at low specific speed. VR= (1) ̇ √ MFP = (2) PR= (3) ̇ ηT-S = ̇ (4) 11 . The distribution of the five losses mention earlier can be seen in figure 2.

From Figure 2. C on the other hand represent the absolute velocity. The U represent Velocity of the rotor while ω is the relative velocity of air to the turbine blade. They also added that the β2 which is located at the exit of the triangle is zero .This is to minimize the discharge loss and it is regarded as one of the optimum conditions for the exit in terms of Mach number [15]. 𝐶𝜃 𝑈3 𝛽3 𝛼3 β 𝐶3 𝐶4 𝛽4 𝛼4 𝑈4 𝐶𝜃 Figure 2. According to D. Japikse and N. parameter in the velocity diagram represent the following meaning. Baines [10] turbine requires a minimum velocity ratio to produce a good performance.2.7. C.6 Inlet and outlet velocity triangle of a turbine blade [15] 12 . The velocity components of a turbine is important in order to analyze its characteristics.5 Velocity Triangle The velocity components from a turbine can be illustrated using the velocity triangle diagram. The symbol α in the triangle represent 𝐶𝜃 swirling angle which is an important parameter in order to investigate the suitable reference angle of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) while β is the relative velocity angle.

64 %). The process of installing an additional turbine downstream to recover the wasted energy form the turbocharger is known as Turbocompounding. This is known as Electric Turbocompounding.6 Summary of Literature Review It can be concluded that to improve the performance of a vehicle. The mixed flow turbine is chosen because it provides extra degree of freedom as it has an angle at the turbine inlet. an additional turbine can be added downstream of the main turbocharger. As a result the mixed flow turbine is more suitable to be used as it can operate at low velocity ratio (0.2. Velocity triangle is important in order to analyse the turbine characteristics. The next criteria to look in is the velocity triangle. Thus the lower the velocity ratio. Another important consideration to ensure the turbine is able to perform at its best is to overcome the turbine loss. Turbine loss includes stator loss. the more energy the turbine will be able to extract which will lead to greater efficiency. the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) are attached with an electric generator. 13 . tip clearance loss and exit kinetic energy loss. The selection of radial and mixed flow turbine is also important. rotor loss. To enhance the energy extraction process.

14 .1 Introduction An analysis of a single passage turbine was conducted using 2 exit angle through means of simulations. The non-radial fibre turbine is modelled using ANYSIS CFX-15 This current project mainly focuses on varying the exit reference angle of the full blade turbine while constantly maintaining a speed of 50. This differ slightly from the previous project whereby the turbine was analysed on several speed.000 rpm. The methodology of CFD analysis on the turbine is illustrated using a flow chart in Figure 3.1. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.

1 Flowchart of the project 15 .NO Figure 3.

3.2 Single Passage Turbine Design Figure 3. to 3. it can be seen that as the reference angle increases the profile will move towards the left or downwards. As it can be seen the camberline profile changes with the reference exit angle of the blade.2 Camberline profile of the turbine blade Figures 3. 16 . From the camberline profile.3. - 45 and -54 respectively.5 shows curve of camberline profile for reference angle of -36.

3 Camberline profile reference angle -36 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Hub -10 Low Base Upper -20 Base Low Mean MEAN -30 Upper Mean -40 -50 Figure 3.4 Camberline profile for reference angle -45 17 .10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Hub -10 Low Base Upper -20 Base Low Mean MEAN -30 Upper Mean -40 -50 Figure 3.

3. 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Hub -10 Low -20 Base Upper Base -30 Low Mean -40 MEAN -50 -60 Figure 3.1 Meshing of the turbine blade 18 .radial fibre blade is to ensure the angle of the hub at the mean line model is fixed at -45 while the one that need to be varied is the shroud according to the reference angle selected. The process is then followed by transferring the 3D turbine coordinates data from the mean line model to the ANSYS turbogrid software.5 Camberline profile for reference angle –54 The most important aspect in creating the rotor for the non.3.3 Numerical Approach 3.

Turbine rotation speed was set at 50. the computer will generate node and elements count.1 Table 3. Meshing process of the turbine was conducted at 2 million meshing elements.6 Single passage Meshing process of the blade Once the meshing data is processed. The reason this software is run with a high meshing element is for better flow visualisation of the flow field analysis. The total number of nodes and element is summarized in the Table 3. Figure 3. All the process mentioned earlier were carried out in ANSYS pre.processing part and were run up to 500 iteration using ANSYS solver. All parameters and boundary condition were set up in the software.000 rpm.7 shows the meshing process of the blade Inlet Blade Outlet Figure 3.1 Number of node and element count in a turbine for 2 million meshing element Exit Camber angle Total nodes Total Elements -36 2143910 2066992 -45 2076370 2002697 -54 2105162 2026754 19 .

with a subsonic flow.978 and 57 respectively. The inlet passage of the turbine is where the fluid will pass from the rotor moving towards the diffuser section. an inlet an outlet passage must be created.7 Inlet and outlet boundary conditions.2 Boundary Condition In order for the simulation to be carried out. The flow direction is set to cylindrical components having a radial and theta components of 11. all boundary conditions is set at the CFX Pre. 20 . The boundary conditions is an actual representation of the turbine running at real time conditions. The most important aspect in this section is to set the mass flow rate. The total heat transfer is set to 1.3. Inlet Periodic Blade Outlet Figure 3.100 K to illustrate the actual working condition of the turbine.0090 kg/s.002kg/s to 0.processing stage. 15 different mass flow rate is set starting from the lowest which is 0. In order to analyze the flow.3. On the outlet section the pressure is set up to 100 kPa with subsonic flow of fluid.

3 Solver and Simulation control Once the inlet and outlet boundary conditions is set. 21 . Therefore it is pointless to set a higher iteration number as it will only increase the time taken to complete the simulation.3. The maximum convergence of this simulation was set up to 500 iteration. This is the maximum number as an increase in the value will not bring any changes in result.3. The simulation control were set in Full MPI local Parallel mode with three number of process running. the solver and simulation comes next. The residual data on the other hand was fixed at 1×10-6 which signifies the number of significant figures in order to maintain the accuracy of the simulation.

000 rpm. -45 and -54. On the other hand.1 Introduction The simulation of the turbine was carried out using ANSYS TURBOGRID 15.002 kg/s - 0. the mass flow rate was varied from 0.5 million meshing element to obtain a more accurate result A graph of Total-to-static efficiency against Pressure Ratio.009 kg/s to obtain the performance trend of the turbine. CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.0 software with various reference exit angle of -36. The baseline design of the project was set to -45. The meshing for this simulation was carried out at 1. Total-to-static efficiency against Velocity Ratio and Mass Flow Parameter against Pressure Ratio is 22 . while the rotation speed of the turbine was fixed at 50.

20 1.30 1. Figure 4.55 0.5% at pressure ratio 1.084. Pressure Ratio(PR) 23 .2 Total-to-static efficiency vs Pressure Ratio Figure 4. This proves that the base line design perform better compared to -36֯ which only has a peak efficiency of 50. thus reducing the loss experience by the turbine.45 EFFICIENCY 0.20 1.09.50 0.30 0.3% at Pressure Ratio 1.35 1.00 1.25 1. This will reduce the deflection angle of flow. ŋ T-S VS PR 0. Each graph is then analysed its flow-fill characteristics by three points.101 and followed by -54 which have an efficiency of 50. 4.15 1.25 0.1 shows that the performance of the turbine clearly deteriorates as the pressure ratio increases more than 1.40 0.40 1.05 1. By analysing the graph carefully the best exit camberline can be selected to reduce the vorticity experienced by the turbine.25 region.10 1.9% at pressure ratio of 1.1 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency (η T-S) vs.50 PRESSURE RATIO 45 54 36 Figure 4.35 0. The flow fill analysis will show the static entropy generated by the blade at a given mass flow rate.45 1.plotted to analyse the performance criteria of the turbine. From the result obtained. it can be seen that -45 reference angle shows the highest efficiency of 51.1 shows Total-to-static efficiency against Pressure Ratio is plotted based on the simulation.

(VR) Figure 4. It signifies the best condition of the fluid to pass through spinning rotor. the trend line of the graph shows not much of a difference between them.30 0. On the other hand for angle -54 the highest efficiency is recorded at 50. The maximum curve value mentioned earlier can be seen in Figure 4.20 0.2 below shows the graph of Total-to static efficiency against velocity ratio is plotted.2 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency ( ) against Velocity Ratio(VR) 24 .70 0.40 0.7. the highest efficiency is at 50.4.3 Total-to static efficiency (η T-S)vs Velocity Ratio.55 0.5 to 0.9% at velocity ratio 0.2.5% at velocity ratio 0. The velocity ratio on the other hand signifies the speed of the rotor against its driving fluid ŋ T-S vs VR 0.632.30 0.ŋ T-S 0.60 0. the peak efficiency is recorded at 51.35 0.623 for reference angle - 45. The highest efficiency achieved by blade angle -45 also shows it has better performance compared to the other two angle. As it can be seen despite varying the reference angle of the blade.45 0.3% at VR 0. However.40 0.50 EFFICIENCY.50 0. For -36 exit reference angle.80 VELOCITY RATIO 45 54 36 Figure 4.

10 1.00 0.3 shows the graph of mass flow parameter against pressure ratio.80 0. MFP VS PR 2.00 1.20 1.00 1.89 while the other two angle only manage to reach a maximum of 1.60 0.35 1.15 1.40 1. Figure 4. This graph is important in order to determine the maximum flow capacity of the turbine during its operation. The trend line of the graph reveals that reference angle - 36 shows the best performance among the other two angle.82 for -45 and -54 respectively. The peak mass flow parameter achieved by this angle is 1.40 1.89. In a nutshell.80 Mass Flow Parameter. Therefore.05 1.3 Graph of mass flow parameter against Pressure Ratio 4. PR 45 54 36 Figure 4.45 1.86 and 1.4 Flow-Field analysis Flow-field analysis was carried out at three points on the graph 1) Location at mass flow rate 0. it can be said that the mass flow parameter decreases as the blade angle increases from -36 to -54.MFP 1.003kg/s where the highest efficiency is recorded.50 Pressure Ratio.40 0. the -36 shows the highest flow capacity at pressure 1.20 0. 2) On the 25 .25 1.00 1.30 1.20 1.60 1.

6 shows the flow field analysis that were carried on blade angle 36֯ for mass flow rate 0.006 kg/s.22 J kg^-1 K^-1 for blade angle -36֯ at mass flow rate 0. The highest value of static entropy recorded is 1981.009kg/s The trend line of all the graph in the Figures shows that entropy is largely generated at the exit of the turbine. 26 .003kg/s. the turbine performance deteriorates when the pressure ratio is more than 1.middle of the graph where the flow rate is at 0. As a result.009kg/s respectively.009kg/s.25 region. 3) at the bottom of the graph where the flow rate is at 0. Entropy is defined as a quantity representing the unavailability of a system thermal energy for conversation to its mechanical work. The value of static entropy is highest at exit angle -36֯ followed by -45֯ and -54֯. the value of static entropy can be determined at various point on the blade. the lowest static entropy recorded is for exit angle -54֯ at mass flow rate 0.4 to figure 4.006kg/s and 0.003kg/s On the other hand . Based on the various flow rate selected. 0. Figure 4.

45 Distance0. 1985 Flow rate 0.003kg/s 27 .003 kg/s(Angle 36֯) Static Entropy 36 1980 45 1975 54 1970 0.6 Figure 4.4 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for ` mass flow rate 0.55 0.5 on the balde 0.4 0.

1985 Flow rate 0.45 0.003 kg/s( Angle 45) Static Entropy 1980 36 1975 45 1970 54 0.4 0.003kg/s 28 .5 the blade Distance on 0.5 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for mass flow rate 0.55 0.6 Figure 4.

6 Distance On the blade Figure 4.5 0.6 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for mass flow rate 0.003kg/s 29 .55 0.45 0.4 0. 1985 Flow rate 0.003 kg/s( Angle 54) Static Entropy 1980 36 1975 45 54 1970 0.

006kg/s 30 .006 kg/s (Angle 36) 1950 Static Entropy 1945 1940 36 1935 45 1930 54 0.7 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for mass flow rate 0.5 0. Flow rate 0.6 Distance On the blade Figure 4.55 0.4 0.45 0.

4 0.006kg/s 31 .5 0.55 0.6 Distance on the blade Figure 4.006 kg/s (Angle 45) 1950 1945 Static Entropy 1940 36 1935 45 1930 54 0.45 0.8 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45for mass flow rate 0. Flow rate 0.

6 Distance On the blade Figure 4.006kg/s 32 .55 0.4 0. 1950 Flow rate 0.006 kg/s (Angle 54) Static Entropy 1945 1940 36 1935 45 1930 54 0.9 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54for mass flow rate 0.45 0.5 0.

6 Distance On the blade Figure 4.45 0.55 0.009kg/s33 .5 0.Static Entropy 1920 Flow rate 0.10 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for mass flow rate 0.4 0.009 kg/s (angle 36) 1910 1900 36 1890 45 1880 54 0.

4 0.5 0.55 0.45 0. Flow rate 0.009 kg/s (angle 45) 1920 Static Entropy 1910 36 1900 45 1890 54 1880 0.6 Distance on the blade Figure 4.009kg/s 34 .11 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for mass flow rate 0.

55 0.009kg/s 35 .5 0.4 0.009 kg/s (angle 54) 1920 Static Entropy 1910 1900 36 1890 45 54 1880 0. Flow rate 0.12 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for mass flow rate 0.6 Distance on the blade Figure 4.45 0.

96 54 0.58 50.83 0.64 0.40 1976.50 1979.86 0.58 36 0.01 0.009 0.22 0.60 1981.5 Summary of efficiency and static entropy Table 4.64 0.45 1939.59 0.60 1908.40 1937.006 0.45 1896.45 1977.003 0.40 1889.40 1894.55 1980.18 0.50 1899.55 1945.3 0.55 1943.9 0.43 0.40 0.40 1977.52 0.1.48 0.40 1939.1 shows the summary for static entropy and efficiency on various point and mass flow rate of the blade.47 0.45 1941.45 1978.63 0.98 0.50 1941.76 0.009 0.24 51.50 1978.65 0.003 0.19 0.47 0.27 36 . Summary of efficiency and static entropy at various point on the blade Exit angle of Mass flow rate Distance Y of Entropy (J Efficiency the blade (֯) (kg/s) the blade kg^-1 K^-1) (%) 0. Table 4.60 1980.95 45 0.45 0.37 0.89 0.4.60 1948.50 1895.55 1979.70 0.40 1975.55 1903.003 0.60 1947.60 1905.50 1943.55 1899.45 1892.88 0.27 0.006 0.

73 50.49 0. 0.15 0.07 0.50 1977.50 1890.5 0.006 0.82 0.45 1886.55 1978.40 1933.84 0.60 1979.45 1936.14 0.60 1944.50 1938.009 0.60 0.55 1894.55 1940.84 0.07 0.63 0.40 1883.31 37 .16 0.45 1976.61 0.60 1901.

38 . The purpose of varying the mass flow rate is to analyse the performance of the turbine and carryout flow field analysis on the turbine blade. Therefore this study has shown that by adjusting the reference angle.009kg /s. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. The mass flow rate for each blade is varied from 0. It was carried out to study the performance of the turbine by varying the exit angle of the blade to -36 . the performance of the turbine can be improved. The main objective of this project is to evaluate the performance of the turbine in order to recover the excessive waste energy produced by the engine.0 to replicate the actual operating condition of the low pressure turbine in an internal combustion engine.002 kg/s to 0.0 CONCLUSION This project was simulated entirely on ANYSIS Turbogrid 15.-45 and -54.

To analyse the performance of the turbine for steady and unsteady performance III. This proves that the base line design perform better compared to -36 which only has a peak efficiency of 50.5% at pressure ratio 1.9% at pressure ratio of 1. for the MFP versus PR or the swallowing capacity shows reference angle -36 performs better when compared with -45 and -54. However. However for the graph MFP versus PR proves that reference angle -36 perform better compared to the other two angle.000 RPM. 5. Below are some recommendations which I feel necessary: I. The peak mass flow parameter achieved by this angle is 1. 39 . The speed of the turbine need to be varied rather than running at a constant speed of 50.3 % for reference angle -45 when compared with the other two angle.89 while the other two angle only manage to reach a maximum of 1.86 and 1.2 RECOMMENDATION In my opinion there is still room of improvement for this project in order to obtain a more accurate result.084. Therefore it can be concluded that the turbine operates at the highest efficiency of 51. The result obtained through simulation proves that the turbine operates at a low pressure region The peak efficiency of the turbine obtained is 51. The actual experiment need to be carried out and compare the data obtained through CFD simulation. II.82 for -45 and -54 respectively.3% for reference angle -45.101 and followed by -54 which have an efficiency of 50.

IV. 40 . V. To widen the rage of study for the turbine by varying it’s reference angle. This will help to identify the highest efficiency for a given angle to increase its performance. The turbine need to be modelled with a full modelling scale complete with its inlet and outlet volute and analyse its performance through simulation.

Ricardo Martinez-Botas. Mamat.” International Journal of Gas Turbine. Volume 4 Number 3.Vols.Martinez “DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE TURBINE FOR TU O OMPOUNDING APPLI ATIONS. REFERENCE [1] Aman M. [2] Kamo .I. [4] Aman M. “ HA A TE ISATION OF A LOW P ESSU E TU INE FO TURBOCOMPOUNDING APPLICATION IN A HEAVILY DOWNSIZED MILDHY AID GASOLINE ENGINE.I. Muhammad H Padzillah. . icardo F.” ELESEVIE . Propulsion and Power System. “A HIGH PE FO MAN E LOW P ESSU E TU INE FO ENGINE ELE T I TU O OMPOUNDING.” ASME. October 2012. Mamat. Alessandro Romangnoli.2001 41 . GT2011-45541.I.1978. Vols.2012.Martinez. Ricardo F. Mamat. Alessandro Romangnoli. Alessandro Romagnoli. [3] Aman M. “Adiabatic Turbocompound engine performance prediction” SAE paper: 780068.

2001.S. and Cimbala . ohlik. [12] H. Aman M. Baines.otas. “The new 1. 2008. Introduction to Turbomachinery. . F. “On Mixed Flow Turbines for Automotive Turbocharger Applications.” inWiener Motorensymposium.”Jurnal Teknologi (sciences and engineering). [9] D. 42 .1243/PIME _CONF_1965. Concepts ETI. Ricardo Martinez. Y.. 2015. 3 DOI: 10. “ANALYTI AL DETE MINATION OF ADIAL INFLOW TURBINE DESIGN GEOMETRY FOR MAXIMUM EFFI IEN Y. New York: McGraw-Hill.A . “Mixed Flow Turbines: Inlet and Exit Flow Under Steady and Pulsating onditions. “AN ANALYSIS OF THE LOSSES IN A ADIAL GAS TU INE. [10] N. Jan Ehrhard. NASA TN D- 4384. [7] ernhardt Luddecke. Lückert.I. Karamanis. 1990 [6] Srithar Rajoo.” Proceedings of the Mechanical Engineers.27:Longman Singapore Publisher(Pte) Ltd. F. JUN 1965. UK. C. J.. Kreitmann.M. pp. Japikse and N. Su. . 2012 [8] P.otas. “SINGLE PASSAGE FD ANALYSIS FOR NON-RADIAL FIBRE ELEMENT OF LOW PRESSURE TU INE. Martinez. Vol.FEBRUARY 1968. England. Merdes et al. enson.” international Journal of Rotating Machinery Vol. [11] .2006 . Vol. ISBN 0-058249501-6. N. 8-litre 4-cylinder petrol engine with direct injection and turbo charging for all passenger cars with standard drive trains from Mercedes. Dietmar Filsinger.[5] A Whitfield. “MIXED FLOW TU INE ESEA H: A EVIEW.E.enz. [13] Abdul Fattah in Ahmad. 1997.” NASA Technical Note. R.” ASME. Mamat.123. 130/044001-1. DESIGN OF RADIAL TURBOMACHI. 2009.” ASME Vol. [14] Cengel . N C Baines. Vols. First edition in SI Units ed.Fluid Mechanics.