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STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

SENTENCES WITH ONE CLAUSE


1. Be Sure The Sentence Has A Subject and A Verb
SUBJECTS AND VERBS
A sentence in English must have at least one subject and one verb.

Example:
_____ was backed up for miles on the freeway.
A. Yesterday
B. In the morning
C. Traffic
D. Cars

2. Be Careful of Objects of Prepositions


OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS
A preposition is followed by a noun, pronoun, gerund or noun clause that is called an
object of preposition.
If a word is an object of preposition, it is not the subject.

Example:
(After his exams) Tom will take a trip (by boat)

3. Be Careful of Appositives
Appositives words / phrases explaining the subject
Example:
My friend, George, is attending the lecture.
An excellent basketball player, Sarah rarely misses her basketball shots.

4. Be Careful of Present Participles


PRESENT PARTICIPLES
A present participle is the ing form of the verb. The present participle can be (1) part of
the verb or (2) an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is accompanied be some form
of the verb be. It is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be.
1. The boy is standing in the corner.
2. The boy standing in the corner was naughty.

5. Be Careful of Past Participles (V3)


The family has purchased a television.
The television purchased yesterday was expensive.

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SENTENCES WITH MULTIPLE CLAUSES
6. Use Coordinate Connectors Correctly
COORDINATE CONNECTORS
and but or so yet
She laughed, but she wanted to cry

7. Use Adverb Connectors Correctly


ADVERB CONNECTORS
TIME CAUSE
after as soon as once when as now that
as before since whenever because since
as long as by the time until while inasmuch as
Teresa went inside because it was raining
Because it was raining, Teresa went inside

8. Use Other Adverb Connectors Correctly


OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS
CONDITION CONTRAST MANNER PLACE
if although as where
in case even though in that wherever
provided though
providing while
unless whereas
whether
Bob went to school even though he felt sick
Even though Bob felt sick, he went to school

MORE SENTENCES WITH MULTIPLE CLAUSES


9. Use Noun Clause Connectors Correctly
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10. Use Noun Clause Connectors / Subjects Correctly

11. Use Adjective Clause Connectors Correctly

12. Use Adjective Clause Connectors / Subjects Correctly

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SENTENCES WITH REDUCED CLAUSES
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13. Use Reduced Adjective Clauses Correctly

Example:
The woman who is waving to us is the tour guide The woman waving to us is the
tour guide
The letter which was written last week arrived today The letter written last week
arrived today
The pitcher that is on the table is full of iced tea The pitcher on the table is full of
iced tea.
I dont understand the article which appears in todays paper I dont understand
the article appearing in todays paper.

14. Use Reduced Adverb Clauses Correctly

Example:
When you are ready, you can begin your speech When ready, you can begin your
speech.
Although he feels rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar Although
feeling rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.

SENTENCES WITH INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS


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15. Invert The Subject and Verb With Question Words

16. Invert The Subject and Verb With Place Expressions

17. Invert The Subject and Verb With Negatives

18. Invert The Subject and Verb With Conditionals

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19. Invert The Subject and Verb With Comparisons

PROBLEMS WITH SUBJECT / VERB AGREEMENT

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20. Make Verbs Agree After Prepositional Phrases

Example:
The key to the doors is in the drawer.
The keys to the door are in the drawer.

21. Make Verbs Agree After Expressions of Quantity

Example:
The witnesses saw that most of the fire in the hills was extinguished.
I was sure that all of the questions on the test were correct.

22. Make Inverted Verbs Agree

Example:
What in the world are the children trying to do?
Only once this morning were the letters delivered by the campus mail service.
23. Make Verbs Agree After Certain Words

PROBLEMS WITH PARALLEL STRUCTURE

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24. Use Parallel Structure With Coordinate Conjunctions

Example:
There are papers to file, reports to type, and letters to answer.
The report you are looking for could be in the file or on the desk.
25. Use Parallel Structure With Paired Conjunctions

Example:
She would like neither to see a movie nor to go bowling.
According to the syllabus, you can either write a paper or take an exam.

26. Use Parallel Structure With Comparisons

Example:
Dining in a restaurant is more fun than eating at home.
My school is farther than your school.

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PROBLEMS WITH COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
27. Form Comparatives and Superlatives Correctly

Example:
Fashions this year are shorter and more colorful than they were last year.
Alaska is the coldest of all the states in the United States.

28. Use Comparatives and Superlatives Correctly

Example:
Mary is more intelligent than Sue.
Mary is the most intelligent of all the students in the class.

29. Use the Irregular ER, -ER Structure Correctly

Example:
The more children you have, the bigger the house you need.
The harder you work, the more you accomplish.

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PROBLEMS WITH THE FORM OF THE VERB
30. After HAVE, Use the Past Participle

Example:
The secretary has broken the typewriter.
The installer should have completed the task more quickly.

31. After BE, Use The Present Participle or the Past Participle

Example:
The Smiths are building their house on some property that they own in the desert.
The report should have been submitted by noon.

32. After MODALS, Use the Base Form of the Verb

Example:
Every morning the plants must be watered.
The television movie will finish in a few minutes.

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PROBLEMS WITH THE USE OF THE VERB
33. Know When to Use the Past With the Present

Example:
Mark studied at The American University when he was in Washington, D.C.
He is telling the teacher why he did not have time to finish his homework.

34. Use HAVE and HAD Correctly


Present Perfect (have + past participle) refers to the period of time from the past until
the present.
Example: Sue has lived in Los Angeles for ten years.
Past Perfect (had + past participle) refers to a period of time that started in the past
and ended in the past before something else happened in the past.
Example: Sue had lived in Los Angeles for ten years when she moved to San Diego.

35. Use the Correct Tense with Time Expressions

Example:
She got a job two years ago.
They had finished contacting everyone by 4:00 yesterday.

36. Use the Correct Tense with WILL and WOULD

Example:
I know that I will go if I can afford it.
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The police officer indicated that he would write a ticket if he had the time.
PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE VERBS
37. Use the Correct Form of the Passive

Example:
The topic for your research paper should have been approved by your advisor.
The suits were hung in the closet when they were returned from the cleaners.

38. Recognize Active and Passive Meanings

Example:
The vacation to Europe will plan* carefully before the scheduled departure date
The vacation to Europe will be planned carefully before the scheduled departure date.
The car parked* in a no-parking zone The car is/was parked in a no-parking zone.

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PROBLEMS WITH NOUNS
39. Use the Correct Singular or Plural Noun
KEY WORDS FOR SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS
For Singular Nouns each every single one a
For Plural Nouns both two many several various
Example:
Every receipt must be removed from the cashiers drawer and tallied.
The automotive shop stocked many parts for the various types of Hondas.

40. Distinguish Countable and Uncountable Nouns


KEY WORDS FOR COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
For Countable Nouns many number few fewer
For Uncountable Nouns much amount little less
Example:
He received little notice that the bill would have to be paid in full.
After the strike, the company dismissed many employees.

41. Recognize Irregular Plurals of Nouns


IRREGULAR PLURALS
Vowel change man / men foot / feet goose / geese
woman / women tooth / teeth mouse / mice
Add EN child / children ox / oxen
Same as singular deer / deer salmon / salmon trout / trout
fish / fish sheep / sheep
-IS -ES analysis / analyses diagnosis / diagnoses synthesis / syntheses
axis / axes hypothesis / hypotheses thesis / theses
crisis / crises parenthesis / parentheses
Ends in A bacterium / bacteria datum / data criterion / criteria
curriculum / curricula phenomenon / phenomena
-US -I alumnus / alumni fungus / fungi stimulus / stimuli
bacillus / bacilli nucleus / nuclei syllabus / syllabi
cactus / cacti radius / radii
Example:
The syllabi for the courses are included in the packet of materials.
A flock of geese was seen heading south for the winter.

42. Distinguish the Person from the Thing

Example:
The sculpture* worked from sunrise until sunset on his new project The sculptor
worked from sunrise until sunset on his new project.

PROBLEMS WITH PRONOUNS

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43. Distinguish Subject and Object Pronouns
SUBJECT OBJECT
I me
you you
he him
she her
it it
we us
they them
Example:
They saw Steve and me at the movies last night after class.
He is going to the party with you and me if you do not mind.

44. Distinguish Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns


POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS
my mine
your yours
his his
her hers
its -
our ours
their theirs
must be accompanied by a noun cannot be accompanied by a noun
Example:
If she borrows your coat, then you should be able to borrow hers.
When my roommate paid her half of the rent, I paid mine.

45. Check Pronoun Reference for Agreement

Example:
If a person really wants to succeed, he / she must always work hard.
If you see the students from the math class, could you return their exam paper to
them?

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PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
46. Use Basic Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

Example:
There is a special program on television this evening.
The car was not completely ready at 3:00.

47. Use Adjectives after Linking Verbs

Example:
She spoke nicely. She looks nice. He seems unusually nice.

48. Position Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

Example:
The important information is on the first page.
He has taken recently* an English course
- Recently he has taken an English course
- He has recently taken an English course
- He has taken an English course recently

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MORE PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES
49. Recognize LY Adjectives

Example: The manager turned in his weekly report.

50. Use Predicate Adjectives Correctly

Example:
The snake on the rock was alive.
The frightened child cried for his mother.

51. Used ED and ING Adjectives Correctly

Example:
There is a fastinating movie at the theater tonight.
Today the bookkeeper will work on the unpaid bills.

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PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES
52. Use Articles with Singular Nouns
I have money (uncountable no article needed)
I have books (countable plural no article needed)
I have a book (countable singular article needed)

Note: Article the may be used for both singular and plural nouns if they refers to specific
idea.

53. Distinguish A and An

Example:
a university an unhappy man a hospital an honor
a unit an understanding a heart an herb

54. Make Articles Agree With Nouns


AGREEMENT OF ARTICLES WITH NOUNS
You should never use a or an with a plural noun
Example:
The doctor used an other pills The doctor used other pills
He could not give me a good reasons for what he did He could not give me good
reasons for what he did.

55. Distinguish Specific and General Ideas

Example:
He will arrive on the first Tuesday in July.
He sailed on the Pacific Ocean.

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PROBLEMS WITH PREPOSITIONS (APPENDIX B)
56. Recognize Incorrect Prepositions
Example:
The game was called on* because of rain The game was called off because of rain.
I know I can rely in* you I know I can rely on you.

57. Recognize when Prepositions Have Been Omitted


Example:
Can you wait* me after the game? Can you wait for me after the game?
He can always depend* his friends He can always depend on his friends.

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PROBLEMS WITH USAGE
58. Distinguish Make and Do
- Make often has the idea of creating or constructing.
Example:
a. She likes to make her own clothes.
b. Would you like to make a cake for dessert?
c. If you make a mistake, you should correct it.
d. He was unable to make a response to the threat.
- Do often has the idea of completing or performing.
Example:
a. This morning she did all the dishes.
b. The students are doing the assignments.
c. The janitors did the work they were assigned.
d. You can do your laundry at the laundromat.

59. Distinguish Like, Alike, and Unlike

Example:
John and Tom are alike.
John is like Tom.
Unlike Tom, John is tall.

60. Distinguish Other, Another, and Others

Notice that you use another only to refer to an indefinite, singular idea. Others is used
only as a plural pronoun (not accompanied by a noun). In all other cases, other is correct.

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