You are on page 1of 25

600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.

02)

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Final Year Project


Proposal

TITLE :

FLOW FIELD ANALYSIS FOR LOW PRESSURE TURBINE USING CFD

MUHAMMAD FIRDAWS BIN BORHAN


IC NO: 930503-01-7025
STUDENT ID: 2013609658

SEMESTER 01 SESSION 2016-2017


600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL


BACHELOR DEGREE PROJECT PROPOSAL

A. PROPOSED PROJECT

1. PROJECT TITLE:

FLOW FIELD ANALYSIS FOR LOW PRESSURE TURBINE USING CFD

2. STUDENT NAME:

MUHAMMAD FIRDAWS BIN BORHAN

4. COURSE
3. STUDENT ID : CODE :
MEC601

2 0 1 3 6 0 9 6 5 8

SUPERVISOR : PROF. MADYA DR AMAN MOHD IHSAN MAMAT

CO-SUPERVISOR (if available) : -

... ...
(Students Signature ) (Supervisor Stamp & Signature)

Name : .... Date : ....

Date : .... Ext. Line : ....

Cut Here
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SLIP

I hereby acknowledge the receipt of a report entitled ______________________________

_____________________ submitted by _______________________________________

at _ _ _ _ am/pm on __ Dec 2016.

2
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

. . ..
Received by: Stamp Date

INSTRUCTION FOR PANEL

1. DO NOT ACCEPT THE PROGRESS REPORT WITHOUT APPROVAL BY


SUPERVISOR.

2. PLEASE EVALUATE THIS PROPOSAL BY USING PRELIMINARY


EVALUATION FORM FOR FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1 (600-FKM.FYP
(PPE1/02).REV5) UNDER SECTION B PRELIMINARY PROJECT
ASSESSMENT. THIS FORM WILL BE PROVIDED DURING THE FINAL
YEAR PROJECT 1 PRESENTATION DAY.

3. PLEASE WRITE YOUR SUMMARY OF COMMENTS OR SUGGESTIONS


INSIDE THE PROVIDED COLUMN.

4. DO NOT ALLOWED THE STUDENT TO PROCEED FOR PRESENTATION


WITHOUT PROVIDING THE PROPOSAL AT LEAST ONE WEEK
BEFORE THE PRESENTATION DAY.

PANEL COMMENTS

...
(Stamp & Signature)

Date: ....

3
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Ext. Line: ....

1. PROJECT ABSTRACT
(Abstract of the proposed project in not more than 200 words ):
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO1[PO2]{C2}

A non-radial fibre low pressure turbine (LPT) is to be design for the purpose of
powertrain electrification through electric-turbocompounding. This is done by the
recovering of the latent energy of exhaust gases at low pressure ratios ranging from 1.05 to
1.25 and convert it to mechanical works which is then rotate the small electric generator
with a maximum of 1.0 kW power output as it shares the same shaft of the turbine.
Conventional turbine is only able to recover small amount of energy at these pressure ratio
which results in low efficiency. At high pressure ratio, performance deteriorates due to
large entropy is developed at the exit of the turbine. Therefore, a non- radial fibre turbine
element is introduced for this purpose. This project studies the flow field of the Low
Pressure Turbine (LPT) for backward and forward swept of a non- radial fibre element for
the entropy generation of blade angle 39, 42, 48, and 51 which is +-3 of base angle 45.
Through result of simulation, the turbine performance of different blade angle are then
analyse.

2. PROJECT BACKGROUND
(Describe the background of your project)
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 POOR GOOD
CO1[PO2]{C2}

4
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Since the introduction of turbocharger in 1950s, many studies have been made in
order to reduce carbon emission and fuel consumption. There is an overall of 25% to 35%
energy available is wasted to exhaust gases from internal combustion engine (ICE) [1].
Energy conversion technology and energy recovery system need to be improve as it is
crucial. Current technologies exhaust gas energy recovery in the automotive sector are
ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle), Thermoelectric Generation and Turbocompounding [2].

Turbocompounding consist of a low pressure turbine (LPT) placed downstream of


the main turbocharger turbine [1]. There are 2 categories of turbocoumpounding which is
mechanical and electrical. The mechanical turbocoumpounding uses recovers energy
directly to crankshaft [5]. The electric turbocoumpounding uses recovers energy to stored
energy in battery and to power/support the vehicle electrical loads to decrease the
alternator resistant torque along the entire cycle .It is actually a turbocharger mechanically
coupled with small electrical generator and the mechanical work recovered by the turbine
is converted into electrical energy [4]. Turbocompounding is an effective way to improve
the thermal efficiency but it is not widely used[3]. This technology is also favorable
because of simplicity rather than ORC and cheap compared to thermoelectric devices. The
design and the development of a high performance LPT for electric turbocompounding is a
part of HyBoost project [1].

Radial turbine have cone angle 90, therefore the camber angle must be set to zero
degrees to limit bending stress. It also produces high incidence loss. On the other hand,
Mixed-flow turbine doesnt have cone angle 90 so the camber angle is not limited to zero
degree which result in back swept leading edge [5]. A mixed-flow turbine is favorable due
to additional degrees of freedom towards the incident angle. The purpose of this design is
to analyze vorticity generated at the trailing edge as it is directly linked to the entropy
generation of the turbine which affect the overall efficiency of the turbine [6].

The development of computational capability since 1960 have made possible to the
flow characteristics and turbine performance of turbine design process [5]. This project
was conducted to study the performances and flow field of the turbine using no radial fibre

5
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

element by identifying the suitable exit blade angle. This turbine was modelled using
ANYSIS 15.0 Turbogrid software with 1.5 million meshing element and 500 iteration.

3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
(Please state clearly the problem of the proposed project )
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO1[PO2]{C2}

The cumulative energy consumption for transportation sector is expected to be


increased every year. The demand for energy is increasing while the primary energy
resource is decreasing. These explains the needs of improving energy conversion technique
by improving energy conversion efficiency for long-term energy sustainability. One of the
way is electric-turbocompunding which recovers energy to generate electricity by low
pressure turbine (LPT). However, current design of turbine fails to provide good efficiency
at low pressure ratios ranging from 1.05 to 1.25 due to entropy generation at turbine exit.
Entropy is unfavourable and must be reduce as it represent the unavailability of a system
thermal energy for conversation to its mechanical work. To overcome this problem, a non-
radial fibre turbine is used as it provides more advantage in terms of turbine performance.
This project discusses the operating performance of the turbine by varying the blade angle
of 39, 42, 48, and 51 for forward swept and backward swept.

6
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

4. OBJECTIVES & EXPECTED RESULTS


(Please state the objectives and expected results of the proposed project )
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO1[PO2]{C2}

Objectives:

1. To produce meshing model for the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).


2. To investigate the performance of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).
3. To evaluate the flow field of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT).

Expected results:

The LPT is expected to improve in term of performance by indentifying the best


design for blade angle 39, 42, 48, and 51 for forward swept and backward swept.
The best blade angle design are analyze based on result obtain which includes entropy
generation, the peak effeiciency, and the graph of MFP vs PR. The favourable performance
is lowest entropy generation, highest peak effieciency and highest MFP at higher PR. The
design are expected to perform better compared to base line design of blade angle 45 and
are able to operates at the highest efficiency at low pressure ratios ranging from 1.05 to

7
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

1.25. The energy consumption can then be conserve and the demand for energy can be
cooperate. By improving energy conversion technique such improving energy conversion
efficiency for long-term energy sustainability.

5. SCOPE OF WORK
(Describe the scope of the project)
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO1[PO2]{C2}

OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF WORK


1. To produce meshing model for the Low -The CFD simulation is conducted for 500
Pressure Turbine (LPT). iterations.
-Turbine blade was modelled using
ANYSIS 15.0 Turbogrid software.
-The turbine was analyzed with high
meshing element (1.5 million) -The turbine
was analyze using single passage CFD
simulation
-CFD analysis for blade angle 39, 42, 48,
and 51 for forward swept and backward
swept was conducted at the same speed
which is 50,000 rpm

2. To investigate the performance of the -The operating performance obtained from


Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). the simulation are mass flow parameter,
pressure ratio, velocity ratio and total to
static efficiency.

3. To evaluate the flow field of the Low -The operating performance are analyze
Pressure Turbine (LPT). and the best design for blade angle are

8
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

determined.

6. PROJECT METHODOLOGY
(Describe the procedures and methods to be used to achieve the project objectives. Students shall provide the Project
Planningchart describing the relevant activities )
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO2[PO4]{C5}

6.1 Introduction

The non-radial fibre turbine is modelled using ANYSIS CFX-15. This project focus on
simulation of turbine blade to at the exit blade angle and constant turbine speed of 50000 rpm. A
proper methodology plan are presented using flow chart to give general idea of how
the project are done and to show overall process from fyp 1 to fyp 2.

Start

Selection of title

Problem identification

Choose blade angle


design

9
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Meshing process in
turbogrid with 1.5 million
meshing element

validate the boundary condition of


the Low Pressure LPT

Generate mean line


model

End

Figure 6.1 : Flowchart of the fyp 1

Start

Run CFD simulation in


CFX pre-processing

Transfer data from


CFX pre-processing to
Excel

Execute flow field


analysis

Compare result with


baseline design

End

Figure 6.2 : Flowchart of the fyp2

10
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

6.2 Single Passage Turbine Design

Figure 6.3 : Camberline profile reference angle -39

11
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Figure 6.4 : Camberline profile reference angle -42

Figure 6.5 : Camberline profile reference angle -45

12
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Figure 6.6 : Camberline profile reference angle -48

13
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Figure 6.7 : Camberline profile reference angle -51

The hub angle for the mean line model is fixed at -45 while the shroud angle is varied to 39, 42,
48, and 51. The 3D turbine coordinates data are inserted to ANSYS turbogrid from mean line
model.

6.3 Numerical Approach

14
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

6.3.1 Meshing of the turbine blade

Meshing process of the turbine was conducted at high meshing element of 1.5 million for
better flow visualization of the flow field analysis. All boundary condition and parameters were
inserted in the software and run in ANSYS pre- processing part and at up to 500 iteration using
ANSYS solver.

Figure 6.8 : Single passage Meshing process of the blade

After the meshing data are processed, noda and element count are generated. The Number
of node and element count in a turbine for 1.5 million meshing element obtain for blade angle 39,
42, 48, and 51 are as follows;

Exit lade angle Total elements


Total nodes
39 2284248 2206460
42 2063194 1990715
48 2037372 1964480
51 2040788 1967840

Table 6.1 : Number of node and element count in a turbine for 1.5 million meshing element

15
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

6.3.2 Boundary Condition

All boundary conditions is set at the CFX Pre- processing stage as it is an actual
representation of the turbine running at real time conditions. To analyze the flow, an inlet and
outlet passage are created where the fluid will pass from the rotor moving towards the diffuser
section. The mass flow rate are set at 0.005547 kg/s with a subsonic flow. The flow direction is
set to cylindrical components having a radial and theta components of 13.641 m/s and 64.0694
m/s respectively. The total inlet temperature is set to 1,100 K to illustrate the actual working
condition of the turbine. On the outlet section the pressure is set up to 100 kPa with subsonic
flow of fluid.

Figure 6.9 : Inlet and outlet boundary conditions.

6.3.3 Solver and Simulation control

The solver and simulation are then run and set to 500 iteration for the maximum
convergence of this simulation. The residual data are at 110-7 which signifies the number of
significant figures in order to maintain the accuracy of the simulation. The simulation control was
set in Full MPI local Parallel mode with two number of process running.

16
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

7. LITERATURE REVIEW & REFERENCES


(Previous work done on the field of study and anything that you consider to be relevant to the hypothesis or research
question and to its investigation.)
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO3[PO7]{A3}

Around 40% of the gasoline fuel energy is wasted in the form of heat through the
exhaust system. Another 30% are lost in engine coolant [10]. These proves the the big
amount of energy available to be recover instead of being wasted. There are many possible
ways to improve waste heat recovery system and have made it possible to archive this. The
development starts from the previous mechanical turbo compounding to electric turbo
compounding, thermoelectric generator, organic Rankine cycle, steam Rankine cycle and
Brayton cycle [ 10]. Among these methods of recovering energy from exhaust
Turbocompounding is a better choice because it is easier to assemble than the Rankine
cycle and cheaper than the thermoelectric device [14]. The turbocompounding system is
actually by installing an additional turbine downstream of the main turbocharger. This
turbine is known as Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). This secondary turbine (LPT) works by
recover wasted energy remaining in the gas stream after it has pass through the main
turbocharger (High Pressure Turbine). Most of the energy is expanded in the High Pressure
Turbine, the secondary turbine needed to be operated at lower pressure ratio [10]. An
electric turbocompounding works by adding motor generator coupled with the shaft placed
downstream of the main turbocharger. The extra energy obtained from the electrical
generator will be useful to power up electric unit for start stop system, supercharges and
other electric units in the vehicle. A conventional turbine can only operate at less than 40%
efficiency at low pressure of (1.05-1.3) which is not effective. This shows the need to
designed the low pressure turbine to fill the existing technology gap.

17
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Figure 7.1

There are two types of turbine that can be use in turbocompounding such as radial
turbine and mixed flow turbine. It is place downstream of the main turbocharger and act as
a low pressure turbine (LPT) to recover available exhaust energy. Each of these turbine
have benefits and drawbacks but mixed flow turbine provide more advantage to its
counterpart. The important criteria that defines the performance of mixed flow turbine is
cone angle, blade angle, and chamber angle. The mixed turbine was originally used as an
alternator during its development but was then used in automotive section as the growing
demand of turbocharger application [16]. The difference of these 2 turbine is illustrate in
figure 7.2, 7.3, 7.4. The dissimilarities can be clearly noticed at the cone angle at the blade
inlet of each turbine. The cone angle for radial turbine is fixed at 90 while the cone angle
for mixed flow turbine is not set to 90.The outcomes of these cone angle, the radial fibre
element can be maintained when turbine radially sweeping the blade inlet. it also enables
forward swept at the inlet without sacrificing it`s structural stability [15]. According to
research by Bernhardt Lddecke, Dietmar Filsinger, and Jan Ehrhard [7], mixed flow
turbines offers the advantage of additional degrees of freedom. The radial turbine adopt a
radial stacking because of mechanical constraints. The dominant role for the turbine
performance is incidence, which is the difference between rotor inlet flow angle and blade
angle at the rotor leading edge [7]. Reducing incidence at low speed ratios can be achieved
by reducing the relative rotor inlet flow angle and/or backward sweeping of the blade
leading edge [11]. According to Japikse and Baines [8], the optimum incidence for radial
turbines is in the region of 20 to 40. This shows that mixed flow turbine is

more suitable to be used as it can operate at low velocity ratio (0.64 %) with peak

18
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

efficiency of 90%. Thus the lower the velocity ratio, the more energy the turbine will be
able to extract which will lead to greater efficiency [13]. Looking at design point
efficiencies, that radial turbines are superior compared to mixed flow turbines for the
specific speeds relevant for automotive turbocharger applications [12].

Figure 7.2 : Degrees of freedom for mixed flow and radial flow turbines.

Figure 7.3 : Radial versus mixed flow turbine

Figure 7.4 : Radial versus mixed flow turbine

Turbines have been used in many application such as turbochargers, auxiliary drives

19
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

in large aircraft gas turbines, rocket auxiliary equipment and automotive drives. In
turbocharges application, turbine must not be too sensitive to modifications to the gas
intake and nozzle design as the matching of the turbine to engine is carried out by adapting
this components. [9] .In order to obtain an optimum design and best possible efficiency,
energy loss of the turbine must be taken into account. According to Harnold E.Rohlik [6],
the type of losses studied include stator loss, rotor loss, tip clearance, windage loss and exit
kinetic energy. Since radial turbine varies greatly in forms of various application, a
correlation between various design features and turbine losses is required to select
optimum design features for a given design problems. specific speed is a general indication
of achievable efficiency of a turbine.

The important performance parameter needed to characterize the turbine


performance are Total-to-static efficiency, Mass Flow Parameter (MFP), Pressure Ratio
(PR), Velocity Ratio (VR) and turbine power. The turbine performance are usually plotted
on the performance map. The turbine efficiency will be plotted against Velocity Ratio (VR)
and Pressure Ratio (PR). As for the mass flow parameter (MFP), it will be plotted against
Pressure Ratio (PR). The turbine performance are analyse using the performance map in
the Turbocompounding.

Velocity triangle is important in order to analyse the turbine characteristics. As


illustrated in Figure 7.5, The U represent Velocity of the rotor while is the relative
velocity of air to the turbine blade. C on the other hand represent the absolute velocity. The

20
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

symbol in the triangle represent swirling angle which is an important parameter in order
to investigate the suitable reference angle of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) while is the
relative velocity angle.

Figure : 7.5

References

[1] Mamat, A. M. I., Romagnoli, A., & Martinez-Botas, R. F. (2014). Characterisation of a


low pressure turbine for turbocompounding applications in a heavily downsized mild-
hybrid gasoline engine. Energy, 64, 3-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2012.09.064.

[2] Bin Mamat, A.M.I., Martinez-Botas, R.F., Rajoo, S., Romagnoli, A., Petrovic, S.
Waste heat recovery using a novel high performance low pressure turbine for electric
turbocompounding in downsized gasoline engines: Experimental and computational
(2015) Energy, . Article in Press.

[3] A study of an electrical turbo-compound system. Keiji Kishishita, Kazuo Miyajima,


Katsunori Hirai. lsuzu Ceramics Research Institute Co., Ltd., 8 T~'uchidana Iqqisawa-shi,

21
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

Kanagawa, 252 Japan. Received 1 June 1994.

[4] Modeling Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery via Thermo-Electric Generator and Electric
Turbo-Compound for CO2 Reduction in Automotive SI Engines Ivan Arsie*a, Andrea
Cricchioa, Cesare Pianesea, Vincenzo Ricciardia, Matteo De Cesareb.

[5] Bin Mamat AMI, Martinez-Botas RF, Rajoo S, Hao L, Romagnoli Aet al., 2016, Design
methodology of a low pressure turbine for waste heat recovery via electric
turbocompounding, APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 107, Pages: 1166-1182,
ISSN: 1359-4311.

[6] Ahmad, B., Fattah, A., & Bin Mamat, A. M. I. (2015). Single passage CFD analysis for
non radial fibre element of low pressure turbine. Jurnal Teknologi, 76(5), 67-72. DOI:
10.11113/jt.v76.5539.

[7] Bernhardt Lddecke, Dietmar Filsinger, and Jan Ehrhard, On Mixed Flow Turbines
for Automotive Turbocharger Applications, International Journal of Rotating Machinery,
vol. 2012, Article ID 589720, 14 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/589720.

[8] D. Japikse and N. C. Baines, Introduction to Turbomachinery, Concepts ETI, 1997.

[9] H.E. ohlik, ANALYTI AL DETE MINATION OF ADIAL INFLOW TURBINE


DESIGN GEOMETRY FOR MAXIMUM EFFI IEN Y, NASA Technical Note, Vols.
NASA TN D-4384,FEBRUARY 1968.

[10] Exhaust Energy Recovery with Turbo Compounding in a Heavily Downsized Engine
ALIAS Mohd Noor*1,a,ROSNIZAM Che Puteh1,b,MUHAMMAD RABIU
Abbas1,2,c,SRITHAR Rajoo1,d , AMAN MOHD IHSAN Mamat3,e,
ALESSANDRO Romagnoli4,fand MUHAMMAD HANAFI Md Sah.
[11] J. Walkingshaw, S. Spence, J. Ehrhard, and D. Thornhill, An investigation into
improving off-design performance in a turbocharger turbine utilizing non-radial blading,
in Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo Conference, 2011.

[12] N. C. Baines, Fundamentals of turbocharging, Concepts NREC, Edward Brother


Incorporated, 2005.

[13] H. Chen and N. C. Baines, The aerodynamic loading of radial and mixed-flow
turbines, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 6379, 1994.

22
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

[14] Aman M.I. Mamat, Muhammad H Padzillah, Alessandro Romangnoli, Ricardo


F.Martinez, A HIGH PERFORMANCE LOW PRESSURE TURBINE FOR ENGINE
ELECTRIC TUROBOMPOUNDING, ASME,Vols. GT2011-45541,2001.

[15] P. Lckert, F. Kreitmann, N. Merdes et al., The new 1. 8-litre 4-cylinder petrol engine
with direct injection and turbo charging for all passenger cars with standard drive trains
from Mercedes- enz, inWiener Motorensymposium, 2009.

[16] ernhardt Luddecke, Dietmar Filsinger, Jan Ehrhard, On Mixed Flow Turbines for
Automotive Turbocharger Applications, international Journal of Rotating Machinery Vol.
2012.

8. PRELIMINARY OUTCOME
(Discuss the current status & expected outcomes of the project)
Evaluation Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POOR GOOD
CO3[PO7]{A3}

Current status:
Various sources can be used to gain information to develop this project. Currently,
general idea on the process flow of the system have been made through research and

23
600-FKM (FYP1-PP-Rev.02)

sources review. The preparation of the preliminary design for this project is completed. The
boundary condition of the Low Pressure LPT for blade angle 39, 42, 48, and 51 has been
validate for all parameters. The mean line model has been generated for all blade angle. A
very handful guidance by supervisor also helps for better understanding on this project.

Expected outcomes:
At the end of this project, we expected all the objectives of this project were
fulfilled. We expected that the simulation run successfully without any error. We also
expect to be able to evaluate the performance of the turbine in order choose the best blade
design based on result obtain which includes entropy generation, the peak effeiciency, and
the graph of MFP vs PR. Thus, the best blade design are able to recover the excessive
waste energy produced efficiently by the engine. This project also can introduces and
increases communitys awareness in Malaysia in terms of importance of energy
sustainability in daily usage systems. In the meantime, it also may encourages future
generations to further study and explore more about Turbomachinery and ANSYS
turbogrid software.

24
600-FKM (FYP1-PS-Rev.02)

PROJECT PLANNING
(List the main activities of the project. Indicate the length of time needed for each activity.)

2016
2017

Project Activities
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Supervisor Agreement
Project Title Registration
Problem identification
Choose blade angle design
Meshing process in turbogrid
with 1.5 million meshing
element
validate the boundary condition
of the Low Pressure LPT
Generate mean line model
Run CFD simulation in CFX
pre-processing
Transfer data from CFX pre-
processing to Excel
Execute flow field analysis
Compare result with baseline
design

25