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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC

ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW PRESSURE


TURBINE

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT


(2013461548)

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (HONOURS) MECHANICAL


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM)
JULY 2016
AUTHOR DECLARATION
I declared that this thesis is the result of my work except the ideas and summaries
which I have clarified their sources. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree
and not concurrently submitted in candidature of any degree.

Signed: ......

Date: ......

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT

UiTM No: 2013461548

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SUPERVISOR DECLARATION
I declared that I read this thesis and in our point of view this thesis is qualified in
term of scope and quality for purpose of awarding the Degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Honours) Mechanical.

Signed: ......

Date: ......

Supervisor

DR. AMAN MOHD IHSAN BIN MAMAT

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

40540 Shah Alam

Selangor

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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW
PRESSURE TURBINE

MOHD HAFEEZ BIN ABDULLAH SIDIT

(2013461548)

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor
of Engineering (Honours) Mechanical

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

JULY 2016

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost I would like thank Allah S.W.T for his blessing that enable me to
complete my final year project on time. Followed by my project supervisor Dr Aman
Mohd Ihsan Bin Mamat for his guidance, continuous support and patience
throughout the project period. Not forgetting my beloved parents who have given me
their continuous support financially and emotionally throughout the years. A special
thanks to Nur Syazwani who have help me a lot and given me advice for the purpose
of the project, friends and family members. . Thank you everyone.

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ABSTRACT

Low pressure turbine (LPT) is a mixed flow low pressure turbine used to
recover energy from exhaust of Internal Combustion engine. It works by expanding
exhaust energy into mechanical works. The mechanical works will rotate an
electrical generator which is mounted on the shaft of the turbine. This is known as
Electric- Turbocompounding. The current design of LPT is only able to recover the
energy at optimum condition for the exhaust with pressure ratio range of 1.034 to
1.20. However when the turbine operates at a pressure ratio above 1.25 the turbine
performance deteriorates due to large entropy is developed at the exit of the turbine.
Therefore, a non- radial fibre turbine element is introduced to reduce the entropy
generation at higher pressure ratio. This project studies the flow field of the Low
Pressure Turbine (LPT) for backward and forward swept of a non- radial fibre
element. The study found that entropy is largely generated at blade angle 36 ,
followed by 45 and lowest at 54. Based on the result obtained through simulation, the
turbine operate at a region of low pressure that is between 1.05 to 1.50. The peak
efficiency of the turbine obtained is 51.3 for reference angle -45, this proves that
the base line design perform better compared to -36 and -54. However for the graph
MFP versus P proves that reference angle -36 perform better compared to the
other two angle.

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Keywords: Low Pressure Turbine , Electric-Turbocompounding, Non-radial Fibre
element

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents
AUTHOR DECLARATION ........................................................................................ i

SUPERVISOR DECLARATION ............................................................................................ ii

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE A LOW


PRESSURE TURBINE .............................................................................................. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................... iv

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. v

LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................... x

CHAPTER I ................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Background of project ....................................................................................... 1

1.2 Problem Statement ........................................................................................... 3

1.3 Objective .......................................................................................................... 3

1.4 Scope of Project. ............................................................................................... 4

1.5 Significant of Project......................................................................................... 5

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CHAPTER II................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Radial Turbine and Mixed Flow Turbine.......................................................... 8

2.3 Losses in Turbine ............................................................................................ 10

2.4 Performance Parameters.................................................................................. 11

2.5 Velocity Triangle ............................................................................................ 12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review ....................................................................... 13

CHAPTER III ............................................................................................................ 14

METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................... 14

3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 14

3.2 Single Passage Turbine Design ....................................................................... 16

3.3 Numerical Approach ....................................................................................... 18

3.3.1 Meshing of the turbine blade ....................................................................... 18

3.3.2 Boundary Condition ................................................................................... 20

3.3.3 Solver and Simulation control ..................................................................... 21

CHAPTER IV ............................................................................................................ 22

4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 22

4.2 Total-to-static efficiency vs Pressure Ratio .................................................... 23

4.3 Total-to static efficiency ( T-S)vs Velocity Ratio, (VR) ................................ 24

4.4 Flow-Field analysis ......................................................................................... 25

4.5 Summary of efficiency and static entropy ...................................................... 36

CHAPTER V ............................................................................................................. 38

5.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................... 38

5.2 RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................. 39

REFERENCE............................................................................................................. 41

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE

3.1 Number of node and element count.. 19

4.4 Summary of efficiency and static entropy.......... 26

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE

2.1 Turbocompounding schematic diagram............................................... 7

2.2 Radial Vs. mixed turbine components................................................ 8

2.3 Difference between adial and Mixed flow turbine components ...9

2.4 Degree of freedom in Radial and mixed flow Turbine .9

2.5 Loss distribution along a curve of maximum static efficiency ....10

2.6 Inlet and outlet velocity triangle of a turbine blade .12

3.1 Flow chart of the project.................................................................... 15

3.2 Camberline profile of the turbine blade................................................. 16

3.3 Camberline profile reference angle -36................................................. 17

3.4 amberline profile for reference angle -45 ..........................................17

3.5 Camberline profile for reference angle 54 ..........................................18

3.6 Single passage meshing process of the blade.....................................19

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3.7 Inlet and Outlet boundary condition...................................................20

4.1 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency ( T-S ) vs. Pressure Ratio(PR) .... 23

4.2 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency ( T-S ) vs. Pressure Ratio(VR) ......24

4.3 Graph of Mass Flow Parameter vs. Pressure Ratio (PR)..................... 25

4.4 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0.003kg/s...........................27

4.5 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0.003kg/s...........................28

4.6 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0.003kg/s...........................29

4.7 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0.006kg/s...........................30

4.8 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0.006kg/s...........................31

4.9 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0.006kg/s...........................32

4.10 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for 0.009kg/s...........................33

4.11 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for 0.009kg/s...........................34

4.12 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for 0.009kg/s...........................35

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LIST OF EQUATION

(1) Velocity atio..11

(2) Mass Flow Parameter..11

(3) Pressure atio..11

(4) Total-to-static efficiency..11

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LPT - Low Pressure Turbine

ICE - Internal Combustion Engine

CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics

PR - Pressure Ratio

VR - Velocity Ratio

MFP - Mass Flow Parameter

RPM - Revolution Per Minute

- Absolute Flow Angle

- Relative Flow Angle

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of project

Many studies have been done since the introduction of turbocharger in 1950`s
in effort to reduce fuel consumption by using energy recovery method. The energy
recovery method is used to recover wasted energy from internal combustion engine.
Over 25%-35% of the Internal Combustion(IC) engine is wasted through exhaust gas
[1]. Exhaust Energy Recovery System is a system which can be used to recover
excess energy from exhaust gas to regenerate it on the auxiliary power train unit [1].
The study of Exhaust Energy Recovery System for the internal combustion engine
consist of three main scope which is Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), Thermo electric
generator and Turbocompounding. This project focuses on exhaust energy recovery
system using the Turbocompounding. The Turbocompounding is a system that uses
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additional turbine downstream of the main turbocharger. This turbine is known as
Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). The Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) was designed with
mixed flow design configuration to get its benefits.[1]

Radial turbine on the other hand produce high incidence loss as the direction
of relative velocity of air at inlet as it does not match with the inlet blade angle. As a
result, it wont be able to enter the blade passage smoothly. To overcome this issue, a
mixed flow low pressure turbine is introduced. A mixed flow turbine can improve the
efficiency of the turbine by optimizing the vorticity at the turbine inlet which will
result in lower entropy generation

Turbocompounding is not a new technology, since the late 80s there was a
large number of research being carried out on turbo compounded diesel engine. DR
John Heywood has published his paper on future options for automotive engines in
the year 1981 [2] and Kamo R. who studied Turbocompounding technology in diesel
engine. [3]. However, after decades of stagnation in research findings
Turbocompounding is back in favour when it comes to exhaust energy recovery
system.

This project was conducted to study the performances and flow field of the
turbine using no radial fibre element by identifying the suitable reference camberline
angle at the exit. This turbine was modelled using ANYSIS 15.0 Turbogrid software
with 2 million meshing element and 500 iteration.

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1.2 Problem Statement

The main function of Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) is to recover excess


energy form exhaust of an internal combustion engine. Therefore, the operating
performance parameter is crucial in order to determine the efficiency of an engine.
The initial design shows that the LPT was designed to be operate at good efficiency
for Pressure Ratio (PR) of 1.034-1.2 while the maximum peak efficiency is 76% that
was obtained from PR 1.08. However, the performance of the turbine deteriorates
when the pressure ratio goes more than 1.25 as entropy is largely generated at the
exit This is due to the bigger vorticity. To overcome this problem, a non-radial fibre
turbine is used as it provides more advantage in terms of turbine performance. This
project discusses the operating performance of the turbine by varying the reference
angle using a non- radial fibre element

1.3 Objective

I. To establish a single passage meshing model for Computational Fluid


Dynamic (CFD) analysis.

II. To investigate the performance of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).

III. To evaluate the flow field of the non- radial fibre turbine.

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1.4 Scope of Project.

OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF WORK

1.To establish single passage meshing Turbine blade was modelled using
ANYSIS 15.0 Turbogrid software.
modal for Computational Fluid Dynamic
The CFD simulation is conducted for
(CFD). 500 iterations.
The analysis of the turbine is done
with 2 million meshing elements.
The turbine was analyzed with high
meshing element (2 million) to
obtain a more accurate result.
The turbine was analyze using single
passage CFD simulation
The operating performance obtained
from the simulation are mass flow
parameter, pressure ratio, velocity
ratio and total to static efficiency.
The turbine will be modelled with
forward and backward swept of -54
and 36 respectively.

2. To investigate the performance of the CFD analysis for all reference angle
was conducted at the same speed
Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) using non
which is 50,000 rpm
radial fibre element.

3. To evaluate the flow fill of the non- To compute for static entropy on the
radial fibre for forward and backswept. single passage CFD distribution

4
1.5 Significant of Project.

The significant of this project are:

1. To analyse the performance of the turbine by varying the reference exit angle.

2. To study the effect of Turbocompounding system to enhance the waste


energy recovery in the internal combustion engine.

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Most heat engine is only able to convert less than 50% of its energy into
useful mechanical work while the remaining will be loss [4]. As automotive industry
are eagerly looking for ways to reduce emission and enhance engine performance,
the current trend is looking toward energy recovery system. The study of energy
recovery system consist of three main scope which is Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC),
Thermoelectric Generator and Turbocompounding. Turbocompounding is a better
choice compared to the other two method because it is easier to assemble than the
Rankine cycle and cheaper than the thermoelectric device [4]. Turbocompounding
works by installing an additional turbine downstream of the main turbocharger. This
turbine is known as Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).The function of this secondary

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turbine (Low Pressure Turbine) is to recover wasted energy remaining in the gas
stream after it has pass through the main turbocharger (High Pressure Turbine) [5].
As
most of the energy is expanded in the High Pressure Turbine, the secondary turbine
needed to be operated at lower pressure ratio [5]. In order to enhance the energy
extraction from the exhaust gases, an electric Turbocompounding unit can be placed
downstream of the main turbocharger. The extra energy obtained from the electrical
generator will be useful to power up electric unit for start stop system, supercharges
and other electric units in the vehicle. The Low Pressure Turbine was designed to fill
the existing technology gap as no existing turbine can operate effectively at low
pressure of (1.05-1.3). As a conventional turbine can only operate at less than 40%
efficiency, Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) can fill in the technology gap

Figure 2.1: Turbocompounding systematic diagram [1]

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2.2 Radial Turbine and Mixed Flow Turbine

Both radial and mixed flow turbine can be used to recover excess energy
downstream of the main Turbocharger. However, in comparing both of the turbine
mixed flow turbine provide certain advantages comparing with its counterpart. The
main characteristics of a mixed flow turbine is defined as its blade angle, cone angle
and chamber angle. During the early age of its development mixed flow turbine was
only used as an alternator but later venture into automotive industry due to demand
needed in Turbocharger application [7]. According to a research conducted by
Srithar Rajoo and Ricardo Martinez-Botas in 2008 [7], the inlet flow of a mixed flow
turbine is at an angle between axial and radial design. In contrast with radial turbine,
this reduces the flow path curvature and effectively reduces the formation of
secondary flow. As it can be seen in Figures 2.3 2.4 2.5 the dissimilarity between
mixed flow and radial turbine is the cone angle at the blade inlet. For the radial
turbine, the blade angle is fixed at 90. y radially sweeping the blade inlet as in a
mixed flow, a non-zero blade angle can still be achieved while maintaining its fibre
element. In addition to that, it also enables forward swept at the inlet without
sacrificing it`s structural stability [8]. This is one of the main advantages of the
mixed flow turbine compared to its counterpart [9]. According to Japikse and Baines
optimum incidence angle for mixed flow is normally in the range of 20 to 40
[10]. Therefore it can be concluded that mixed flow turbine is more suitable to be
used as it can operate at low velocity ratio (0.64 %) with peak efficiency of 90%.
Thus the lower the velocity ratio, the more energy the turbine will be able to extract
which will lead to greater efficiency [11].

Figure 2.2 Difference between a radial and mixed flow turbine components
[8]

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Figure 2.3 Difference between a radial and mixed flow turbine [8]

Mixed
flow
turbine

Less
More degree
degree of of
freedom freedom

Figure 2.4 Comparison in terms on degree of freedom in Radial and mixed


flow Turbine [8]

9
2.3 Losses in Turbine

According to R.S. Benson [12] in his findings, turbines have been used in
many application such as turbochargers, auxiliary drives in large aircraft gas turbines,
rocket auxiliary equipment, automotive drives and many more. He also added that in
turbocharges application, turbine must not be too sensitive to modifications to the gas
intake and nozzle design as the matching of the turbine to engine is carried out by
adapting this components. Turbine losses is an important consideration that needs to
be taken seriously as it crucial to overcome it to obtain optimum design for
maximum efficiency. According to Harnold E.Rohlik [13] the type of losses studied
include stator loss, rotor loss, tip clearance, windage loss and exit kinetic energy.
Since radial turbine varies greatly in forms of various application, a correlation
between various design features and turbine losses is required to select optimum
design features for a given design problems. For losses in turbines, a specific
parameter which is the turbine specific speed was used. R.S Benson in his finding
also stated that specific speed is a general indication of achievable efficiency of a
turbine.

Figure 2.5 Loss distribution along a curve of maximum static efficiency [12]

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The distribution of the five losses mention earlier can be seen in figure 2.6
over various specific speed. Besides that the curve also proves that at low specific
speed, friction losses are relatively large .Meanwhile at high specific speed, high
velocity is larger at turbine exit. This proves that exit velocity experience largest loss
at higher rotational speed [12].

2.4 Performance Parameters

Turbine Performance parameter is used to analyse the performance of a


turbine rotor [14]. Some of the performance parameter needed to characterize the
turbine performance are Total-to-static efficiency, Mass Flow Parameter (MFP),
Pressure Ratio (PR), Velocity Ratio (VR) and turbine power. The turbine
performance are usually plotted on the performance map. The turbine efficiency will
be plotted against

Velocity Ratio (VR) and Pressure Ratio (PR). As for the mass flow parameter
(MFP), it will be plotted against Pressure Ratio (PR). The performance maps are
useful to analyse the turbine performance in the Turbocompounding.

VR= (1)


MFP = (2)

PR= (3)


T-S = (4)

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2.5 Velocity Triangle

The velocity components from a turbine can be illustrated using the velocity
triangle diagram. The velocity components of a turbine is important in order to
analyze its characteristics. From Figure 2.7, parameter in the velocity diagram
represent the following meaning. The U represent Velocity of the rotor while is the
relative velocity of air to the turbine blade. C on the other hand represent the
absolute velocity. The symbol in the triangle represent
swirling angle which is an
important parameter in order to investigate the suitable reference angle of the Low
Pressure Turbine (LPT) while is the relative velocity angle. According to D.
Japikse and N. C. Baines [10] turbine requires a minimum velocity ratio to produce a
good performance. They also added that the 2 which is located at the exit of the
triangle is zero .This is to minimize the discharge loss and it is regarded as one of the
optimum conditions for the exit in terms of Mach number [15].

3 3

4
4 4

Figure 2.6 Inlet and outlet velocity triangle of a turbine blade [15]

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2.6 Summary of Literature Review

It can be concluded that to improve the performance of a vehicle, an


additional turbine can be added downstream of the main turbocharger. The process of
installing an additional turbine downstream to recover the wasted energy form the
turbocharger is known as Turbocompounding. To enhance the energy extraction
process, the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) are attached with an electric generator.
This is known as Electric Turbocompounding. The selection of radial and mixed flow
turbine is also important. The mixed flow turbine is chosen because it provides extra
degree of freedom as it has an angle at the turbine inlet. As a result the mixed flow
turbine is more suitable to be used as it can operate at low velocity ratio (0.64 %).
Thus the lower the velocity ratio, the more energy the turbine will be able to extract
which will lead to greater efficiency. Another important consideration to ensure the
turbine is able to perform at its best is to overcome the turbine loss. Turbine loss
includes stator loss, rotor loss, tip clearance loss and exit kinetic energy loss. The
next criteria to look in is the velocity triangle. Velocity triangle is important in order
to analyse the turbine characteristics.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

An analysis of a single passage turbine was conducted using 2 exit angle


through means of simulations. The non-radial fibre turbine is modelled using
ANYSIS CFX-15 This current project mainly focuses on varying the exit reference
angle of the full blade turbine while constantly maintaining a speed of 50,000 rpm.
This differ slightly from the previous project whereby the turbine was analysed on
several speed. The methodology of CFD analysis on the turbine is illustrated using a
flow chart in Figure 3.1.

14
NO

Figure 3.1 Flowchart of the project

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3.2 Single Passage Turbine Design

Figure 3.2 Camberline profile of the turbine blade

Figures 3.3, to 3.5 shows curve of camberline profile for reference angle of -36, -
45 and -54 respectively. As it can be seen the camberline profile changes with the
reference exit angle of the blade. From the camberline profile, it can be seen that as
the reference angle increases the profile will move towards the left or downwards.

16
10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Hub

-10 Low
Base
Upper
-20 Base
Low
Mean
MEAN
-30
Upper
Mean
-40

-50

Figure 3.3 Camberline profile reference angle -36

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Hub
-10 Low
Base
Upper
-20 Base
Low
Mean
MEAN
-30
Upper
Mean
-40

-50

Figure 3.4 Camberline profile for reference angle -45

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10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Hub
-10

Low
-20 Base
Upper
Base
-30
Low
Mean
-40 MEAN

-50

-60

Figure 3.5 Camberline profile for reference angle 54

The most important aspect in creating the rotor for the non- radial fibre blade
is to ensure the angle of the hub at the mean line model is fixed at -45 while the one
that need to be varied is the shroud according to the reference angle selected. The
process is then followed by transferring the 3D turbine coordinates data from the
mean line model to the ANSYS turbogrid software.

3.3 Numerical Approach

3.3.1 Meshing of the turbine blade

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Meshing process of the turbine was conducted at 2 million meshing elements.
The reason this software is run with a high meshing element is for better flow
visualisation of the flow field analysis. All parameters and boundary condition were
set up in the software. Turbine rotation speed was set at 50,000 rpm. All the process
mentioned earlier were carried out in ANSYS pre- processing part and were run up
to 500 iteration using ANSYS solver. Figure 3.7 shows the meshing process of the
blade

Inlet

Blade

Outlet

Figure 3.6 Single passage Meshing process of the blade

Once the meshing data is processed, the computer will generate node and
elements count. The total number of nodes and element is summarized in the Table
3.1

Table 3.1 Number of node and element count in a turbine for 2 million meshing
element

Exit Camber angle Total nodes Total Elements


-36 2143910 2066992
-45 2076370 2002697
-54 2105162 2026754

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3.3.2 Boundary Condition

In order for the simulation to be carried out, all boundary conditions is set at
the CFX Pre- processing stage. The boundary conditions is an actual representation
of the turbine running at real time conditions. In order to analyze the flow, an inlet an
outlet passage must be created. The inlet passage of the turbine is where the fluid
will pass from the rotor moving towards the diffuser section. The most important
aspect in this section is to set the mass flow rate. 15 different mass flow rate is set
starting from the lowest which is 0.002kg/s to 0.0090 kg/s. with a subsonic flow. The
flow direction is set to cylindrical components having a radial and theta components
of 11.978 and 57 respectively. The total heat transfer is set to 1,100 K to illustrate
the actual working condition of the turbine. On the outlet section the pressure is set
up to 100 kPa with subsonic flow of fluid.

Inlet

Periodic

Blade

Outlet

Figure 3.7 Inlet and outlet boundary conditions.

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3.3.3 Solver and Simulation control

Once the inlet and outlet boundary conditions is set, the solver and
simulation comes next. The maximum convergence of this simulation was set up to
500 iteration. This is the maximum number as an increase in the value will not bring
any changes in result. Therefore it is pointless to set a higher iteration number as it
will only increase the time taken to complete the simulation. The residual data on the
other hand was fixed at 110-6 which signifies the number of significant figures in
order to maintain the accuracy of the simulation. The simulation control were set in
Full MPI local Parallel mode with three number of process running.

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CHAPTER IV

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

The simulation of the turbine was carried out using ANSYS TURBOGRID
15.0 software with various reference exit angle of -36, -45 and -54. The baseline
design of the project was set to -45, while the rotation speed of the turbine was fixed
at 50,000 rpm. On the other hand, the mass flow rate was varied from 0.002 kg/s -
0.009 kg/s to obtain the performance trend of the turbine. The meshing for this
simulation was carried out at 1.5 million meshing element to obtain a more accurate
result

A graph of Total-to-static efficiency against Pressure Ratio, Total-to-static


efficiency against Velocity Ratio and Mass Flow Parameter against Pressure Ratio is

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plotted to analyse the performance criteria of the turbine. By analysing the graph
carefully the best exit camberline can be selected to reduce the vorticity experienced
by the turbine. This will reduce the deflection angle of flow, thus reducing the loss
experience by the turbine. Each graph is then analysed its flow-fill characteristics by
three points. The flow fill analysis will show the static entropy generated by the blade
at a given mass flow rate.

4.2 Total-to-static efficiency vs Pressure Ratio

Figure 4.1 shows Total-to-static efficiency against Pressure Ratio is plotted


based on the simulation. From the result obtained, it can be seen that -45 reference
angle shows the highest efficiency of 51.3% at Pressure Ratio 1.09. This proves that
the base line design perform better compared to -36 which only has a peak efficiency
of 50.9% at pressure ratio of 1.101 and followed by -54 which have an efficiency of
50.5% at pressure ratio 1.084. Figure 4.1 shows that the performance of the turbine
clearly deteriorates as the pressure ratio increases more than 1.25 region.

T-S VS PR
0.55

0.50

0.45
EFFICIENCY

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20
1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50
PRESSURE RATIO

45 54 36

Figure 4.1 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency ( T-S) vs. Pressure Ratio(PR)


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4.3 Total-to static efficiency ( T-S)vs Velocity Ratio, (VR)

Figure 4.2 below shows the graph of Total-to static efficiency against
velocity ratio is plotted. As it can be seen despite varying the reference angle of the
blade, the trend line of the graph shows not much of a difference between them.
However, the peak efficiency is recorded at 51.3% at VR 0.623 for reference angle -
45. On the other hand for angle -54 the highest efficiency is recorded at 50.5% at
velocity ratio 0.632. For -36 exit reference angle, the highest efficiency is at 50.9%
at velocity ratio 0.5 to

0.7.

The maximum curve value mentioned earlier can be seen in Figure 4.2. It
signifies the best condition of the fluid to pass through spinning rotor. The highest
efficiency achieved by blade angle -45 also shows it has better performance
compared to the other two angle. The velocity ratio on the other hand signifies the
speed of the rotor against its driving fluid

T-S vs VR
0.55

0.50
EFFICIENCY, T-S

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.30
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80
VELOCITY RATIO

45 54 36

Figure 4.2 Graph of Total-to-static efficiency ( ) against Velocity Ratio(VR)

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Figure 4.3 shows the graph of mass flow parameter against pressure ratio.
This graph is important in order to determine the maximum flow capacity of the
turbine during its operation. The trend line of the graph reveals that reference angle -
36 shows the best performance among the other two angle. The peak mass flow
parameter achieved by this angle is 1.89 while the other two angle only manage to
reach a maximum of 1.86 and 1.82 for -45 and -54 respectively. Therefore, it can be
said that the mass flow parameter decreases as the blade angle increases from -36 to
-54. In a nutshell, the -36 shows the highest flow capacity at pressure 1.89.

MFP VS PR
2.00
1.80
Mass Flow Parameter,MFP

1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50
Pressure Ratio, PR

45 54 36

Figure 4.3 Graph of mass flow parameter against Pressure Ratio

4.4 Flow-Field analysis

Flow-field analysis was carried out at three points on the graph 1) Location
at mass flow rate 0.003kg/s where the highest efficiency is recorded. 2) On the
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middle of the graph where the flow rate is at 0.006 kg/s, 3) at the bottom of the graph
where the flow rate is at 0.009kg/s. Based on the various flow rate selected, the value
of static entropy can be determined at various point on the blade. Figure 4.4 to figure
4.6 shows the flow field analysis that were carried on blade angle 36 for mass flow
rate 0.003kg/s, 0.006kg/s and 0.009kg/s respectively.

Entropy is defined as a quantity representing the unavailability of a system


thermal energy for conversation to its mechanical work. The value of static entropy
is highest at exit angle -36 followed by -45 and -54. The highest value of static
entropy recorded is 1981.22 J kg^-1 K^-1 for blade angle -36 at mass flow rate
0.003kg/s On the other hand , the lowest static entropy recorded is for exit angle -54
at mass flow rate 0.009kg/s The trend line of all the graph in the Figures shows that
entropy is largely generated at the exit of the turbine. As a result, the turbine
performance deteriorates when the pressure ratio is more than 1.25 region.

26
1985
Flow rate 0.003 kg/s(Angle 36)

Static Entropy
36
1980
45
1975 54

1970
0.4 0.45 Distance0.5
on the balde 0.55 0.6

Figure 4.4 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 36 for


` mass flow rate 0.003kg/s

27
1985 Flow rate 0.003 kg/s( Angle 45)

Static Entropy
1980
36
1975 45

1970 54
0.4 0.45 0.5 the blade
Distance on 0.55 0.6

Figure 4.5 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45 for


mass flow rate 0.003kg/s

28
1985 Flow rate 0.003 kg/s( Angle 54)

Static Entropy
1980 36
1975 45
54
1970
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance On the blade

Figure 4.6 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 54 for


mass flow rate 0.003kg/s
29
Flow rate 0.006 kg/s (Angle 36)
1950
Static Entropy 1945
1940 36

1935 45

1930 54
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance On the blade

Figure 4.7 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle


36 for mass flow rate 0.006kg/s

30
Flow rate 0.006 kg/s (Angle 45)
1950
1945
Static Entropy
1940 36

1935 45
1930 54
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance on the blade

Figure 4.8 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle 45for


mass flow rate 0.006kg/s

31
1950
Flow rate 0.006 kg/s (Angle 54)

Static Entropy
1945
1940 36
1935 45
1930 54
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance On the blade

Figure 4.9 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle


54for mass flow rate 0.006kg/s

32
Static Entropy 1920
Flow rate 0.009 kg/s (angle 36)
1910
1900 36

1890 45
1880 54
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance On the blade

Figure 4.10 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle


36 for mass flow rate 0.009kg/s33
Flow rate 0.009 kg/s (angle 45)
1920

Static Entropy
1910
36
1900
45
1890
54
1880
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance on the blade

Figure 4.11 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle


45 for mass flow rate 0.009kg/s
34
Flow rate 0.009 kg/s (angle 54)
1920

Static Entropy 1910

1900 36

1890 45
54
1880
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
Distance on the blade

Figure 4.12 Flow-Field analysis of blade angle


54 for mass flow rate 0.009kg/s

35
4.5 Summary of efficiency and static entropy

Table 4.1 shows the summary for static entropy and efficiency on various
point and mass flow rate of the blade.

Table 4.1. Summary of efficiency and static entropy at various point on the
blade

Exit angle of Mass flow rate Distance Y of Entropy (J Efficiency


the blade () (kg/s) the blade kg^-1 K^-1) (%)
0.40 1977.37
0.45 1978.64
0.003 0.50 1979.47
0.55 1980.27
0.60 1981.22
0.40 1939.58
36 0.45 1941.63
0.006 0.50 1943.45
0.55 1945.58 50.9
0.60 1948.64
0.40 1894.01
0.45 1896.88
0.009 0.50 1899.89
0.55 1903.43
0.60 1908.95

45 0.003 0.40 1976.40


0.45 1977.65
0.50 1978.48
0.55 1979.24 51.3
0.60 1980.19
0.006 0.40 1937.83
0.45 1939.59
0.50 1941.47
0.55 1943.86
0.60 1947.52

0.009 0.40 1889.18


0.45 1892.76
0.50 1895.98
0.55 1899.70
0.60 1905.96

54 0.003 0.40 1975.27

36
0.45 1976.63
0.50 1977.60
0.55 1978.49
0.60 1979.61
0.006 0.40 1933.82
0.45 1936.07
0.50 1938.16
0.55 1940.73 50.5
0.60 1944.84
0.009 0.40 1883.07
0.45 1886.84
0.50 1890.15
0.55 1894.14
0.60 1901.31

37
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 CONCLUSION

This project was simulated entirely on ANYSIS Turbogrid 15.0 to replicate


the actual operating condition of the low pressure turbine in an internal combustion
engine. It was carried out to study the performance of the turbine by varying the exit
angle of the blade to -36 ,-45 and -54. The mass flow rate for each blade is varied
from 0.002 kg/s to 0.009kg /s. The purpose of varying the mass flow rate is to
analyse the performance of the turbine and carryout flow field analysis on the turbine
blade.

The main objective of this project is to evaluate the performance of the


turbine in order to recover the excessive waste energy produced by the engine.
Therefore this study has shown that by adjusting the reference angle, the
performance of the turbine can be improved.

38
The result obtained through simulation proves that the turbine operates at a
low pressure region The peak efficiency of the turbine obtained is 51.3% for
reference angle -45. This proves that the base line design perform better compared to
-36 which only has a peak efficiency of 50.9% at pressure ratio of 1.101 and
followed by -54 which have an efficiency of 50.5% at pressure ratio 1.084. However
for the graph MFP versus PR proves that reference angle -36 perform better
compared to the other two angle. The peak mass flow parameter achieved by this
angle is 1.89 while the other two angle only manage to reach a maximum of 1.86 and
1.82 for -45 and -54 respectively.

Therefore it can be concluded that the turbine operates at the highest


efficiency of 51.3 % for reference angle -45 when compared with the other two
angle. However, for the MFP versus PR or the swallowing capacity shows reference
angle -36 performs better when compared with -45 and -54.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

In my opinion there is still room of improvement for this project in order to obtain a
more accurate result. Below are some recommendations which I feel necessary:

I. The speed of the turbine need to be varied rather than running at a constant
speed of 50,000 RPM.
II. To analyse the performance of the turbine for steady and unsteady
performance
III. The actual experiment need to be carried out and compare the data obtained
through CFD simulation.

39
IV. To widen the rage of study for the turbine by varying its reference angle.
This will help to identify the highest efficiency for a given angle to increase
its performance.
V. The turbine need to be modelled with a full modelling scale complete with
its inlet and outlet volute and analyse its performance through simulation.

40
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[1] Aman M.I. Mamat, Alessandro Romagnoli, Ricardo Martinez-Botas,

HA A TE ISATION OF A LOW P ESSU E TU INE FO


TURBOCOMPOUNDING APPLICATION IN A HEAVILY
DOWNSIZED MILDHY AID GASOLINE ENGINE, ELESEVIE
,2012.

[2] Kamo . , Adiabatic Turbocompound engine performance prediction


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[3] Aman M.I. Mamat, Alessandro Romangnoli, Ricardo F.Martinez


DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
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