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Technicaltraining.

Productinformation.
B46Engine

BMWService
Generalinformation

Symbolsused

Thefollowingsymbolisusedinthisdocumenttofacilitatebettercomprehensionortodrawattention
toveryimportantinformation:

Containsimportantsafetyinformationandinformationthatneedstobeobservedstrictlyinorderto
guaranteethesmoothoperationofthesystem.

Informationstatusandnational-marketversions

BMWGroupvehiclesmeettherequirementsofthehighestsafetyandqualitystandards.Changes
inrequirementsforenvironmentalprotection,customerbenefitsanddesignrendernecessary
continuousdevelopmentofsystemsandcomponents.Consequently,theremaybediscrepancies
betweenthecontentsofthisdocumentandthevehiclesavailableinthetrainingcourse.

ThisdocumentbasicallyrelatestotheEuropeanversionofleft-handdrivevehicles.Someoperating
elementsorcomponentsarearrangeddifferentlyinright-handdrivevehiclesthanshowninthe
graphicsinthisdocument.Furtherdifferencesmayariseasaresultoftheequipmentspecificationin
specificmarketsorcountries.

Additionalsourcesofinformation

Furtherinformationontheindividualtopicscanbefoundinthefollowing:

Owner'sHandbook
IntegratedServiceTechnicalApplication.

Contact:conceptinfo@bmw.de

2014BMWAG,Munich

ReprintsofthispublicationoritspartsrequirethewrittenapprovalofBMWAG,Munich

Theinformationcontainedinthisdocumentformsanintegralpartofthetechnicaltrainingofthe
BMWGroupandisintendedforthetrainerandparticipantsintheseminar.Refertothelatestrelevant
informationsystemsoftheBMWGroupforanychanges/additionstothetechnicaldata.

Contact:
SebastianRiedel
Tel.:+49(0)8938265044
E-mail:sebastian.rs.riedel@bmw.de

Informationstatus:June2014
BV-72/TechnicalTraining
B46Engine
Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. Enginedesignation............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2. Engineidentification......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.1. 4-cylinderengine..................................................................................................................................................................2
1.3. Highlights............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
1.3.1. Installationpositions........................................................................................................................................................ 3
1.3.2. Advantages..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.3.3. Overviewoftechnicalfeatures........................................................................................................................4
1.4. Modulardesign..........................................................................................................................................................................................................5
1.4.1. TwinPowerTurbo..................................................................................................................................................................7
1.5. Technicaldata............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
1.5.1. Modeloverview........................................................................................................................................................................8
1.6. Engineacoustics.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.6.1. Comparison....................................................................................................................................................................................9
1.6.2. ActiveSoundDesign................................................................................................................................................. 12

2. EngineMechanical................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
2.1. Enginehousing..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
2.1.1. Cylinderheadcover..................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.2. Cylinderhead......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.3. Crankcase.....................................................................................................................................................................................24
2.1.4. Oilsump......................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
2.2. Crankshaftdrive................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.1. Crankshaft....................................................................................................................................................................................33
2.2.2. Connectingrod.................................................................................................................................................................... 40
2.2.3. Piston...................................................................................................................................................................................................43
2.2.4. Counterbalanceshafts.............................................................................................................................................45
2.2.5. CounterbalanceshaftofB46engine............................................................................................... 52
2.2.6. Torsionalvibrationdamper................................................................................................................................55
2.2.7. Chaindrive.................................................................................................................................................................................. 57
2.3. Valvegear.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................60
2.3.1. Variants............................................................................................................................................................................................. 60
2.3.2. VANOS.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 61
2.3.3. Valvetronic................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
2.4. Beltdrive......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74

3. Oil Supply...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75
3.1. Oilcircuit......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 75
3.2. Mapcontrol................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 77
3.3. Oilpump.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
3.3.1. Mapcontrolvalve............................................................................................................................................................. 81
B46Engine
Contents
3.3.2. Normaloperation.............................................................................................................................................................. 82
3.3.3. Emergencyoperation................................................................................................................................................ 83
3.4. Suctionpipe............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 84
3.5. Pressure-limitingvalve.............................................................................................................................................................................. 85
3.6. Oilfiltermodule.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86
3.6.1. Filterbypassvalve.......................................................................................................................................................... 88
3.6.2. Heatexchangerbypassvalve....................................................................................................................... 88

4. CoolingSystem........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 89
4.1. Coolingcircuit,B46engine...............................................................................................................................................................89
4.1.1. Specialfeatures.................................................................................................................................................................. 90
4.2. Systemoverview,vehicle...................................................................................................................................................................... 91
4.3. Coolingmodule.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92
4.4. Coolantpump.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
4.5. Expansiontank...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94
4.6. Coolant............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95

5. IntakeAirandExhaustSystem..................................................................................................................................................................... 96
5.1. Intakeairsystem.................................................................................................................................................................................................97
5.1.1. Intakesilencer....................................................................................................................................................................... 98
5.1.2. Chargeaircooling...........................................................................................................................................................99
5.2. Exhaustemissionsystem..................................................................................................................................................................... 99
5.2.1. Exhaustturbocharger................................................................................................................................................ 99
5.2.2. Blow-offvalve.................................................................................................................................................................... 100
5.2.3. Chargingpressurecontrol.............................................................................................................................100
5.2.4. Exhaustsystem ............................................................................................................................................................ 104

6. VacuumSupply....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109
6.1. Systemoverview............................................................................................................................................................................................ 109
6.2. Vacuumpump.....................................................................................................................................................................................................110

7. FuelSystem................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 112
7.1. Fuelpumpcontrolmodule............................................................................................................................................................. 113
7.2. Electricfuelpump........................................................................................................................................................................................ 113
7.3. Fuelpreparation...............................................................................................................................................................................................115
7.3.1. Fuelhigh-pressurepump............................................................................................................................... 116
7.3.2. Directrail................................................................................................................................................................................... 119
7.3.3. Solenoidvalveinjector........................................................................................................................................ 121

8. EngineElectricalSystem..................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
8.1. DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)............................................................................................................................................ 129
B46Engine
Contents
8.2. Systemwiringdiagram,B46engine...............................................................................................................................130
8.3. Mapignition........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 132
8.3.1. Diagnosticfunctions............................................................................................................................................... 133
8.3.2. Ignitioncoils......................................................................................................................................................................... 135
8.3.3. Sparkplugs........................................................................................................................................................................... 138
8.4. Systemoverviewforengineelectricalsystem................................................................................................ 138
8.4.1. Transmissionside....................................................................................................................................................... 139
8.4.2. Sideview................................................................................................................................................................................... 140
8.4.3. Beltside......................................................................................................................................................................................141
B46Engine
1.Introduction
Thisdocumentdescribesthespecialfeaturesofthenew4-cylinderengineandservestosupport
thetechnicalservice.Duetothehugesimilarities,betweentheB38TopengineandB46,thetwo
enginesaredescribedinthisonedocument.Someimagesshownrelatetothe3-cylinderengine.
Thedifferencescomparedtothe4-cylinderengineareshownanddescribedseparately.However,the
similaritiesarenotrepeated.Theenginesaredistinguishedasfollowsinthisdocument:

B38=3-cylinderengine
B46=4-cylinderengine
Bx8=3and4-cylinderengine

1.1.Enginedesignation
Inthetechnicaldocumentation,theenginedesignationisusedtoensureunambiguousidentification
oftheengine.Frequently,onlyashortdesignationisused,whichisexplainedinthefollowingtable.

Position Meaning Index Explanation


1 Enginedeveloper B BMWGroupengine
2 Enginetype 3 3-cylinderin-lineengine
4 4-cylinderin-lineengine
3 Changetothebasic 6 SULEV/Turbo-ValvetronicDirectInjection(TVDI)
engineconcept 8 Turbo-ValvetronicDirectInjection(TVDI)
4 Workingmethodorfuel A Gasolineengine,transversalinstallation
andinstallationposition
5+6 Displacementin 15 1.5literdisplacement
1/10liter 20 2.0literdisplacement
7 Performanceclasses K Lowest
U Lower
M Middle
O Upper
T Top
S Super
8 Revisionrelevantto 0 Newdevelopment
approval 1 Firstrevision
2 Secondrevision

1
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.2.Engineidentification
The7-digitengineidentificationisonthecrankcase.Thefirstsixdigitsoftheengineidentification
arederivedfromtheenginetype.Onlytheseventhdigitisdifferent.Theseventhdigitoftheengine
identificationisthetestnumberofthetypeapprovalcertification.

Theconsecutiveenginenumberisembossedabovetheengineidentification.Usingthesetwo
numberstheenginecanbeclearlyidentifiedbythemanufacturer.

1.2.1.4-cylinderengine

EngineidentificationforB46engine

Index Explanation
1 Enginenumber
2 Engineidentification

2
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.3.Highlights

1.3.1.Installationpositions
Dependingonthedriveconcept,theinstallationpositionsofthenewenginesvaryinthedifferent
vehicles.

Transversemountingposition,B38Topengine

Index Explanation
1 Connectionforanti-rollbarlink
2 Compressoronintakeside,curved
3 Enginemount
4 Intakesysteminthedirectionofthetransmission
5 Oilfiltermodule,suspended

3
B46Engine
1.Introduction
Thisfollowingdriveandinstallationvariantsareavailable:

Transversemounting
Front-wheeldrives
Four-wheeldrives
Automatictransmission

1.3.2.Advantages

Benefitsduetolowernumberofcylinders:

lessweight
fewermovingmasses
lessspatialrequirement
reductionofinternalenginefriction

1
TheB46engineisbasedonthefamiliarN20engine.ThefamiliarTVDI technologyisusedinallnew
engines.Anoffsetoraxialoffset,asusedintheN20engine,isnotusedwiththenewB46engine.

Thenewenginegenerationismainlycharacterizedbylowerfuelconsumptionandfewerexhaust
emissions(ULEVII).Toachievelowfuelconsumption,amap-controlledoilpump,characteristicmap
thermostatandinjectionsystemwithdirect-railandelectricarcwire-sprayedcylinderbarrels,among
others,areused.Allenginesalsoreceiveanautomaticenginestart-stopfunctionandintelligent
alternatorcontrolasafurtherEfficientDynamicsmeasure.

1
TVDItechnologyconsistsof:

T=Turbocharger
V=Valvetronic
DI=Direct-Injection(directfuelinjection)

1.3.3.Overviewoftechnicalfeatures

B46A20
Map-controlledoilpump Yes
Electricarcwire-sprayedcylinderbarrels Yes
Twin-scrollexhaustturbocharger Yes
Electricallyadjustablewastegatevalve Yes
Directrail Yes
DoubleVANOS Yes
Valvetronic Yes

4
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.4.Modulardesign
TheEfficientDynamicsstrategyoftheNenginegenerationhasresultedinalargenumberofdifferent
technologiesfindingtheirwayintotheBMWengineworld.Thestrategyforthesimplificationof
inspectionworkisalsopursuedwiththeBenginegeneration.

BMWEfficientDynamicsstrategyoftheBx8enginegeneration

Designation Explanation
BMWEfficientDynamics BMWEfficientDynamicsstrategy
Moreperformance Moreperformance
Lessfuelconsumption Lessfuelconsumption
FewerCO2emissions Lesscarbondioxideemissions

BMWEfficientDynamicsalsostandsformorepower,lessconsumptionandlesscarbondioxide
emissionsinthenewenginegeneration.Withtheadditionalmodularstrategy,otherobjectivessuch
aslowercosts,greaterproductionflexibility,aswellasenhancedcustomersatisfaction,arenowalso
beingpursued.

5
B46Engine
1.Introduction

ModularstrategyofBx8enginegeneration

Designation Explanation
Modular Modularstrategy
Enhancedcustomersatisfaction Enhancedcustomersatisfaction
Greaterflexibility Greaterflexibility
Lesscosts Lesscosts

Themodularstrategyaimsfordifferenteffectsthroughouttheproductdevelopmentprocessand
productlifecycle.Thisallowsdevelopmentandmanufacturingcosts,forexample,tobeloweredby
usinguniformprocesses.Inproduction,thecomplexityofthemanufacturingprocessplanningand
implementationisreduced.InService,thewarehousingissimplifiedasaresultofthereductionofpart
variety,andthesafehandlingofproductsisincreased.

6
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.4.1.TwinPowerTurbo
AllB46enginesareequippedwiththeestablishedTwinPowerTurboTechnologies.

TwinPowerTurboTechnology,B46engine

TwinPowerTurbomeansthatthefollowingtechnologiesareused:

VANOS
Valvetronic
Directfuelinjection
Turbocharging

1.5.Technicaldata
B46A20M0
Poweroutputin[hp] 231
at[rpm] 47006000
Torquein[Nm] 350
at[rpm] 1250
Design/Numberofcylinders Row4
Displacementin[cm] 1998
Bore/strokein[mm] 82/94.6
Compressionratio 11:1
Valvespercylinder 4
Usedasof 07/2014
Model X1

7
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.5.1.Modeloverview
ThetablebelowprovidesanoverviewoftheBMWmodelsinwhichthenewenginesareused:

BMWmodels Engine
X1 B46A20M0

1.6.Engineacoustics
Inordertounderstandtheoriginoftheacousticdifferences,wemusttakealookattheengine
mechanicsandcomparethedesignfeaturesoftheengine.Thefollowinggraphicsillustratetheorigin
ofthedifferentacoustics.

8
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.6.1.Comparison

FiringintervalofB46engine

Index Explanation
1 Connectingrodbearingjournal,cylinder1
2 Connectingrodbearingjournal,cylinder2
3 Connectingrodbearingjournal,cylinder3
4 Connectingrodbearingjournal,cylinder4

9
B46Engine
1.Introduction
Thegraphicshowsa4-cylinderin-lineenginewithafiringintervalof180andafiringorderof134
2.Onecrankshaftrevolution(360)resultsintwoworkcyclesforthe4-cylinderin-lineengine.

Theacousticdifferencesthereforehavetheirorigininthedifferentfiringintervals.

AcousticoscillationsoftheBx8engines

Index Explanation
A Acousticoscillationofthe4-cylinderin-lineengine
B Acousticoscillationofthe3-cylinderin-lineengine

Ifonecomparestheacousticoscillationsofthetwoenginesasaresultoftheignitionprocess,
therearetwodifferentenginesounds.Thesoundofthe4-cylinderin-lineengineisperceivedas
harmoniousandsmooth.

10
B46Engine
1.Introduction

Acousticdiagramshowingcomparisonbetween3,4and6-cylinderengine

Index Explanation
A 6-cylinderin-lineengine
B 4-cylinderin-lineengine
C 3-cylinderin-lineengine
Hz Dominantfiringfrequency[f]
rpm Revolutionsperminute

Thedominantfiringfrequencies[f]canbecalculatedasfollows:

6-cylinderin-lineengine(firingorder3)
f=Enginespeed:603
4-cylinderin-lineengine(firingorder2)
f=Enginespeed:602
3-cylinderin-lineengine(firingorder1.5)
f=Enginespeed:601.5.

Overviewoffiringinterval

Engine Numberofcylinders Firingorder Firinginterval


4-cylinderengine 4 1342 180
(B46)

11
B46Engine
1.Introduction
1.6.2.ActiveSoundDesign
Theacousticsoftheenginecanbeadaptedusingthehi-fisystem.Withthehelpoftheaudiosystem
installedinthevehicle,thevehiclesoundpatternissupportedbytheuseoftheActiveSound
Design.Thesoundpatternisachievedwiththereinforcementoftheacousticcomponents,whichare
generatedbytheengine.

Thefollowinggraphicprovidesasystemoverview.

BusstructureofActiveSoundDesign

Index Explanation
1 Enginespeed
2 Load
3 AudiosignaloftheActiveSoundDesign(ASD)
4 Speaker
5 Audiosignaloftheheadunit
ASD ActiveSoundDesign
BDC BodyDomainController
DME DigitalMotorElectronics
Headunit Controlunitforentertainmentandinfotainmentfunctions
K-CAN/K-CAN2 Bodycontrollerareanetwork(2)
PT-CAN Powertraincontrollerareanetwork

12
B46Engine
1.Introduction
TheDigitalMotorElectronics(DME)enginecontrolunitsendsinformationabouttheenginespeed
andloadviathePT-CANtotheBodyDomainController(BDC).TheBodyDomainController(BDC)
transmitsthisinformationfromthePT-CANtotheK-CAN/K-CAN2.ViatheK-CAN/KCAN2the
informationreachestheActiveSoundDesign(ASD)controlunit.TheActiveSoundDesign(ASD)
controlunitgeneratesanaudiosignalwiththisinformation.Thisaudiosignalismodulatedtotheaudio
signaloftheheadunitandforwardedtotheloudspeakers.Anenginesoundcorrespondingtothe
drivingconditionisoutputtothedriverviathespeaker.

TheActiveSoundDesign(ASD)canbemuteduptothenextterminalchangeviatheISTAdiagnosis
system.ItisnotpossibletodeactivatetheActiveSoundDesignpermanently.

13
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
2.1.Enginehousing

EnginehousingofB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Cylinderheadcover
2 Cylinderhead
3 Cylinderheadgasket
4 Crankcase
5 Oilsump

14
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
2.1.1.Cylinderheadcover

CylinderheadcoverB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Mountingsofcamshaftsensors
2 Oilfillerneck
3 Recessesforinjectors
4 Mountingsforignitioncoils
5 Blow-bychannel,turbochargedoperation
6 Oilseparator,turbochargedoperation
7 Mountingforhighpressurepump

15
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
8 MountingsofVANOSsolenoidvalveactuators
9 Oilseparator,naturallyaspiratedengineoperation
10 Blow-bychannel,naturallyaspiratedengineoperation
11 Bayonetfittingwithretainingclips

AsisthecasewiththeexistingN20engine,theB46enginealsohasarecessformountingtheVANOS
solenoidvalveactuatorsinthecylinderheadcover.IncontrasttotheN20engine,theVANOSsolenoid
valveactuatorsarenotscrewedon,andinsteadarefastenedusingabayonetfittingandretainingclips.

Tasksofcrankcaseventilation:

Regulationoftheinternalenginepressure.
Cleaningtheblow-bygasestoremoveengineoil.
Recirculationofthecleanedblow-bygasesintheintakearea.

Whentheengineisinoperation,gases(referredtoas"blow-bygases")fromthecombustionchamber
passthroughthecylinderwallsandenterthecrankcase.Theseblow-bygasescontainunburnedfuel
andallelementsoftheexhaustgas.Inthecrankcasetheyaremixedwithengineoilwhichisavailable
thereintheformofoilmist.

Thevolumeoftheblow-bygasesisdependentontheenginespeedandtheload.Withoutcrankcase
ventilationexcesspressurewouldariseinthecrankcase.Thisexcesspressurewouldbepresentinall
cavitiesconnectedtothecrankcase(e.g.oilreturnduct,chainshaft,etc.)andleadtooilleakageatthe
seals.

Thecrankcaseventilationpreventsthis.Itroutestheextensivelyengineoil-freeblow-bygasesto
thecleanairpipeandtheseparateddropletsofoilflowbacktotheoilsumpviaanoilreturnpipe.
Inaddition,thecrankcaseventilation,incombinationwithapressurecontrolvalve,ensuresalow
vacuuminthecrankcase.

16
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Crankcaseventilation,B38engine

17
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
A Cylinderheadcover,viewfrombelow
1 Blow-bychannelintocleanairpipe(turbochargedoperation)
2 Blow-bychannelupstreamoftheintakevalves
(naturallyaspiratedengineoperation)
3 Cylinderheadcover
4 Intakeports
5 Oilreturn
6 Oilseparator(turbochargedoperation)
7 Oilseparator(naturallyaspiratedengineoperation)
8 Exhaustturbocharger

ThecrankcaseventilationinB46enginehasatwo-stagedesign.Thismeansthat,dependingonthe
loadcondition,theblow-bygasesareroutedviadifferentchannels.

Naturallyaspiratedengineoperation

Duringnaturally-aspiratedengineoperation,theblow-bygasesupstreamoftheintakevalvesare
routedtotheintakeport.

18
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Crankcaseventilation,naturallyaspiratedoperationofBx8engine

Index Explanation
B Ambientpressure
C Vacuum
D Exhaustgas
E Oil
F Blow-bygas
1 Airfilter
2 Intakemanifold

19
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
3 Separator
4 Blow-bychannelupstreamoftheintakevalves
5 Blow-bychannelupstreamofcrankcase
6 Purgeairline
7 Non-returnvalve
8 Crankchamber
9 Oilsump
10 Oilreturn
11 Exhaustturbocharger
12 Non-returnvalve,oilreturn
13 Cleanairpipe
14 Hosetocleanairpipe
15 Non-returnvalvewithrestrictor
16 Throttlevalve
17 Pressurecontrolvalve
18 Non-returnvalvewithrestrictor

Thefineoilmistisseparatedfromtheblow-bygaseswiththeassistanceofaseparatorandtheoil
dropletsformedareroutedbacktotheoilsumpviatheoilreturn.

Thethrottlevalveisclosedduringnaturally-aspiratedengineoperation.Thisproducesavacuumin
theintakesystem.whichdrawsintheblow-bygasesviablow-bychannelscastintothecylinderhead
directlyupstreamoftheintakevalves.InsystemscontrolledbyValvetronic,thethrottlevalveisalso
lightlyshutintheseoperatingconditionstoguaranteetheengineventilationfunction.

Apurgeairline,whichisconnectedtothecleanairpipeaheadoftheexhaustturbochargerandtothe
crankcase,routesfreshairviaanon-returnvalvedirectlyintothecrankcasechamber.Thebiggerthe
vacuuminthecrankcase,thebiggertheairmassintroducedintothecrankcase.Thispurgingprevents
thepressurecontrolvalvefromicingup.

Chargedoperation

Asasignificantoverpressureprevailsintheintakepipeduringturbochargedoperation,theblow-by
gasescannotbeintroducedupstreamoftheintakevalvesintheintakeport.Theblow-bygasesare
thereforeintroducedintothecleanairpipeinthisoperatingcondition.

20
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

CrankcaseventilationwithturbochargedoperationofB46engine

Index Explanation
A Chargingpressure
C Vacuum
D Exhaustgas
E Oil
F Oilandblow-byfuel-airmixture
1 Airfilter
2 Intakemanifold

21
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
3 Separator
4 Blow-bychannelupstreamoftheintakevalves
5 Blow-bychannelupstreamofcrankcase
6 Purgeairline
7 Non-returnvalve
8 Crankchamber
9 Oilsump
10 Oilreturn
11 Exhaustturbocharger
12 Non-returnvalve,oilreturn
13 Cleanairpipe
14 Hosetocleanairpipe
15 Non-returnvalvewithrestrictor
16 Throttlevalve
17 Pressurecontrolvalve
18 Non-returnvalvewithrestrictor

Thefineoilmistisseparatedfromtheblow-bygaseswiththeassistanceofaseparatorandtheoil
dropletsformedareroutedbacktotheoilsumpviatheoilreturn.

Thecylinderheadcoverisconnectedtothecleanairpipebyahose.Duringturbochargedoperation,
avacuumisproducedinthecleanairpipe.Thisvacuumdrawstheblow-bygasesintothecleanair
pipeviathehose.

Alwaysensureabsolutecleanlinesswhenfillingtheenginewithengineoil.Cleantheoilfillerneck
beforeyouscrewonthesealingcap.Engineoilresidueatthesealingcapmayleadtomisdiagnosis
atthecrankcaseventilation.

2.1.2.Cylinderhead

Technicalfeatures:

Material:AlSi7MgCU0.5
Coolantcoolingaccordingtothecross-flowprinciple
Fourvalvespercylinder
Mountingofthevalvegear
MountingoftheValvetronicandtheValvetronicservomotor
Mountingofthehighpressurepump

22
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

CylinderheadofB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Cylinderhead
2 Mounting,highpressurepump
3 Axialbearing,exhaustcamshaft
4 Axialbearing,intakecamshaft
5 Intakeports
6 Mounting,Valvetronicservomotor

Coolingconceptofcylinderhead

TheB46enginehasacylinderheadwithcross-flowcooling.Inthecaseofcross-flowcooling,the
coolantflowsfromthehotexhaustsidetothecoolerintakeside.Thishastheadvantageofproviding
uniformheatdistributionintheoverallcylinderhead.Lossofpressureinthecoolingcircuitisalso
prevented.

Cylinderheadgasket

InordertosatisfythehighdemandsoftheB46engine,atriple-layerspringsteelgasketisusedasthe
cylinderheadgasket.

23
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

CylinderheadgasketinB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Springsteelgasket
2 Sealingareaofthechainshaft
3 Sealingarea,combustionchamber,cylinder3
4 Sealingarea,combustionchamber,cylinder2
5 Sealingarea,combustionchamber,cylinder1

Thecylinderheadgasketisproducedintwodifferentthicknesses.Thethicknessofthegasketcan
onlybecheckedviathepartnumber.

Ifacylinderheadgaskethasalreadybeenuseditmustnotbeusedagain.

2.1.3.Crankcase

Overview

Unit B46A20M0
Displacement [cm] 1998
Hole [mm] 82
Stroke [mm] 94.6
Singlecylindervolumes [cm] 499.6
Compressionratio 11:1
Distancebetweencylinders [mm] 91

24
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Overview

Sideviewofcrankcase,B46engine

Index Explanation
A CrankcaseofB46engine
C Beltdriveside
D Transmissionside
1 ClosedDeck
2 Sealingsurface,coolantpump(transverseinstallation)
3 Cylinderbarrels(LDS=electricarcwiresprayed)
4 Coolantoutlet
5 Boreholeforoilpressuresensor
6 Boreholeforvacuumduct
7 Borehole,solenoidvalve
8 Sealingsurface,oilfiltermodule

Characteristicsofcrankcase:

Heat-treatedallaluminiumcrankcasemadefromAlSiMgCu0.5
Electricarcwire-sprayedcylinderbarrels
Weight-optimizedmainbearingcapofcrankshaftwithembossingteeth
Closed-deckdesign
DeepSkirt
Oilductsfortheuseofamap-controlledoilpump
Supportofcounterbalanceshaft(s)incoredtunnel

25
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Electricarcwirespraying(LDS)

Electricarcwiresprayingmethod,Bx8engine

ThecylinderbarrelsoftheB46enginearecoatedbymeansofanelectricarcwiresprayingprocess.
Inthisprocedureaconductivemetalwireisheateduntilitmelts.Themeltisthensprayedontothe
cylinderbarrelsathighpressure.Thislayerofferrousmaterialisroughly0.3mmthick,extremelywear-
resistantandfacilitatesanefficienttransferofheatfromthecombustionchamberstothecrankcase,
andfromtheretothecoolantducts.

Advantages:

Lowerweight
Highwearresistance
Goodheatdissipationtothecrankcase
Lowerinternalenginefrictionthankstoexcellentslidingproperties

Duetothethinmaterialapplicationduringtheelectricarcwire-sprayingprocedure,subsequent
processingofthecylinderbarrelsisnotpossible.

26
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Bearing,counterbalanceshaft

Crankcasefrombelow,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
A CrankcaseofB46engine
1 Positionofcounterbalanceshaft1
2 Cylinderbarrel(coatedbyelectricarcwirespraying)
3 Embossedmainbearingcap
4 Mainbearingseat
5 Ventilationholes
6 Positionofcounterbalanceshaft2

Inthe4-cylinderengine,theseforcesarereducedbytwocounter-rotatingcounterbalanceshafts.For
moreinformation,refertothechapteronCounterbalanceshafts.

ClosedDeck

Withtheclosed-deckdesign,thecoolantductsaroundthecylinderareclosedfromaboveand
providedwithcoolantboreholes.

27
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
DeepSkirt

Withthe"deepskirt"concept,thesidewallsextendfardownwards.Thislendsthecrankcaseahigh
degreeofstabilityandconsiderableflexibilityintermsofthepistonstrokelength.

Embossedcrankshaftbearingcap

TheweightofthemainbearingcapofthecrankshafthasbeenfurtheroptimizedforthenewB46
engine.Whentheimpressionconnectionismadethemainbearingcapisdesignedwithaprofile.
Whenthemainbearingboltsaretightenedforthefirsttime,thisprofilepushesintothesurfaceof
thebearingblockonthecrankcaseside.

Exchangeofthemainbearingcap,orpositioninginanotherbearingpositiononthecrankshaft,
isnotpermittedandwillleadtoenginedamage.

Ventilationholes

Thecombustionchambersareconnectedviaventilationboreholesatthebottomendofthecylinder
barrels.Theairflows,whichariseasaresultoftheupwardanddownwardmovementofthepistons,
canthusescapeeasierviatheventilationboreholes.Inaddition,asthedisplacementofairvolumehas
beensimplifiedbyusingtheventilationboreholes,thepistoncanmoveupanddownmoreeasily.
Thisreducestheinternalfrictionoftheengineandensurestheengineoperatesmoreefficiently.

2.1.4.Oilsump
Theoilsumpismanufacturedfromdie-castaluminium.

Tasks:

Collectingvesselforengineoil.
Collectionareaforreturningengineoil.
Reinforcingcomponentintheengine-transmissioncombination.
Fixturefortheoil-levelsensorandoildrainplug.
Connectionoftheanti-rollbarlinkfortransversemounting.

28
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

SideviewofB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Attachmentpoints,crankcaseattransmission
2 Timingcasecover
3 Sealplugforboreholeoftheholdingfixture
4 Attachmentpoints,oilsumpattransmission
5 Oilsump
6 Anti-rollbarlink(onlyfortransversemounting)
7 Oillevelsensor

Theenginecanbedisconnectedviaaboreholeintheoilsumpforadjustingthetiming.When
installingtheoilsumpwiththetransmissionremoved,makesurethatthetransmissioncontactsurface
oftheoilsumpandthetimingcasecoverareinoneplane.Alwaysusethecorrespondingspecial
tool.Ifagaparisesbetweenthetwoareaswhentighteningthemountingboltsofthetransmission,it
causesdamagetotheoilsump.

29
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

OilsumpofB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Anti-rollbarlink(onlyfortransversemounting)
2 Oildrainplug
3 Oilsump
4 Oillevelsensor
5 Reinforcingribs
6 Connectionofanti-rollbarlinkatoilsump
7 Oilreturntooilsump
8 Crankcaseendcover(beltside)

Theengineoilflowsfromtheoilcircuitbacktotheoilsumpviathereturnlineoftheexhaust
turbocharger.

TheB46enginedoesnothaveanoildipstick.Theoillevelismonitoredelectronicallyatalltimes
withtheassistanceoftheoil-levelsensorandcanberequestedviatheon-boardcomputer.

30
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
SealingB46engine

OilsumpgasketB46engine

Index Explanation
1 Radialshaftseal
2 Oilsump
3 Siliconebead
4 Sealingsurface,oilsump

31
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
AcrankcaseendcoverisnotrequiredwiththeB46engine.Thesiliconebeadmustbeappliedaround
theentiresealingsurfaceareaoftheoilsump.

Schematicdiagramforoilsumpsealing

Index Explanation
A Componentswithoutsiliconebead
B Componentswithsiliconebead
C Componentsboltedwithsiliconebead
1 Crankcase
2 Siliconebead
3 Oilsumpwithbevel
4 Siliconedischarge

Inordertosealwithsealant,abevelisrequiredaroundtheinneredgeoftheflange.Excesssealing
compoundcanbedischargedinacontrolledmannerintothespaceprovidedwhenscrewing.
Removalofthesealingcompoundbyoilsplashesisthusprevented.

32
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
2.2.Crankshaftdrive

2.2.1.Crankshaft

OverviewofcrankshaftofB46engine

CrankshaftofB46engine

Index Explanation
K Transmissionside,crankshaft
1 Camshaftsprocket,intermediateshaft
2 Gear,counterbalanceshaft1
3 Crankshaftgear

33
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
4 Gear,counterbalanceshaft2
5 Intermediategear(changeindirectionofrotationofcounterbalanceshaft2)
6 Oilandvacuumpump
7 Oilpumpsprocket

IntheB46engineboththetimingchainandthedriveforthecounterbalanceshaftsarelocatedonthe
transmissionsideofthecrankshaft.

Technicaldata,crankshaft

Characteristics Unit B46engine


Material C38+N2
Manufacture Forged
Diameterofthemain [mm] 50
bearingjournal
Widthofthemain [mm] 25
bearingjournal
Diameteroftheconnecting [mm] 50
rodbearingjournal
Widthofconnectingrod [mm] 24
bearingjournal
Strokeoftheconnecting [mm] 94.6
rodbearingjournal
Throwangle [] 180
Numberofcounterweights 4
Numberofmainbearing 5
positions
Positionofthethrustbearing Bearing3

34
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
CrankshaftbearinginB38engine

OverviewofbearingshellsattheB38engine

Index Explanation
A Bearingshellinmainbearingseat
B Bearingshellsinmainbearingcap
C Axialguidebearing
K Transmissionside
1 Crankshafts,mainbearing
2 Connectingrodbearingjournal
3 Counterweights
4 Mainbearingseat
5 Mainbearingcap

Thecrankshaftismountedusingdifferentbearingshells.Thebearingshellsinthelow-loadzoneof
thebearingseathaveoilholesandaperipheralgrooveforfreshoilsupply.Thehighlystressedbearing
shellsintheareaofthemainbearingcaphavenooilholesorgrooves.

35
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Duetotheverylowtolerances,specialattentionmustbepaidtocleanlinesswhenhandlingbearing
shells.

Theaxialguidebearingislocatedinthecenterbearingareaofthecrankshaft.Thisbearingholdsthe
crankshaftintheaxialdirectionandmustabsorbforcesinthelongitudinaldirectionwhich,forexample,
canariseduringtheoperationtheclutch.

Beforethecompletionoftheengine,checkthesideclearanceinaccordancewiththerepair
instructions.Excessivesideclearancemaycauseelectricalfaultsordamagetothecomponents.

Identifyingthebearingshells

Sothatthecrankshaftcancarryoutitsmaintaskeffectively,incorporationoftheliftingmovementand
conversiontoarotationalmovement,itmustbepositionedcorrectly.Thedimensiontobeadjusted
canalsobecalledafitandisgeneratedusingcrankshaftbearingshellswithvaryingdegreesof
thickness.

CrankshaftbearinginB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Hole
2 Shaft

Adistinctionismadebetweenthreetypesoffitinthedesign:

Clearancefit
Transitionfit
Interferencefit

36
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Thefitisviewedasanaccuraterelationshipbetweentheboreholeandtheshaft.Thecrankcase
representstheboreholeandthecrankshaftrepresentstheshaft.Thisiswhythenumbersforthe
classificationofthebearingshellsarelocatedonthecrankcaseandthecrankshaft.Inthecaseofa
dimensionbeingadjusted,thisisaso-calledclearancefit.Aclearancefitischaracterizedbythefact
thatineachcasetheminimumdimensionoftheboreholeisgreaterthanthemaximumdimensionof
theshaft.Thiscreatesthenecessaryplaybetweentheshaftandtheborehole,whichisneededfor
thebearingofthecrankshaft.

Bearingshellclassificationonthebearingseat

Bearingshellclassificationonthebearingseat,B38engine

Index Explanation
I Bearingseat1
II Bearingseat2
III Bearingseat3
IV Bearingseat4
K Transmissionside
R Beltside
1 Crankcase
2 Stampedletters

Thestampedlettersonthecrankcaseareusedtodeterminethebearingshellsizesofthebearing
seat.

37
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Thefollowinglettersareusedfortheclassification:

A=highestpossibleplay(thinnestbearingshell)
B=mediumplay(mediumbearingshell)
C=lowestpossibleplay(thickestbearingshell).

TheletterKstandsforthetransmissionsideofthecrankcase.Italsospecifiesthecountingorderfor
theassignment.

IfthereisaKbeforethestampedletters,thenthefirstletterofthecodereferstothebearingshellof
bearingseat4,whichislocatedonthetransmissionside.Thesubsequentletters,readfromleftto
right,refertothebearingseat3,2and1.Thepositionsmarkedwith"0"areplaceholdersforlarger
enginesandaresimplyomitted.

Usingthepreviousgraphicforreference,thefollowingcombinationisobtained:

Assignment:

Transmissionside=K
Bearingseat4=C
Bearingseat3=B
Bearingseat2=B
Bearingseat1=A.

Ifthestampedlettersarenotprecededby"K",thenthefirstletterofthecodereferstothebearing
shellofbearingseat1,whichislocatedoppositethetransmissionsideonthebeltside.The
subsequentletters,readfromlefttoright,refertobearingseat2,3and4.

Whenassigningtheletterswithout"K",thefollowingcombinationisobtained:

Assignment:

Bearingseat1=C
Bearingseat2=B
Bearingseat3=B
Bearingseat4=A.

38
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Bearingshellclassificationonmainbearingcap

Bearingshellclassificationonmainbearingcap,B38engine

Index Explanation
I Mainbearingcap1
II Mainbearingcap2
III Mainbearingcap3
IV Mainbearingcap4
K Transmissionside
R Beltside
1 Crankshaft
2 Stampeddigits

Thestampeddigitonthecrankshaftdeterminesthebearingshellsizesofthemainbearingcap.

Thefollowingnumbersareusedfortheclassification:

1=highestpossibleplay(thinnestbearingshell)
2=mediumplay(mediumbearingshell)
3=lowestpossibleplay(thickestbearingshell).

39
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Inthecaseofthecrankshaft,theletterKalsodefinestheassignmentofthebearingposition.
ThedigitnexttotheKistobeassignedtothemainbearingcap4whichisonthetransmissionside.
Thesubsequentdigits,readfromlefttoright,refertothemainbearingcap3,2and1.

Usingthepreviousgraphicforreference,thefollowingcombinationisobtained:

Assignment:

Mainbearingcap1=1
Mainbearingcap2=2
Mainbearingcap3=3
Mainbearingcap4=2
Transmissionside=K.

Decipheringthecombinationoflettersanddigits

Theletteranddigitcombinationofthemainbearingshellscanbedecryptedusingatableintherepair
instructions.Thecorrectbearingshellsizesaredeterminedwithhelpofthecolorcodes.

2.2.2.Connectingrod

ConnectingrodofB46engine

40
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
1 Piston
2 Force-transmittingsurface
3 Wristpin
4 Connectingrodbearingbushwithshapedborehole
5 Connectingrod
6 Connectingrodbush
7 Smallconnectingrodeye(trapezoidalshape)
8 Largeconnectingrodeye(cracked)
9 Connectingrodboltsoftheconnectingrodbearingcap
10 Connectingrodbearingshelloftheconnectingrodbearingcap
11 Connectingrodbearingshelloftheconnectingrod(IROX-coated)

Thefamiliardrop-forgedcrackedconnectingrodsareused.

Ifaconnectingrodbearingcapismountedthewrongwayroundoronanotherconnectingrod,the
fracturestructureofbothpartsisdestroyedandtheconnectingrodbearingcapisnotcenterd.Inthis
eventtheentireconnectingrodsetmustbereplacedwithnewparts.InServicepleaseobservethe
specifiedjointingtorquesandangleofrotationspecificationsintherepairinstructions.

Weightclassification

Toguaranteesmoothenginerunning,theconnectingrodsaredividedintoweightclasses.Thelarge
andsmallconnectingrodeyesareweighedseparatelyanddividedintovariousclassesaccordingto
theirweight.

InServiceonlyconnectingrodsofthesameweightclasscanbeused.Thisiswhyonlyafullsetof
connectingrodsisavailableintheeventofareplacement.Thissetcomprisesthecorresponding
numberofconnectingrodsofaweightclassification.

Irox-coating

Inordertocomplywiththeincreasinglystringentexhaustemissionregulations,mostcombustion
enginesnowadaysareequippedwithanautomaticenginestart-stopfunction.Thishasledtoahuge
increaseinstartingcycles.

Toensuretheenginerunssmoothly,itisimportantthatsufficientlubricatingoilissuppliedtothe
bearingpositionsofthecrankshaft.Iftheoilsupplycanbeensured,solidbodycontactwillnot
occurbetweentheconnectingrodbearingjournalandconnectingrodbearingshellduetothethin
lubricatingfilm.

41
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Iftheengineisnowstopped,itwillnotbepossibleforthemechanically-drivenoilpumptomaintain
theoilsupply.Theoilfilmbetweenthebearingpositionsflowsoff.Solidbodycontactoccursbetween
theconnectingrodbearingjournalandconnectingrodbearingshell.Oncetheengineisrestarted,
ittakesacertainamountoftimeforthelubricatingfilmtofullyre-establishitself.Theconnecting
rodbearingshellmaybesubjecttowearinthisshortperiod.TheIrox-coatingreducesthisweartoa
minimum.

TheIROX-coatedbearingshellsareonlylocatedontheconnectingrodsideasheretheloadacts
mainlyonthebearingshells.ThebearingshellcapsareequippedwithabearingshellwithoutIROX
coating.

TheIROXballbearingsareredduetotheirspecialcoating.

DetailedmagnificationoftheIrox-coatingoftheBx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Irox-coatedbearingshell
2 Oilfilm
3 Irox-coating
4 Bearingshell
5 Bindingresin
6 Hardparticle
7 Solidlubricant

TheIrox-coatingisappliedtoaconventionalbearingshell.Itconsistsofabindingresinmatrixmade
ofpolyamide-imidewithembeddedhardparticlesandsolidlubricants.Thepolyamide-imideensures,
incombinationwiththehardparticles,thatthebearingshellsurfaceissohardthatmateriallossis
nolongerpossible.Thesolidlubricantsreducesurfacefrictionandreplacetheoilfilmwhichbriefly
nolongerexistsbetweenthebearingshellandtheconnectingrodbearingjournalduringthestarting
phase.

42
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Bearingshellclassificationofconnectingrodbearing

Theconnectingrodbearingshellsareavailableinonestandardsize.Itisthereforenotnecessaryto
followaproceduresimilartothatusedwiththemainbearingshellsofthecrankshaft.

2.2.3.Piston

PistonofBx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Pistoncrown
2 Valverelief
3 1stpistonring
4 2ndpistonring
5 3rdpistonring
6 Gudgeonpin
7 Pistonskirt
8 Ringbar
9 Fireland

43
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Pistonrings

PistonringsofBx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Plaincompressionring
2 Steppedcompressionring
3 Oilscraperring
4 Piston

Toperformtheirfunctions,itisnecessaryforthepistonringstotouchthecylinderwallandtheedge
ofthepistongroove.Contactwiththecylinderwalliseffectedbytheradiallyactingspringforceofthe
ring.Theoilscraperringissupportedbyanadditionalring.

Thepistonringsrotateinthegrooveswhiletheengineisrunningandtherebyalterthepositionof
thegap.Thisstemsfromthelateralforcewhichactsonthepistonringsduringchangeofcontact.
Thisprocessremovesdepositsfromtheringgrooves.Italsopreventsthepistonringgapfromcutting
intothecylinderbarrel.

TheB46enginehastwocompressionringsandoneoilscraperring.

44
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Theplainrectangularcompressionringsitsinthefirstpistonringgrooveandisusedasaplain
compressionring.

Thetaperfacedpistonringisalsoacompressionring.Asharpwiperedgedevelopsthroughthelug
forcontrollingtheoilsupply.Theundercutofthelugimpliesthattheoilscrapedfromtherunningedge
isdivertedandanoilblockagedoesnotformthere,whichwouldotherwisereducethescrapingeffect.

Theoilscraperringisasteelbandringwithspring.Thetwolandsandinparticularthechamfercreate
ahighsurfacecontactpressure,whichpromotestheoil-scrapingeffect.

TheplainrectangularcompressionringandthetaperfacedpistonringhaveaTopmark.When
installingthetwopistonringstheTopmarkmustbefacinginthedirectionofthepistoncrown.

2.2.4.Counterbalanceshafts
Duetotheoperatingprincipleofthepistonengine,undesiredoscillationsoccurattheenginehousing
whendriving,whichcanbetransmittedtothevehicleinterior.Tocounteractthisnegativeeffect,BMW
hasalreadybeeninstallingso-calledcounterbalanceshaftsinmorerecentenginegenerations.Uptill
now,theirrolewastocanceloutfreeinertiaforcesandthereforeincreaseridecomfort.Inadditionto
theinertiaforces,so-called'freemomentsofinertia'alsoexist,whichcanalsoadverselyeffectride
comfort.Dependingontheenginedesignandnumberofcylinders,varyingdegreesoffreeinertia
forcesandfreemomentsofinertiaoccur.

CounterbalanceshaftsystemoftheB46engine

Index Explanation
B CounterbalanceshaftsforthereductionoffreeinertiaforcesintheB46engine

Themassbalanceisusedtooffsetstructuralimbalances.Thetaskofthemassbalanceistoimprove
therunningandnoisecharacteristicsoftheengine,byneutralizingthefreeinertiaforcesandtorques.
Forthisreasonabriefdescriptionofthespecialfeaturesofforcesandtorquesisprovidedbelow.

45
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Forces

Staticforce

Index Explanation
F1 Firstforcewithupwardsoperatingdirection
F2 Secondforcewithdownwardsoperatingdirection
S Static
1 Intensityofforce
2 Pointofaction

Forcesareinvisibleandcanonlybenoticedbytheireffects.Theyconsistofapointofactionandan
operatingdirection.Theirstatecanbedynamicorstatic.Theforcesareshownasanarrow(vector).
Thearrowheadprovidesinformationontheoperatingdirectionoftheforce.Attheotherendofthe
arrow(vector),oppositethearrowhead,isthepointofaction.Theintensityoftheforceisdetermined
bythearrowlength(vectorlength).Thephysicalunitofforceis[N]andthesymbolis[F].

Thepreviousgraphicshowstwoforcesactinginexactlyoppositedirectionswiththesameintensity.
Thesystemisbalanced(static)asbothforcescanceleachother.Whenobservedfromtheoutside,
areactioncannotbedetermined.

46
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Torques

Statictorque

Index Explanation
F1 Contactforce[F]
F2 Largecounterforce[F]
F3 Smallcounterforce[F]
M1 Contacttorque[M]
M2 Counter-torque[M]
r1 Smallleverarm[r]
r2 Largeleverarm[r]

Torquesoccurifaforceistransmittedatitspointofactionviaaleverarm.Thephysicalunitoftorque
is[Nm]anditssymbolis[M].Theleverarmandtheforceactingatthepointofactionaredecisivefor
thesizeofthetorque.Thefollowingmathematicalcontextemerges:

M=Fr

Thepreviousgraphicshowstwotorqueswhichcanceleachotherout.Ifthecontactforceisincreased,
withoutincreasingthecounterforcetothesamedegree,thetwotorquesarenolongeratequilibrium.
Thependantwouldfalltothefloor.Tore-establishthestaticequilibriumofthesystem,eitherthe
counterforcehastobeincreasedortheleverarmextendedatwhichthecounterforceacts.

47
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Oscillatingandrotatingforces

Theupwardsanddownwardsmovementofthepistons,aswellastheconnectingrods,iscalledan
oscillatingforceandtherotationalmovementofthecrankshaftiscalledarotatingforce.Thesetwo
differentforcesalsocausetheundesiredoscillationswhentheengineisrunning.

OscillatingforcesintheB38engine

Index Explanation
F1 Forcedirectedupwards
F2 Forcedirecteddownwards
1 Piston
2 Connectingrod

Oscillatingforcesoccurinthepistonenginewhenthedirectionchangesatbottomandtopdead
center.Duetotheinertiaofthepistonandtheconnectingrod,theforceisdirectedeitherupwardsor
downwards.Thefollowingthereforeapplies:thelowerthemassofthepistonandtheconnectingrod,
thelowerthecorrespondingoscillatingforceswillbe.

48
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
InordertoreducethefuelconsumptionaccordingtotheEfficientDynamicsstrategy,thepoweroutput
perliterisincreased.Throughtheuseofexhaustturbochargersmorepowerisobtainedfromthe
samedisplacement.Thismeansthepistonsandtheconnectingrodareexposedtohigherignition
pressuresandmusthaveamoresoliddesign.Themassesofthecomponentssubsequentlyincrease,
andthustheoscillatingforces.

RotatingforcesintheB38engine

Index Explanation
A Pistonstroke(offsetofconnectingrodbearingjournal)
Fx Rotatingforces
1 Connectingrodbearingjournal
2+3 Counterweights

Toproducearotatingmovementofthecrankshaftfromthestrokeofthepiston,theconnectingrod
bearingjournalsthatsupportthelargeconnectingrodeyearenotlocatedontheaxisofrotationof
thecrankshaft.Animbalancewhenturningthecrankshaftoccursbytheoffsetoftheconnectingrod
bearingjournals.Thearisingimbalanceiscounteractedbytheuseofcounterweights.

49
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

CounterweightsofcrankshaftofB38engine

Index Explanation
F1 Forceofthecrankshaftweightdirectedtotheleft
F2 Forceofthecrankshaftweightdirectedtotheright

Therotatinginertiaforcescanbecompletelyneutralizedwithhelpofthecounterweightsatthe
crankshaft.Someoftheweightatthecrankshaftisalsousedtoreducetheoscillatinginertiaforces
(changeofdirectionofthepistonandconnectingrod).Iftheentireoscillatinginertiaforcesare
reducedbycounterweightsatthecrankshaft,theforcesortorques(dependingonthedesignand
numberofcylinders)inthetopandbottomdeadcenterofthepistonsareneutralized.However,this
wouldalsomeanthatinthepistonintermediateposition(pistonbetweentopdeadcenterandbottom
deadcenter)theinertiaforcesofthecounterweightsworkinalateraldirection.Theresultwouldbe
vibrationswhicharetransmittedviathecrankshaftbearingtothecrankcaseandfinallytotheentire
vehicle.

Thisconflictcanberesolvedthroughtheuseofcounterbalanceshafts,aswellascleverweight
classificationofthecounterweightsatthecrankshaft.

50
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Oscillatingtorques

Oscillatingtorques

Index Explanation
B 4-cylinderengine

Thisexampleshowswhythedesignplaysaroleinwhichforcesortorquesoccurduringengine
operation.

Incontrast,theforceswhichoccuratthecrankshaftofthe4-cylinderenginewhentheengineis
runningcanceleachotherout.Freemomentsofinertiathereforedonotoccur.

Order

Theinertiaforcesaredividedinto"orders".Themorefrequentlyaninertiaforceoccursduringeach
crankshaftrevolution(360),thegreateritsorderofmagnitudewillbe.

Thefreeinertialforcesandtorquescategorizedasfollows:

Inertiaforces,1storder
Inertiaforces,2ndorder
Inertiatorques,1storder
Inertiatorques,2ndorder.

Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthearisingforcesandtorquesdependingonthedesign
andnumberofcylinders

Inertiaforces, Inertiaforces, Inertiatorques, Inertiatorques,


1storder 2ndorder 1storder 2ndorder
4-cylinderin-line X
engine
6-cylinderin-line
engine

51
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Thetableprovidesinformationonwhichforcesandtorquesoccurandtheirorderofmagnitude.Free
inertialforcesandmomentsofinertiaofthefirstorderarethemostnoticeable.Freeinertiaforcesand
momentsofinertiaofthesecondorderareperceivedismuchlesstroublesome.Thegreatertheorder
ofmagnitudeistherefore,themoreitcanbedisregardedforthepurposesofmassbalancing.

Thetableshowsthatthebestenginedesignintermsofsmoothrunningisthe6-cylinderin-line
engine.Allforcescanceleachotherout.Therefore,withthisenginedesignnoadditionalmeasuresfor
neutralizingtherotatingoroscillatingmasseshavetobeimplemented.

2.2.5.CounterbalanceshaftofB46engine
Freeinertiaforcesofthe2ndorderoccurinthe4-cylinderin-lineengine.Thefollowinggraphicshows
howtheforcesofthe1stordercanceleachother.

Freeinertiaforces,1storder,B46engine

Index Explanation
F1 Oscillatingandrotatinginertiaforcewithoperatingdirection0crankangle
F2 Oscillatingandrotatinginertiaforcewithoperatingdirection0crankangle
F3 Oscillatingandrotatinginertiaforcewithoperatingdirection180crankangle
F4 Oscillatingandrotatinginertiaforcewithoperatingdirection180crankangle
1 Inertiaforcesinequilibrium(static)

52
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Ifyoutakealookatthecrankshaftfromthefront,thenallforcesofthe1stordercanceleachother.
However,inertiaforcesofthe2ndorderoccur,whichcanbeexplainedasfollows:

Freeinertiaforces,2ndorder,B46engine

Index Explanation
A Positionline,piston1
B Positionline,piston2
C Stroke,piston1
D Stroke,piston2
1 Piston1
2 Piston2
3 Crankshaftangle0
4 Crankshaftangle45aftertopdeadcenter

53
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Ascanbeseeninthepreviousgraphic,bothpistonsareattoporbottomdeadcenteratthesame
time.Ifthecrankshaftisrotated45counter-clockwiseandthetwopistonpositionsarecompared,it
becomesclearthatthepathscoveredbybothpistonsdiffer.Piston1,whichstartedfromthetopdead
centerposition,coversagreaterdistancethanpiston2fromthebottomdeadcenterposition.Asboth
pistonscoveradifferentdistanceinthesameperiod,theymusthavetravelledatdifferentspeeds.This
speeddifferenceaffectstheaccelerationanddecelerationoftheoscillatingmasses,thusleadingto
undesiredoscillations.Asthisprocessoccurstwicepercrankshaftrevolution,thesearereferredtoas
freeinertiaforcesofthe2ndorder.

Overviewofcounterbalanceshafts,B46engine

Index Explanation
A Counterbalanceshaft
B Crankshaft
1 Straighttoothgearing
2 Needlebearing
3 Intermediategear
4 Outputdrivegear,crankshaft
5 Outputpinion,timingchain
6 Outputpinion,chain,oilpump

54
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
TheB46enginehastwocounterbalanceshaftswhichrotateattwicethespeedofthecrankshaft.
Thegearsofthecounterbalanceshaftshave48teeth.Thegearofthecrankshafthas96teeth.

Acorrectsettingofthetwocounterbalanceshaftsisaprerequisiteforreductionoftheoscillations.
Usingaspecialtoolthecounterbalanceshaftscanbesecuredintheirspecifiedinstallationposition
inService.

Agearbetweenthecrankshaftandthecounterbalanceshafteffectsthechangeofrotationaldirection
oftherightcounterbalanceshaft.Inthenewcondition,thetoothflanksoftheidlergearhaveaspecial
coating.Thiscoatinghelpsadjustthetoothbacklashbetweenthecounterbalanceshaftandthe
crankshaftduringinstallationinService.Anincorrectlyadjustedtoothbacklashcanleadtorunning
noisesofthegearswhentheengineisrunning.

Anewlycoatedidlergearmustbeinstalledforsettingthecounterbalanceshafts.
Therepairinstructionsmustbefollowed.

2.2.6.Torsionalvibrationdamper
AtorsionalvibrationdamperisusedonthebeltdriveofB46engine.Thetorsionalvibrationdamper
assumesthefollowingtasks:

Reductionofthetorsionaloscillationsofthecrankshaft.
Reductionoftherotationaldeformityofthesupportingcomponents.

55
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Variantofatorsionalvibrationdamper,B46engine

Index Explanation
1 Beltpulley
2 Plainbearing
3 Beltpulleyrubberisolationelement
4 Uncoupledbeltpulleyhub
5 Pressurehub
6 Vibrationdamperhub
7 Vibrationdamperrubberpart
8 Flywheel

56
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Vibrationdamper

Thevibrationdampercomprisesahub,arubberelement,whichactsasaspring,andaflywheel,which
servesasweight.Therotaryoscillationsofthecrankshaftarereducedbythecombinedactionof
thespringandmasselement.Thisreducestheloadofthecrankshaftandthenoisesemittedbythe
engine.

Uncoupledbeltpulley

Theuncoupledbeltpulleyisimportantforsmoothlow-weardriveofsupportingcomponents.The
beltpulleyisuncoupledfromthehubbytherubberisolationelement.Therubberisolationelement
permitsgreaterrotation,andreducestheremainingrotationalimbalanceandtherebytheloadonthe
drivebelt.Thebeltpulleyissupportedbytheplainbearing.

Toavoiddamagetothetorsionalvibrationdamper,theenginemustnotbeoperated
withoutdrivebelts.

2.2.7.Chaindrive

Features:

Chaindriveatthesideoftheengineemittingtheforces.
Two-partchaindrivefordriveofcamshafts,synergypartsforthedieselengines.
Simplesleeve-typechains.
Electricmotorofthecombinedoil-vacuumpumpviaaseparatechain.
Plastictensioningrailsandguiderails.
Hydraulicchaintensionerwithspringpreload.

57
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Chaindrive,Bx8engines

Index Explanation
1 Uppertimingchain
2 VANOSwithintakecamshaftsprocket
3 Upperguiderail
4 Toptensioningrail
5 Lowertimingchain
6 Camshaftsprocket,intermediateshaft
7 Bottomtensioningrail
8 Lowerguiderail
9 Crankshaft
10 Chainoil-vacuumpump
11 Oil-vacuumpumpcamshaftsprocket
12 Lowerchaintensioner
13 Upperchaintensioner
14 VANOSwithexhaustcamshaftsprocket

58
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Thechaindriveisonthetransmissionside.Theinertiaofthetransmissionatthisengineend
significantlyreducestherotaryoscillationsandalsothereforetheloadsactingonthechaindrive.

TheB46engineisequippedwithatwo-partchaindrive.Withthisarrangement,thebottomtiming
chaindrivesthecamshaftsprocketoftheintermediateshaft.Thedrivetorqueissimplydivertedtothe
toptimingchainviatheintermediateshaft.

Sufficientlubricationofthebottomtimingchainisensuredbytheoilmistinthecrankcaseandthe
engineoilthatdripsoff.

Thecombinedoil-vacuumpumpisalsodrivenbythecrankshaftviaaseparatedrivechain.

Thescrewconnectionoftheoilandvacuumpumpcamshaftsprockethasaleft-handthread.

Lubricationoftopchaindrive

Lubricationoftopchaindrive,B46engine

59
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
1 Upperguiderail
2 Toptensioningrail
3 Uppertimingchain
4 Topchaintensionerwithoilspraynozzle
5 Spraypattern

Thetimingchainisalwaystensionedontheunloadedside.Thisisperformedbyatensioningrailon
whichachaintensioneracts.Theuppertimingchainislubricatedbyanoilspraynozzleinthetop
chaintensioner.Thereisanopeninginthetensioningrailtoensurethatoilreachesthetoptiming
chain.

2.3.Valvegear

2.3.1.Variants
Twodifferenttechnologiesareusedintheareaofthevalvegear.

Valvegear,B38B46engine.

Index Explanation
A DoubleVANOS
B Valvetronic

ThefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthetechnologyusedintheB46engine:

Engine DoubleVANOS Valvetronic


B46A20M0 Yes Yes

60
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
2.3.2.VANOS
Thevalveoverlaptimeshaveasignificantimpactonthecharacteristicsoftheengine.Anenginewith
smallervalveoverlapthereforetendstohaveahighmaximumtorqueatlowenginespeedsbutthe
maximumpowerwhichcanbeachievedathighenginespeedsislow.Themaximumpowerachieved
withalargevalveoverlapontheotherhandishigher,butthisisattheexpenseofthetorqueatlow
enginespeeds.

TheVANOSprovidesasolution.Itmakesahightorquepossibleinthelowandmediumenginespeed
rangeandahighmaximumpowerinthehigherenginespeedranges.AfurtherbenefitoftheVANOS
istheoptionofinternalEGR.ThisreducestheemissionofharmfulnitrogenoxidesNOx,particularlyin
thepartialloadrange.Thefollowingisalsoachieved:

Fasterheatingupofcatalyticconverter.
Lowerpollutantemissionsduringcoldstart.
Reductioninconsumption.

DoubleVANOS,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
A Intakecamshaft
B Exhaustcamshaft
1 Incrementwheel,intakecamshaft
2 Incrementwheel,exhaustcamshaft
3 Triplecamforhighpressurepumpdrivesystem

61
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
4 Exhaustcamshaftsprocket
5 VANOSunit,exhaustside
6 VANOSsolenoidvalveactuator,exhaust
7 VANOSsolenoidvalveactuator,intake
8 VANOSunit,intakeside
9 Intakecamshaftsprocket

ReasonforusingthedoubleVANOS

TheadvantagesofaValvetronicarelowerchargecyclelossesandthereforepotentialforreducingfuel
consumptionbyadoptinganappropriatedrivingstyle.However,incontrasttothrottlevalve-controlled
systems,Valvetroniccannotreducecharge-cyclelossesinthefullloadrange.

VANOSunit

WitholderVANOSsystems,suchasthatusedintheN55engine,theVANOSunitswerecontrolledby
separateVANOSsolenoidvalvesintegratedintooilductsinthecylinderhead.

Theoilductsinthecylinderheadarereducedandtheadjustmentspeedisincreasedbyusinga
VANOSsolenoidvalveunitandamechanicalVANOScentralvalve,whichislocatedinsidetheVANOS
unit.

62
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
ThefollowinggraphicshowstheoilductsintheVANOSunit:

VANOSunit,intakecamshaft,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Rotor
2 Oilductfortimingadvance
3 Oilductfortimingretardation
4 Oilductfortimingadvance
5 Oilductfortimingretardation

Theintakecamshaftcanbeadvancedwiththeductsshadedlightyellow;theVANOSunitcanbe
retardedwiththeductsshadeddarkyellow.

63
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Lockingpin,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Lockingcover
2 Lockingpin
3 Lockingspring
4 Cartridge
5 Oilduct
6 Lockingcover
7 Oilduct
8 VANOScentralvalve

64
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
ThelockingpinensuresthattheVANOSunitadoptsaclear,lockedpositioninthedepressurized
state.Thelockingspringensurestheunitislockedbycontinuouslypushingthelockingpinintothe
lockedpositionwhentheactuatorisde-energized.TheVANOSunitisblockedinthiscondition.The
timingcanbeadjustedinthisway.Thisisimportantwhentheengineisstartedtoensureexacttiming.
Theoilpressurewhichispresentfortimingadvancesimultaneouslyunlocksthelockingpinviaoil
ductsintheVANOSunit.Ifthecamshaftistobeadvanced,thelockingpinisthenforcedbythe
appliedoilpressureagainstthelockingspringtowardsthecartridgeandthelockingcoverisreleased
forVANOSadjustment.

ThefollowinggraphicshowstheoilflowrateintheVANOScentralvalvewhichisusedtocontrolthe
camshaftadjustment:

VANOScentralvalve,intakecamshaft,Bx8engine

65
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
1 Filter
2 Ball
3 Spring
4 Piston
5 Sleeve
6 Housing
7 Openinginplunger
8 Oilsupplyfrommainoilduct
9 BoretooilductinVANOS(timingadvance)
10 BoretooilductinVANOS(timingretardation)

TheVANOSunitissecuredtothecamshaftbytheVANOScentralvalve.TheoilflowintotheVANOS
unitissimultaneouslycontrolledbythisVANOScentralvalve.Thesystemisactuatedbyasolenoid
actuatorwithitsownpistonthatpushesonanddisplacesthepistonoftheVANOScentralvalve.
Theoilflowiscontrolledbymeansoftheplunger.

Thepreviousgraphicshowsthede-energizedVANOScentralvalve.Thelockingpinblocksthe
VANOSunit.

Timingdiagram

Variablevalveoverlap,Bx8engine

66
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
1 Valvetravel
2 Spread,exhaustcamshaft
3 Spread,intakecamshaft
4 Degreecrankshaft
A VANOSsolenoidvalve,exhaust,de-energized
B VANOSsolenoidvalve,exhaust,dutycycle100%
C VANOSsolenoidvalve,inlet,de-energized
D VANOSsolenoidvalve,inlet,dutycycle100%
E Smallestvalveoverlapinidle
F Maximumvalveoverlapinpartialload

ThefollowingistobeexpectediftheVANOSunitdropsout:

Emergencyoperation.
FaultcodeentryintheDigitalMotorElectronics(DME).

2.3.3.Valvetronic
TheValvetronichasbeenfurtherdevelopedforuseinthenewB46engine.Thefourth-generation
Valvetronicisusedintheengine.AdistinguishingfeatureistheValvetronicservomotorwhichisvisible
fromtheoutside.

67
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical

Valvetronic4thgeneration,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Exhaustcamshaft
2 Rollercamfollower
3 Hydraulicvalveclearancecompensationelement
4 Valvespring
5 Exhaustvalve
6 Intakecamshaft
7 Wormgear
8 Eccentricshaft
9 Electricalconnection,Valvetronicservomotor
10 Intakevalve

TheValvetroniccomprisesafully-variablevalveliftcontrolandadoubleVANOS.Itoperatesaccording
totheprincipleofthrottle-freeloadcontrol.Withthissystem,athrottlevalveisonlyusedtostabilize
theengineoperationatcriticaloperatingpointsandtoensureaslightvacuumfortheengine
ventilation.Averysmallvacuumcanbeproducedintheintakepipebyslightlytiltingthethrottlevalve,
whichallowstreatedblow-bygasestobeintroducedintotheintakeportduringnaturally-aspirated
engineoperation.

68
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
ThefollowinggraphicprovidesanoverviewofthedesignoftheValvetronic:

Valvetronic,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
1 Incrementwheel,exhaustcamshaft
2 Exhaustcamshaft
3 Triplecamforhighpressurepumpdrivesystem
4 VANOSunitwithexhaustcamshaftsprocket
5 VANOScentralvalve,exhaustside
6 VANOScentralvalve,intakeside
7 VANOSunitwithintakecamshaftsprocket
8 Returnspringwithinsertplate
9 Intermediatelever
10 Gate
11 Intakecamshaft
12 Incrementwheel,intakecamshaft

69
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
13 Drivepinion,eccentricshaft
14 Valvetronicservomotor
15 Hexagonsocket(Inbus)
16 Eccentricshaft

ThefollowingcomponentsoftheValvetronicwerereworkedforuseintheB46engine:

Assembledeccentricshaft
Adjustmentrangeincreasedfrom190(N20/N55)to253(B46)
Smallerwormgearratioof37:1
Thinnerlighterslidingblockswithonlyonescrewconnection
Returnspringinsertedandnotscrewed
Oilspraynozzleforlubricationofwormgearomitted
SmallermorepowerfulValvetronicservomotor.

ComparisonofValvetronicN20withB46engine

Index Explanation
A Valvetronic,N20engine
B Valvetronic,B46engine
1 Eccentricshaft
2 Gate

70
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Index Explanation
3 Returnspring
4 Camshaft
5 Intermediatelever
6 Heightofinstallationspace

ByreworkingtheValvetronic,ithas,mostimportantly,beenpossibletosignificantlyreducethe
installationspace.Aconsiderableheightadvantagehasbeengainedbyswappingroundtheintake
camshaftandtheeccentricshaft.Thenewpositionoftheintermediateleverandgatesimplifiesthe
applicationofforceinthecylinderhead.Thegateisthereforeonlyattachedtothebearingsupport
withonescrewandispositionedviatwoprecisecontactsurfacesinthecylinderhead.Thereturn
springfortheintermediateleverbetweenthecylinderheadandbearingpositionisself-supporting
anddoesnotrequireitsownattachmentpoint.Theeccentricshaftis,asisalreadythecasewiththe
camshaft,an"assembled"design.

71
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
LubricatingoilsupplytotheValvetronicwormgear

LubricatingoilsupplytotheValvetronicwormgear,B46engine

Index Explanation
1 Cylinderhead
2 Drivepinionoftheeccentricshaft
3 WormgearofValvetronicservomotor
4 Valvetronicservomotor
5 Outletborehole
6 Firstbearingpositionofeccentricshaft
7 Inletborehole
8 Oilchamber

72
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
Duetothefastadjustmentspeedsoftheeccentricshaftoflessthan300millisecondsfromminimum
tomaximumstrokeandthewideadjustmentrangefrom0.2millimeters(minimum)to9.9millimeters
(maximum)valveliftwithasmalltransmissionratio,sufficientlubricationbetweenthewormgearof
theValvetronicservomotoranddrivepinionoftheeccentricshaftmustbeensured.Thelubricatingoil
reachestheoilchamberviaaninletboreholeatthefirstbearingpositionoftheeccentricshaft.Here,
theoilvolumerisestotheloweredgeoftheoutletborehole.Theexcessoilflowsbacktotheoilcircuit
viatheoutletborehole.Thegearingofthewormgearisnowsupportedintheoilbathandistherefore
lubricatedatalltimes.

Informationondisassemblyandinstallationwork

Asnumerouschangeshavebeenmade,anewspecialtoolisusedtoremovethereturnsprings.

ThehexagonsocketontheValvetronicservomotorisformanualadjustmentofthewormgear.This
isnecessaryiftheValvetronicservomotorneedstoberemoved,forexample.Toavoiddamagetothe
wormgear,itmustbegreasedpriortostart-upusingaspeciallubricant(LongtimePDpartnumber:
83192160340).TheValvetronicintheDigitalMotorElectronics(DME)canbetaught-inusingthe
teach-inroutineinISTA.Duringthisprocess,thelimitpositionsofthesystemaredeterminedonce
againandstoredintheDigitalMotorElectronics(DME).Thepreciseprocedureforremovingthe
Valvetronicisdescribedinthecurrentrepairinstructions.

73
B46Engine
2.EngineMechanical
2.4.Beltdrive

Beltdrive,transverse-mountedB46engine

Index Explanation
A Withairconditioningcompressor
1 RibbedV-belt
2 Alternator
3 Coolantpump
4 Airconditioningcompressor
5 Torsionalvibrationdamper
6 Deflectingelement
7 Tensioningpulley

Thelengthofthedrivebeltchangesduetothermalexpansionandageing.Sothedrivebeltcan
transmittherequiredtorque,itmustbecontinuouslyincontactwiththebeltpulleyatadefined
pressure.Tothisendthebelttensionisexertedbyanautomatictensioningpulleywhichcompensates
forbeltelongationoverthefullservicelife.

Astandardbeltwith6ribsisused.

74
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.1.Oilcircuit

Hydrauliccircuitdiagram,B38engine

Index Explanation
A Oilpump
B Crankcase
C Cylinderhead
D Oilfiltermodule

75
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
Index Explanation
E VANOSunit,intakecamshaft
F VANOSunit,exhaustcamshaft
I 3-cylinderengine
II 4-cylinderengine
1 Oilsump
2 Intakepipewithfilter
3 Oilandvacuumpump
4a Map-controlledcontrolchamber(normaloperation)
4b Second-levelcontrolchamber(emergencyoperation)
5 Oilsupplyofvacuumpump
6 Pressurelimitingvalve(built-intopump)
7 Oil-to-waterheatexchanger,bypassvalve
8 Engineoil-to-coolantheatexchanger
9 N/A
10 Filterbypassvalve
11 Oilfilter
12 N/A
13 Oilpressuresensor
14 Chaintensioner,bottom
15 Map-controlledvalve
16 Lubricatingoilsupplytocrankshaftbearingshellsofbearingseat
17 Oilspraynozzlesforpistoncooling
18 Throttle
19 Lubricationpointsonintakecamshaft
20 Hydraulicvalveclearancecompensation
21 Lubricatingpoints,eccentricshaft
22 Oilspraynozzles,intermediatelever
23 Chaintensioner,top
24 Throttle
25 Lubricationpoint,high-pressurepump
26 Lubricatingpoint,exhaustcamshaft
27 Hydraulicvalveclearancecompensation
28 Oilstrainer,solenoidvalve

76
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
Index Explanation
29 Non-returnvalve
30 Solenoidvalve
31 VANOSswivelrotor(intakecamshaft)
32 VANOSswivelrotor(exhaustcamshaft)

Withforce-fedcirculationlubricationtheoilisdrawnoutoftheoilsumpbytheoilpumpthrough
anintakepipeandforwardedintothecircuit.Theoilpassesthroughtheengineoilcoolerwithan
integratedfull-flowoilfilterandfromthereintothemainoilduct,whichrunsintheengineblockparallel
tothecrankshaft.Branchductsleadtothecrankshaftmainbearings.Thereareboreholesbetween
themainbearingsofthecrankshaftandtheconnectingrodbearingjournalwhichadmittheoiltothe
lubricatingpointsoftheconnectingrodbearing.

Someoftheoilisdivertedfromthemainoilductanddirectedtothecylinderheadtotherelevant
lubricatingpointsandadjustmentunits.Whentheengineoilflowsthroughtheconsumers,iteither
returnstotheoilsumpviathereturnductsoritdripsbackfreely.

3.2.Mapcontrol

Systemoverviewofmap-controlledoilsupplyofBx8engine

77
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
Index Explanation
A Oilpressuresensorsignal
B Activationofmap-controlledcontrolvalve
1 Mainoilducttotheoilpressuresensor
2 Oilpressuresensor
3 DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)
4 Oilpump
5 Oilducttomap-controlledcontrolchamberofoilpump
6 Mapcontrolvalve

TheB46engineisequippedwiththefamiliarmap-controlledoilpumpwhichisalreadyused.
TheactualoilpressureisrecordedviaanoilpressuresensorandforwardedtotheDigitalMotor
Electronics(DME).TheDigitalMotorElectronicsperformsatarget/actualcomparisonbasedonthe
storedcharacteristicmaps.Themap-controlledcontrolvalveisactivatedbymeansofapulse-width
modulatedsignaluntilthenominalpressurestoredinthecharacteristicmaphasbeenreached.During
thisprocess,thedeliveryrateoftheoilpumpvariesaccordingtotheoilpressureintheoilducttothe
map-controlledcontrolchamber.

3.3.Oilpump
Theoilpumpplaysacentralroleinmoderncombustionengines.Duetothehighpowerandenormous
torquewhichispresentevenatlowenginespeeds,itisnecessarytoensureareliableoilsupply.This
isnecessaryonaccountofthehighcomponenttemperaturesandheavilyloadedbearings.Toachieve
lowfuelconsumption,thedeliveryrateoftheoilpumpmustbeadaptedtotherequirements.

Theoilpumpisdrivenbythecrankshaftviaachain.

78
B46Engine
3.OilSupply

Designofoilpump,B46engine

Index Explanation
A Vacuumpump
B Oilpump
C Second-levelcontrolarea(emergencyoperation)
D Map-controlledcontrolarea(normaloperation)
1 Vacuumducttovacuumpump
2 Oilducttomap-controlledcontrolchamber
3 Oilducttosecond-levelcontrolchamber

79
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
Index Explanation
4 Oilpressurechannel,pumpoutput
5 Pressure-limitingvalve
6 Intakepipewithfilter
7 Dischargevalves,vacuumpump
8 Oilintakeport
9 Pumpshaft
10 Rotorwithpendulum
11 Suctionside
12 Adjustingring
13 Adjustingringspring(2x)
14 Pumpinput
15 Majorthrustface
16 Bearingtube(centerofrotation)

Avacuumpumpisintegratedintotheoilpumphousing.

Arotorwithpendulumrotatesasshowninthegraphiconthepumpshaft.Acrescent-shapedcavity
arisesthroughtheeccentricposition.Duringthisprocess,theoilisdrawnintotheexpandingchamber
(intakeside)andisdeliveredviathecontractingchamber(pressureside).

Whentheengineisinoperation,oilpressureisadmittedtothemap-controlledcontrolsurfaceand
thesecond-levelcontrolsurfaceoftheoilpump.Dependingontheoilpressure,theadjustingringis
pushedviathecenterofrotationatthebearingtubetovaryingdegreesofforceagainsttheadjusting
ringsprings.Thechangeineccentricpositionoftheadjustingringchangesthesizeofthechamber,
andthereforealsotheintakeandpressurepoweroftheoilpump.

Topreventoverloadingoftheoilpump,afilterisinstalledupstreamofthepumpinlet.Themaximum
oilpressureoftheoilcircuitatthepumpoutletisrestrictedbyapressurelimitingvalve.Theopening
pressureofthepressurelimitingvalveis11.4+/1.4bar.

80
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.3.1.Mapcontrolvalve
Themap-controlledcontrolvalveisaproportionalvalvewhichcancontroltheoilpressuresteplessly.

Map-controlledcontrolvalve,B46engine

Index Explanation
A Voltagecurve,maximumdeliveryrate
B Voltagecurve,minimumdeliveryrate
C Voltagecurve,50%deliveryrate
1 Oilductfromtheoilfilter
2 Oilducttooilpump
3 Sealingring
4 Solenoidcoil
5 Electricalconnection
6 Valvespool
7 Filter

81
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
Theoilpressuresensorisconnectedtothemainoilductanddeliverstheactualoilpressureatthe
DigitalMotorElectronics(DME).TheDigitalMotorElectronicscalculatestherequirednominaloil
pressurebasedontheenginespeedandfuelinjectionrate.Apulse-widthmodulatedsignalissentto
themap-controlledcontrolvalvebasedonthedeterminedsetpointdeviation.Dependingonthepulse-
widthmodulatedsignal,thewidthofthevalvespoolopeninginthemap-controlledcontrolvalvevaries.
Dependingontheavailableopeningcross-section,moreorlessengineoilcanflowfromtheoilductof
theoilfilterintotheoilductandtotheoilpump.Thisoilflowchangesthepositionoftheadjustingring
intheoilpump,andthereforethedeliveryrateofthepump.

3.3.2.Normaloperation
Theoilpumphastwoseparatecontrolloopsinordertoguaranteenormaloperation(map-controlled
controloperation)andemergencyoperation(second-levelcontroloperation).

Oilcircuitduringnormaloperation,B46engine

Thiscontrolloopoperateswithanexternalmap-controlledvalve.Themap-controlledcontrolvalve
controlstheoilpressureinthemap-controlledcontrolchamberviaasoftwareintheDigitalMotor
Electronics.Iftheoilpressureinthemap-controlledcontrolchamberincreases,theadjustingring
furthercompressestheadjustingringspringandthepumpeccentricityisreduced.Thisresultsina
lowervolumetricflow.

82
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.3.3.Emergencyoperation

Oilcircuitduringemergencyoperation,B46engine

Duringemergencyoperation,thesystemoperateswithoutthemapcontrolbytheDigitalMotor
Electronics.Themap-controlledcontrolvalveisde-energizedinthisoperatingconditionandis
thereforeclosed.Thepurposeoftheemergencyoperationistomaintaintheoilpressureintheoil
pumpataconsistentlyhighlevel.Theoilpressureisguideddirectlyfromthemainoilducttothe
second-levelcontrolchamber.Thisleadstoanadjustmentoftheadjustingringagainsttheadjusting
ringspringandthusareductionofthevolumetricflow.Asitcontainsnoactuators,interventioninthis
controlsystemisnotpossibleanditalsocannotbeswitchedoff.

83
B46Engine
3.OilSupply

Operatingprincipleofoilpumpcontrolsystem,B46engine

Index Explanation
A Normaloperation
B Emergencyoperation

3.4.Suctionpipe
Theoilpumpdrawsoilfromtheoilsumpthroughtheintakepipe.Thesuctionpipeispositioned
sothatthesuctionopeningisbelowtheoillevelunderalloperatingconditions.Theintakepipe
incorporatesanoilstrainer,whichpreventscoarsedirtparticlesfromgettingintotheoilpump.

IntakepipeinB46engine

Theintakepipeisaseparatecomponentwhichisscrewedontotheoilpump.

84
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.5.Pressure-limitingvalve

PressurelimitingvalveinoilcircuitinB46engine

Index Explanation
A Oilpressure<11.4+/1.4bar
B Oilpressure>11.4+/1.4bar
C Engineoilvolumetricflow
1 Pressurelimitingvalveclosed
2 Pressurelimitingvalveopen

Thepressurelimitingvalveisresponsibleforprotectingtheoilpumpandtheoilcircuitagainst
overloading.Thisvalveopensatanoilpressureof>10baranddirectstheexcessengineoilbackto
theoilsump.Thisvalveisusedifnecessarywhenstartingtheengineatcoldambienttemperatures
(values<0C),astheviscosityoftheengineoilisveryhighhere.

85
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.6.Oilfiltermodule

Oilfiltermodule

Index Explanation
1 Engineoil-to-coolantheatexchanger
2 Oilfilterhousing
3 Oilfiltercover
4 Hexagonheadforopeningtheoilfiltercover
5 Hexagonheadforopeningtheoildrainplug

Duetotheconstructionspace,theoilfilterhousingissuspendedinthetransversemounting.
Theinspectioniscarriedoutfromthebottomofthevehicle.UsinganoildrainplugtheService
employeecandraintheengineoilfromtheoilfiltermodulebeforeopeningtheoilfiltercover.

86
B46Engine
3.OilSupply

InService,thespecifiedtorquesfortheoildrainplugandtheoilfiltercovermustbeobserved.Thetwo
O-ringsmustbereplacedeachtimetheoilfiltercoverandtheoildrainplugareopened.BothO-rings
areincludedintheoilfilterservicekit.

Valvesoftheoilfiltermodule

Index Explanation
1 Filterbypassvalve
2 Heatexchangerbypassvalve

Anon-returnvalveisnotrequiredthankstothesuspendedmounting.Thefiltercannotrunemptyafter
theengineisstoppedduetoitsposition.

87
B46Engine
3.OilSupply
3.6.1.Filterbypassvalve
Whenafilterisblocked,thefilterbypassvalveensuresthatengineoilreachesthelubricationpointsof
theengine.Itopenswhenthedifferentialpressureupstreamanddownstreamoftheoilfilteris2.5bar
0.3bar.

3.6.2.Heatexchangerbypassvalve
Theheatexchangerbypassvalvehasthesamefunctionasthefilterbypassvalve.If,onaccountofa
blockedoil-to-waterheatexchanger,theoilpressurerises,theheatexchangerbypassvalveopensat
anoilpressureof2.5bar0.3barandthelubricatingoilcanflowuncooledtothelubricationpoints.

Toensuretheenginerunsperfectly,onlyengineoilsapprovedbyBMWcanbeused.

88
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
Inordertoprotectthethermallyloadedenginecomponents,theengineoilandthetransmissionoil
fromoverheating,theyarecooledusingcoolant.Amechanicalcoolantpumpcirculatesthecoolantin
thecoolingcircuit.Theheatquantitiesintroducedtothecoolantareemittedtotheambientairagain
usingaradiator.Anelectricfanassiststheradiatoroutput.

ThecoolantintheB46engineismainlycirculatedviaamechanicalcoolantpump.Severalenginesare
alsoequippedwithanelectricaloverrunpumpwhichmaintainsatrickleofcoolanttothebearingseat
coolingsystemoftheexhaustturbocharger.

Thefollowinggraphicsprovideanoverviewofthedifferentcoolingcircuits.

4.1.Coolingcircuit,B46engine

Coolingcircuit,B46engine

Index Explanation
1 Radiator
2 Electricfan
3 Mapthermostat
4 Coolantpump
5 Coolanttemperaturesensor
6 Coolant-cooledexhaustturbocharger
7 Enginehousing

89
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
Index Explanation
8 Heatexchanger
9 Electriccoolantpump(20W)
10 Engineoil-to-coolantheatexchanger
11 Tankventilationlinefromthecylinderhead
12 Expansiontank
13 Ventilationlineoftheradiator

4.1.1.Specialfeatures

Coolant-cooledexhaustturbocharger
Mechanicalcoolantpump
Electriccoolantpump
Characteristicmapthermostat

Duetothetwin-scrolltechnology,theB46enginesareequippedwithasteelmanifold.'Twin-scroll'
meansthattheexhaustflowsareroutedviatwoseparatechannelstotheexhaustturbocharger.The
heatproducedisabsorbedbythecoolantwhichissuppliedviaacoolantconnectionontheexhaust
turbocharger.Whenthemotorisnotrunning,post-coolingoftheexhaustturbochargerispossiblewith
theassistanceofanelectriccoolantpump(20W).Thispreventsabuild-upofheatintheareaofthe
exhaustturbocharger.

Formorein-depthexplanationsontheexhaustturbocharger,refertothechapterIntakeairandexhaust
emissionsystem.

90
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
4.2.Systemoverview,vehicle

Vehiclecoolingcircuit,B38engine

Index Explanation
A Coolantcooleddown
B Coolantwarmedup
C Coolantheatedup
I Cooledcoolanttocoolantpump
II Heatedcoolantfromenginetoradiator
III Cooledcoolanttothermostat

91
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
Index Explanation
IV Coolantflowviaexhaustturbocharger
1 Coolantpump
2 Radiator
3 Expansiontank
4 Heatexchanger

4.3.Coolingmodule

Coolingmodule

Index Explanation
1 Chargeaircooler
2 A/Ccondenser
3 Radiator
4 Electricfan

92
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
4.4.Coolantpump

Coolantpumpwithcharacteristicmapthermostat

Index Explanation
A Cooledcoolant
B Warmedcoolant
C Heatedcoolant
1 Coolantductfromthecrankcase
2 supportingcomponentcarrier
3 Inletfromexpansiontankandheatexchanger
4 Feedfromradiator
5 Mapthermostat
6 Coolantducttothecrankcase

93
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
Thecoolantpumpformsoneunitwiththecharacteristicmapthermostat.Thecoolantpumphousing
ismadefromthealuminiumalloyALSi9Cu3,theimpellerandthethermostatcoveraremadeofplastic.

TheDigitalMotorElectronicscontrolsthecoolingcircuitviaamap-controlledthermostat.

4.5.Expansiontank

Expansiontank

Index Explanation
1 Coolantline,coolantexpansiontankoutput
2 Tankventilationlinefromthecylinderhead
3 Ventilationlineoftheradiator
4 Sealingcap
5 Visiblefillinglevelindicator"Maximum"
6 Visiblefillinglevelindicator"Minimum"

Theexpansiontankisusedasareservoirforthecoolant.Theexpansiontankensuresthatthereis
alwaysasufficientquantityofcoolantavailableinthecoolingcircuit.

Inthesealingcapthereisapressurereliefvalvewhichrestrictsthepressureinthesystem.

Thesealingcapmustneverbeopenedwhentheengineishot.Thereasonforthisisnotjusttherisk
ofburning.Inhigherareasofthecoolingcircuit,suchasthecylinderhead,gasbubblesmayformasa
resultofthelossofpressure.Sufficientheatdissipationisnolongerguaranteedatthesepoints.
Thiswouldresultinoverheating.

94
B46Engine
4.CoolingSystem
Thereisavisiblefillinglevelindicatorintheexpansiontank.Thefillinglevelcanbereadwhenthetank
isopen.Thefillinglevelshouldbebetweenmaximumandminimumforcorrectfilling.

4.6.Coolant
Thefamiliarcoolantwithasiliconebaseisused.Thecoolantisnotsubjecttoachangeinterval.
Thefillingisdesignedfortheentireservicelifeoftheengine.Forworkwhichrequiresanopeningof
thecoolingcircuitthecoolantmustbereplaced.Thepreciseprocedureforventilatingthecooling
circuitcanbefoundinthecurrentrepairinstructions.

ThecoolingsystemmustonlybefilledwithBMW-approvedcoolant.Ifthewrongcoolantisused,
damagetothecoolantpumps,coolanthoses,radiatorsandcylinderheadgasketmaysubtlycreepin.

95
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem

SystemoverviewofintakeairandexhaustemissionsystemintheB38engine

Index Explanation
1 Chargeaircooler
2 Intakesilencer
3 Hotfilmairmassmeter
4 Exhaustturbocharger
5 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
6 Broadbandoxygensensorupstreamofcatalyticconverter(controlsensor)
7 Catalyticconverter
8 Voltage-jumpsensordownstreamofcatalyticconverter(monitoringsensor)
9 DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)(MEVD17.2.3)
10 Tankventvalve
11 Intakemanifoldpressuresensor
12 Throttlevalve
13 Charge-airtemperatureandcharge-airpressuresensor

96
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
5.1.Intakeairsystem

Airintakesystem,transversemounting

97
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
Index Explanation
A Freshair
B Purifiedair
C Heatedchargeair
D Cooledchargeair
1 Engineventilationheating(onlywithcold-climateversion)
2 Blow-bychannelintocleanairpipe(turbochargedoperation)
3 Cleanairpipewithresonator
4 Airfilterhousing
5 Hotfilmairmassmeter
6 Throttlevalveunit
7 Chargeairtemperatureandchargingpressuresensor
8 Connectionforcarboncanisterregenerationline
9 Unfiltered-airsnorkel
10 Chargeairhose
11 Intakemanifoldpressuresensor
12 Intakemanifold
13 Chargeaircooler
14 Chargeairhose
15 Purgeairline
16 Exhaustturbochargercompressor,inletside

Theairductofthedifferentiatedairintakesystemdiffersdependingontheinstallationposition.
Thisdocumentationonlydealswiththeairductinthetransverse-mountedBx8engine.

Theintakeunfilteredairreachestheintakesilencerwithaircleanerviatheunfilteredairlinewithintake
airgrille.Theunfilteredairisfilteredintheintakesilencerwithaircleanerandbecomescleanair.Then
thecleanairisdirectedtotheexhaustturbochargerviathehotfilmairmassmeterandthecleanair
pipewithresonator.Theblow-bygasesfromthecrankcasearealsointroduced,dependingontheload
condition,intothecleanairpipeupstreamoftheexhaustturbocharger,orintotheintakeportsdirectly.

Thecleanairiscompressedandheatedintheexhaustturbocharger.Thecompressed,warmcharge
airisfurtherdirectedtothechargeaircoolerinthechargeairhose.Fromthechargeaircoolerthenow
cooledchargeairisdirectedtothethrottlevalveviaanadditionalchargeairhoseandtheadapterpipe
withchargeairtemperatureandchargingpressuresensor.Thecooledchargeairistakentotheintake
airsystemviathethrottlevalve.

5.1.1.Intakesilencer
Theintakesilencerismountedontheengineandcontainstheaircleaner.Airwhichhasbeeninducted
uptotheairfilterisreferredtoasfreshair.Afterleavingtheairfilterthecleanedairisreferredtoas
cleanair.

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B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
5.1.2.Chargeaircooling

Chargeaircooler

Becausetheairheatsupduringcompressionintheexhaustturbochargerandthusexpands,the
amountofoxygenwhichcanberoutedintothecombustionchamberisreducedagain.Thecharge
aircoolerhasacounteractiveeffectinthatitcoolsthecompressedair.Thedensityisthusincreased
andtheoxygencontentpervolumeisalsoincreased.Thechargeaircoolerislocatedinthecooling
modulebelowtheradiator.Itisanair-airheatexchanger.Thecompressedairflowsthroughthecharge
aircoolerinseveralplates,aroundwhichfortheirpartthecoolingairflows.

5.2.Exhaustemissionsystem

5.2.1.Exhaustturbocharger

ExhaustturbochargerintheB46engine

ExhaustturbochargerintheB46engine

99
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
Index Explanation
A Turbineside
B Compressorside
1 Exhaustduct
2 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
3 Twin-scroll
4 Electricwastegatevalve

TheexhaustturbochargeroftheB46engineisatwin-scrollexhaustturbocharger.Tofacilitateafast
anddirectresponse,theexhaustflowsfromcylinders1and4,and2and3aremergedandroutedto
thecompressorviatwoseparatechannels.Thisprincipleisreferredtoaspulseturbocharging.

Theexhaustmanifoldandexhaustturbochargerhousinghavebeendesignedasonecommoncast
partandcannotbereplacedindividually.

Thechargingpressureisadjustedviaanelectricalactuator.

5.2.2.Blow-offvalve
Ablow-offvalveisnotusedincurrentmodels.Pressurepeaks,causedbysuddenloadshedding
duetotheinertiaoftheturbineoftheexhaustturbocharger,canbeavoidedbycarefultuningofthe
DigitalMotorElectronicssoftware.Withforesightedchargingpressurecontrol,pressurepeakscanbe
predictedandreducedbyquickadjustmentoftheelectrically-adjustablewastegatevalve.Assisted
byadelayedloadcontroloftheValvetronic(intheminimumliftdirection)orthethrottlevalve(inthe
closeddirection),theremainingchargeairwhichisproducedcanberoutedtotheexhaustemission
systemviatheengine.Thisformofcontrolthuspreventstheexhaustturbochargershaftfrombeing
exposedtoexcessivetorsionalstressduetohighpressurepeaks.

5.2.3.Chargingpressurecontrol
ThechargingpressureinB46enginesiscontrolledviaanelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve.

Electrifiedadjustment

Incontrasttoavacuum-controlledchargingpressurecontrol,thefollowingcomponentsarenot
required:

Vacuumunit
Vacuumlines
Electro-pneumaticpressureconverter
Vacuumreservoir

100
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem

Overviewofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve,B38engine

Index Explanation
1 Exhaustmanifold
2 Wastegatevalve
3 Adjustinglinkage
4 Locknut
5 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
6 Exhaustturbocharger,compressorside
7 Exhaustturbocharger,turbineside
8 Catalyticconverter

Advantagesofelectricalactivation

Fastercontrolspeed
Moreprecisecontrol
Simplerdiagnosis
Fewercomponents
Largeropeningangleofwastegatevalve

101
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
Operatingprinciple

Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve

Index Explanation
1 Strokelinkage
2 Adjustmentlinkage
3 Actuator
4 Electricalconnection

Adirectcurrentmotorandasensorarelocatedintheactuatoroftheelectricallyadjustablewastegate
valve,resultinginatotaloffiveelectricalconnections.Thewastegatevalveisopenedorclosedbya
liftingmovementofthelinkage.

TheactuatoroftheelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalvecanbereplacedseparatelyinService.
Eachtimetheadjustinglinkageisactivated,thesystemmustbere-adjustedwiththeassistanceof
theBMWdiagnosissystemISTA.Thismeasureisnotrequiredwhenreplacingtheentireexhaust
turbochargerasthelinkageissuppliedpreset.

Iftheactuatorisreplacedindividually,ateach-inroutinemustbeperformedusingtheBMWdiagnosis
systemISTA.

102
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem

Sensorsignaltoelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve

Index Explanation
A Wastegatevalveclosed
B Wastegatevalveopened
1 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
2 DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)

Thesensorisusedtodeterminethepositionofthewastegatevalve.Thewastegatevalvecanmove
toanyrequiredpositionbetweenmaximumopenandmaximumclosed.Whenthesensorsignalor
actuatordropsout,thewastegatevalveadoptstheopenpositiontoallowchargingpressuretobuild
up.Thisensuresthejourneycontinueswithreducedengineperformance.

AsthepositionsensorisalinearHallsensor,aresistancemeasurementfortestingthesensorisnot
permitted.

103
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
5.2.4.Exhaustsystem

OverviewofexhaustemissionsystemoftheBx8engineintheF48

Index Explanation
1 Exhaustmanifold
2 Exhaustturbocharger
3 Catalyticconverter
4 Decouplingelement
5 Centersilencer
6 Rearsilencer

TheB46enginesatisfiestheexhaustgasemissionregulationsoftheULEVIIexhaustemission
standardswhenintroducedonthemarket.

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B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem

Exhaustgastreatment,B38engine

Index Explanation
1 Exhaustpipe
2 Decouplingelement
3 Monitoringsensor(voltage-jumpsensor)
4 3-waycatalyticconverter
5 Controlsensor(broadbandoxygensensor)
6 Clamp
7 Turbinehousing
8 Wastegatevalve

105
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
Measuresforreductionofexhaustgasemissions

Preciseandfastchargingpressurecontrol.
Catalyticconverterheatingduringcoldstart.
Positioningofcatalyticconverternearengine.
NewLSFXfourvoltage-jumpsensorbyBosch.

Catalyticconverterheating

Whenstartingthecombustionenginefromcold,thewastegatevalveisopenedaswideaspossible
andtheignitionpointisadjustedtoretard.Theretardedignitionpointdelaysthecombustionprocess
whichinturnsupportstheheatinputforheatingofthecatalyticconverter.Astheturbinehousingis
short,ithasbeenpossibletopositionthecatalyticconverterveryclosetothewastegatevalve.Asthe
exhaustgasflowsintothecatalyticconverterattheperfectangleandbecauseofitspositionclose
totheengine,thecatalyticconverterreachesitsoperatingtemperatureveryquickly.Ifthewastegate
valveisopenedwhencold,pulsationoftheexhaustgasmaycausevibrationsinthewastegatevalve,
whichareperceivedasnoise.Thisisnotduetoadefectivecomponent,andisnormalrunningnoise.
Thisnoisebecomeslessaudibleasthetemperatureofthecomponentincreases.

Controlsensor

Withastoichiometricair/fuelratio(=1),theproportionofoxygenintheexhaustgasisidealfor
conversionofthepollutantsinthe3-waycatalyticconverter.Bymeasuringtheoxygencontentinthe
exhaustgas,theoxygensensoroftheDigitalMotorElectronicsdeliversimportantinformationfor
mixturepreparation.

AbroadbandoxygensensorwiththedesignationLSUADVhasbeenspeciallydevelopedforengines
withexhaustturbochargersandisusedasthecontrolsensor.Oneofthemajorcharacteristicsof
broadbandoxygensensorsistheirextensivemeasuringrange.ThemeasuringrangeoftheLSUADV
isfromalambdaof=0.65to=air.

ThebroadbandoxygensensorLSUADVisacombinationofameasuringcellandpumpcell.Thereis
asmalldiffusiongapbetweenthesetwocellswhichservesasameasuringchamberandisconnected
totheexhaustgasduct.Themeasuringcelloperatesaccordingtotheprincipleofavoltage-jump
sensorandmeasurestheresidualoxygencontentintheexhaustgas.Ifthefuel-airmixtureistoolean
(>1),thecontrolelectronicsappliesvoltagetothepumpcellsothatoxygenionsarepumpedout
ofthediffusiongap.Ifthemixtureistoorich(<1),oxygenionsarepumpedintothediffusiongap
byactivatingthepumpcellaccordingly.Thepumpflowrequiredtocontrolthepumpcellisdirectly
proportionaltotheoxygenconcentrationandthereforeservesasthecontrolvariablefortheairratio.

Thecontrolstrategyhasbeendevisedsothattheoxygenconcentrationintheareaofthediffusion
gapcorrespondstoanairratioof=1.Asthiscontrolmethodisextremelyfastandincredibly
accurate,thevoltagevalueofthemeasuringcellalwaysremainsataconstantlevel(450mV).

Thefollowinggraphicshowsthetwovoltagecurvesofthemeasuringcellandthepumpcellwhenthe
engineisinoperation:

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B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem

Voltagesignal,LSUADVbroadbandoxygensensor

Index Explanation
A Signalvoltage,measuringprobe
B Controlvoltage,pumpsensor
C Positivecontrolvoltage
D Negativecontrolvoltage
E Pressonaccelerator
t Time
V V

Inthepositiverangeofthecontrolvoltage(U>0V),thereisexcessoxygenintheareaofthediffusion
gap(>1).Theengineisrunningslightlytoolean.Thepumpcellpumpsoxygenoutofthediffusion
gapinordertomaintainthelevelof450mVinthemeasuringcellconstant.

Inthenegativerangeofthecontrolvoltage(U<0V),thereisinsufficientoxygenintheareaofthe
diffusiongap(<1).Theengineisrunningslightlytoorich.Thepumpcellpumpsoxygenintothe
diffusiongapinorderalsotomaintainthelevelof450mVinthemeasuringcellconstant.

Anintegratedheatingelementensuresthatthebroadbandoxygensensorquicklyreachesits
operatingtemperature.

107
B46Engine
5.IntakeAirandExhaustSystem
Connections,broadbandoxygensensor

Positiveterminalofpumpcell
Negativeterminalofpumpcellandmeasuringcell
Heatingminus
Heatingplus
Positiveterminalofmeasuringcell

Monitoringsensor

Anewvoltage-jumpsensorwiththedesignationLSFXfourisusedasthemonitoringsensor.Thenew
oxygensensorhasthefollowingbenefits:

Sturdierdesign
Smallinstallationspace
Highermeasuringaccuracy
Fastercontrolreadiness

Theoxygensensorissuitableforenginestart-stopoperation.Inthiscase,thesensormustbeheated
throughouttheentirestopphase.Thevoltagerequiredduringtheheatingphaseis7.5voltsandthe
heatingcurrentisaround1ampere.

Engineoperation Airratio Sensorvoltage


Richoperatingphase =0.98 0.9V
Leanoperatingphase =1.02 0.1V

108
B46Engine
6.VacuumSupply
Themainpurposeofthevacuumsystemistogeneratethevacuumforthebrakeservo.

6.1.Systemoverview

Schematicrepresentationofvacuumsupply

Index Explanation
A B46engine
1 Brakeservo
2 Non-returnvalve
3 Vacuumpump

109
B46Engine
6.VacuumSupply
6.2.Vacuumpump

Installationlocationofvacuumpump,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
A Vacuum,secondaryvolume
B Vacuum,mainvolume
1 Vacuumlineforauxiliaryconsumer
2 Crankcase
3 Oilpump
4 Non-returnvalve
5 Vacuumlineformainconsumer(brakeservo)

WiththeB46engine,thelowpressurepumpandoilpumpareinstalledtogetherinonehousing.

Thevacuumductleadstothevacuumpump,passingthroughthetransmissionendofthecrankcase.
Thereisaplasticconnectionattheoutputofthecrankcasetowhichthevariousconsumersare
connected.Thereisanon-returnvalveinsidetheplasticconnection.

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B46Engine
6.VacuumSupply

VacuumpumpintheB46engine

Index Explanation
1 Vacuumduct
2 Exhaustvalves
3 Steelrotor
4 Plasticvane

Thereisasteelrotorwithaplasticvaneontheinsideofthevacuumpump.Itisdriventogetherwith
theoilpumpbythecrankshaftviaachain.

Theevacuatingoutputofthevacuumpumpis500mbarvacuum(absolute)inlessthansixseconds.

Astherunningsurfacesofthevacuumpumparecoatedwithoil,thevolumeofairdrawnincannot
bereleasedintotheatmosphere.Theairvolumedeliveredbythevacuumpumpistransferredto
thecrankcaseviadischargevalves.Fromhere,itreachestheairintakesystemviathecrankcase
ventilation.

Leaksinthevacuumsystemleadtoareducedbrakepowerassistance.

111
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Thefuelsystemismadeupofthefuelsupplyandfuelpreparationsystems.Thefuelsupplyincludes
thefueltankwithallmountedpartsandthefuellinesuptotheenginecompartment.

Thefuelfilterlinesintheenginecompartmentandallthefuelsystempartsontheenginebelongto
thefuelpreparationsystem.

Thefuelsupplyisdescribedintherespectiveproductinformationbulletinsforthemodels.

Fuelsystem,Bx8engineintheF56

112
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
A Fuelpreparation
B Fuelsupply
1 DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)
2 Fuelpumpcontrolmodule
3 Electricfuelpump
4 Fuelfillerneck
5 Emergencyrelease
6 Dustfilter
7 Fueltankleakdiagnosissystem
8 Fueltank
9 High-pressurepump
10 Quantitycontrolvalve
11 Rail(high-pressureaccumulator)
12 High-pressuresensor
13 Sensorline,railpressuresensor
14 Actuatingwire,quantitycontrolvalve
15 PWMdataline
16 Actuatingwire,electricfuelpump(three-phaselineU,V,W)

7.1.Fuelpumpcontrolmodule
IncontrasttotheEKPScontrolunitpreviouslyused,thenewgasengineshaveafuelpumpcontrol
module.Thefuelpumpcontrolmoduleisnotshowninthecontrolunitoverview.Thefuelpump
controlmoduleisresponsibleforprocessinginformationaboutthenecessaryfuelpressurefrom
theDigitalMotorElectronics(DME)andforactivatingtheelectricfuelpumpaccordingtothese
requirementsviaathree-phaseACvoltage.

7.2.Electricfuelpump
Theelectricfuelpumpisactivatedasrequired.TherequirementsarecalculatedbytheDigitalMotor
Electronics(DME).Therequestregardingtheextentofthefuellowpressureissenttothefuelpump
controlmodulewiththeassistanceofapulse-widthmodulatedsignal(PWMsignal).Thefuelpump
controlmoduleprocessesthepulse-widthmodulatedsignalandwithhelpofaninvertergeneratesa
three-phaseACvoltageU,V,Wtoactivatethethree-phasemotoroftheelectricfuelpumpaccording
torequirements.

IfthePWMdatalineisdisconnected,theelectricfuelpumpisactivatedwiththemaximumsystem
performance.IfaPWMdatalineisinterrupted,thisonlyleadstoafaultcodeentry.Thecustomeris
notinformedaboutthisstatus,bytheilluminationofawarningandindicatorlight,forexample.The
electricfuelpumpisdesignedforcontinuousfullloadoperationandisalsonotdamagedifthePWM
datalineisinterruptedforanlongerperiod.

113
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Thereisnofuelpressuresensorinthelow-pressurerangeofthefuelsystem.Thefuellowpressureis
calculatedintheDigitalMotorElectronicsbasedonamathematicalmodel.Thepowerconsumptionof
theelectricfuelpumpalsoprovidesinformationonthefuellowpressure.Ifthepowerconsumptionis
high,thismeansthatahighfuel-lowpressureexistsandifthepowerconsumptionislow,thismeans
thatalowerfuel-lowpressureprevails.

Thefollowingtableprovidesinformationonthetechnicaldataoftheelectricfuelpump.

Technicaldata
Enginespeedrange 26006000rpm
Pressurearea 2.0-6.5bar
Supplyvoltage 12V
Deliveryrateat3200rpmand3.5bar >80liters/60minutes
Deliveryrateat4250rpmand6.3bar >105liters/60minutes
Deliveryrateat5600rpmand5.3bar >190liters/60minutes

Theelectricfuelpumpbecomesimpermissiblyhotwithexcessivedryrunning>1minute.
Thereisariskofacomponentfault

114
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
7.3.Fuelpreparation
Thefuelpreparationhasbeenmodifiedtomeettherequirementsofemissionlegislation.Anewdirect
railwhichhasbeendevelopedtowhichtheinjectorsarenowscrewed.

Overviewoffuelpreparation

Index Explanation
1 Fueldeliveryline
2 Railpressuresensor
3 Quantitycontrolvalve
4 High-pressurepump
5 Directrail
6 Solenoidvalveinjector

ThedirectinjectionsystemissimilartotheN20andN55.Asingle-pistonreciprocatingpumpwith
integratedquantitycontrolvalveisused.

Thedirectrailrepresentsadeparturefromthefamiliarsystemsuseduptillnow.Withthissystem,
thehighpressurelineshavebeenomittedandtheinjectorsareattachedtotheraildirectly.

Directlyconnectingthesolenoidvalveinjectorstotherailhasthefollowingadvantages:

Lessvolumeneedstobeavailableforhigh-pressureinjection.
Fewerinterfacesandthereforelessproblematicwithrespecttoleaks.
Shortcycletimesduringproductionduetocompactdesign.

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B46Engine
7.FuelSystem

Strictcleanlinessmustbeobservedwhencarryingoutanyworkonthefuelsystem

7.3.1.Fuelhigh-pressurepump

Overviewoffuelhigh-pressurepump

Index Explanation
1 Fuelfeedlinetohighpressurepump
2 High-pressurepump
3 Rollertappet
4 Pumppiston

116
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
5 Spring
6 Quantitycontrolvalve
7 Highpressurelinetorail
8 Rail
9 Exhaustcamshaft
10 Railpressuresensor
11 Snapfastener,fuelfeedline
12 Cylinderhead
13 Actuatingcam,highpressurepump
14 Bearingbracket,highpressurepump

Thefamiliarsingle-pistonhighpressurepumpbyBoschisused.Thehighpressurepumpisdriven
byatriplecamwhichisattachedtotheexhaustcamshaft.Fuellowpressureissuppliedtothehigh
pressurepumpviathefuelfeedfromtheelectricfuelpump.

Duetothehighfuelpressures,thefuellinesmustneverbedetachedwhentheengineisinoperation.
Whenremovingthehighpressurepump,followthespecificationsinthecurrentrepairinstructions.
Excessivetiltingofthepumpcandamagethepumppiston

Boschhigh-pressurepump

117
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
A Low-pressureconnection
B High-pressureconnection
1 Balancingchamber
2 High-pressurenon-returnvalve
3 Pressure-limitingvalve
4 Pumppiston
5 Quantitycontrolvalve
6 Electricalconnectionofquantitycontrolvalve

Thequantitycontrolvalveatthehighpressurepumpadjuststhefuelpressureintherail.The
maximumpressureintherailis200bar.Thehighpressurepumpcontainsapressurelimitingvalve
whichopensatapressureof245bar.Thequantitycontrolvalveisactivatedviaapulse-width-
modulated(PWM)signalandassumestheopenpositioninthede-energizedstate.Thismeansthe
pumppistonofthehighpressurepumpcannotcompressthefuel.

Itfollowsthatthehighpressurepumpcannotbuilduppressureinthehigh-pressurefuelsystemwhen
thequantitycontrolvalveisremoved.Inthissituation,themaximumfuellowpressure(6.5bar)would
bepresentintherailduringanenginestart.Thesystemwouldbeinemergencyoperation.Toensure
theengineremainscapableofrunninginthisstate,theopeningperiodofthesolenoidvalveinjectors
hasbeenextendedandtheidlespeedincreased.Althoughthevehicleremainsdrivable,themaximum
engineperformanceisnotavailable.

Thequantitycontrolvalveisnotresistanttocontinuouscurrent.Apermanentcurrentsupplywith12V
directcurrentvoltagewouldrenderthecomponentdefective.

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B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
7.3.2.Directrail

Mountingtheinjectors

Index Explanation
1 Mountingbolts
2 Plasticsleeve
3 Holdingclampwithbayonetfitting
4 Rail
5 Solenoidvalveinjector
6 Castinglug

Thesolenoidvalveinjectorsarefastenedtotheholdingclampwithabayonetfitting.Thereisaplastic
sleevebetweentheholdingclampanddirectrail.Thisisnotdesignedtocollectescapingfuel.Itsonly
purposeistocarryoutaheliumpressuretestduringpre-assemblyatthefactoryinordertocheckthe
tightness.Aftertheinitialassembly,thisplasticsleeveisofnorelevancetotheengineoperation.When
thesolenoidvalveinjectorsarereplaced,theplasticsleevesarenolongerrequiredanddonotneedto
bereinserted.

Whenmanufacturingtheholdingclamp,castinglugsareproducedwhenthecomponentisdetached
fromthetool.Duetothelowinstallationtolerances,wheninstallingthesolenoidvalveinjectorsitmust
beensuredthatthesecastinglugspointinthedirectionoftheexhaustmanifold.Iftheyarepointingin
thewrongdirection(towardstheintakepipe),thiscanleadtomechanicalcontactbetweentheholding
clampandcylinderheadcover.

119
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Themountingboltsoftheholdingclampmustbereplacedeachtimetheyarereleased.

Theshankofthesolenoidvalveinjectorsissensitivetohightensileforcesandrotationalangles.
Whenremovingandinstallingthesolenoidvalveinjectors,theprocedureinthecurrentrepair
instructionsmustbefollowedIfthesolenoidvalveinjectorsaredamaged,fuelmaybedischarged.

120
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
7.3.3.Solenoidvalveinjector

SolenoidvalveinjectorHDEV5.2

121
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
1 Fuellineconnection
2 Electricalconnection
3 Stem
4 Compressionspring
5 Solenoidcoil
6 Armature
7 Nozzleneedle
8 6-holenozzle

AsisalreadythecasewiththeN55andN20engines,thenewB46engineisequippedwiththeBosch
HDEV5.2solenoidvalveinjector.Thedesignationoftheinjectorsisacombinationofthefollowing:

HDEV=high-pressurefuelinjectionvalve
5=generationdesignation
1=maximumfuelinjectionpressureof150bar
2=maximumfuelinjectionpressureof200bar

Ifcurrentissuppliedtothesolenoidcoil,amagneticfieldisproducedwhichattractsthemagnet
armature.Themagnetarmaturerunsupwardsonthenozzleneedle.Thelineartravelofthemagnet
armatureinthedirectionofthesolenoidcoilcarriesthenozzleneedlealongwithitandthenozzle
boresarereleasedinthedirectionofthecombustionchamber.

Therepairinstructionsthatarecurrentlyvalidmustbefollowedwhenremovingandinstallingthe
injectorsinService.Iftherotationalangleattheshankoftheinjectoristoolarge,thiscanleadto
damageandthereforeleaksinthefuelsystem.

Aspecialfueladditiveisrecommendedinmarketswithapoorfuelgradetopreventcokingofinjectors
indirectinjectionsystems.Theadditiveisaddedtothefuelinthefueltankfromwhereitarrivesatthe
injectors.

CokingattheinjectorsisreducedbyusingaBMW-approvedadditive(partno.83192183738).

ULEVIImeasuresatthesolenoidvalveinjector

DuetothemorestringentexhaustgasemissionregulationswhicharerequiredtomeettheULEVII
exhaustemissionstandards,technicalchangeshadtobemadetothesolenoidvalveinjectors.

Asisthecasewithdieselfuelpassengercarswhichhasbeendealtwithpreviously,inadditiontothe
limitvalueforparticulatemass(PM),thelimitvaluefortheparticleconcentration(PN)isalsostipulated
intheULEVIIexhaustemissionstandardsforgaspassengercars.

Thereasonforthisisthatinmoderngasengineswithdirectinjectionnohomogeneousfuel/airmixture
arisesincomparisontoengineswithintakepipefuelinjection.Therearethereforemoreparticlesin
theexhaustgas(particulatematter).

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B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Differentdiametersoflaser-manufacturedboreholesareusedwiththenewhigh-pressurefuel
injectionvalves,forexample.Thefuelquantityofthetwosprayjetsintheexhaustdirectionisreduced
by20%,whichincreasestheothersprayjetsby10%respectively.

Thesolenoidvalveinjectorscanonlybeusedinapredefinedpositionintheinjectorshaftofthe
cylinderhead.Thisensurescorrectalignmentoftheinjectionpatterninthecombustionchamber.

ThefollowinggraphicillustratesthedifferencesbetweentheULEVandULEVIIversion:

ULEVIImeasures,solenoidvalveinjector

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B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
A SolenoidvalveinjectorULEV
B SolenoidvalveinjectorULEVII
C Evennozzleboregeometry
D Unevennozzleboregeometry
X Openingperiod
Y Needletravel
1 Injectionquantitycompensationcode
2 Conventionaloperation
3 Automaticoperation
4 Spraypattern,intakevalveside
5 Spraypattern,exhaustvalveside

High-pressurefuelinjectionvalveswithsolenoidcoilsdonothavealinearbehaviorpatternacrossthe
entireservicelife,mainlyintheareaofminimalquantityfuelinjection.Thismeansovertheservice
lifethefuelinjectionratesvaryfromoneinjectortoanotherinjector.Althoughthehigh-pressurefuel
injectionvalvesareadaptedduringstart-upviatheinjectionquantitycompensationcodeintheDigital
MotorElectronics,inordertocompensateforpossiblemanufacturingtolerancesoftheindividual
high-pressurefuelinjectionvalvesintheDigitalMotorElectronics,andtoadaptallinjectorsinrelation
tooneanother,thisonlyhappensonceduringstart-up(injectionquantitycompensation).During
conventionaloperation,theparametersforactivationoftheinjectors,suchascurrentandactivation
duration,arethesameforallinjectorsthroughouttheentireoperatingtimeandcannotbeindividually
adapted.Anotheradaptationduringtheentireoperatingtimeisnolongerpossible.Thiswouldleadto
breachesofthestrictexhaustgasemissionslegislation,suchasULEVII,duringtheoperatingtime.

Anautomaticoperationallowsprecisedosingoffuel,particularlywhenusingextremelysmallinjection
quantities.Analysisofthevoltageandcurrentcurveininjectormodeallowsconclusionstobedrawn
aboutthemovementoftheneedle.Themostimportantinformationinrelationtothemovementofthe
needleistheneedletravelandopeningperiod.Thefuelinjectionratecanbedeterminedfromthese
twovariables.Ithasthereforebeenpossibletoomitprintingofainjectionquantitycompensationcode
ontheULEVIIsolenoidvalveinjectors.

ControlledValveOperating(CVO)

AsoftwareintheDigitalMotorElectronicspermanentlyensuresautomaticoperationofthesolenoid
valveinjectorsthroughouttheentireoperatingtime.

ThebasicprincipleofthisCVOfunctionisthatthepreciseopeningperiodofthehigh-pressurefuel
injectionvalvesisdetermined.TheDigitalMotorElectronicscandeterminethepreciseopeningperiod
basedonthefollowingparameters:

Powerconsumptionofthehigh-pressurefuelinjectionvalve
Voltageofthehigh-pressurefuelinjectionvalve

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B46Engine
7.FuelSystem

Currentandvoltagecurveofthesolenoidvalveinjector

Index Explanation
A Currentflow
B Voltagecurve
1 Startofactivation
2 Nozzleneedle,openingstart
3 Nozzleneedle,fullyopen
4 Endofactivation
5 Nozzleneedleclosing

Thesecurrentandvoltagevalueschangeintheeventofaneedlemovementinthehigh-pressurefuel
injectionvalve,forexample:

Armaturemistsup-whentheneedlevalveiswithdrawnfromthevalveseat.
Armaturemoves-needlevalvemovesindirectionofopenposition.
Armaturestationary-needlevalvecomestorestatthemaximumopenposition.
Reversemovement.
Armaturemoves-needlevalvemovesindirectionofclosedposition.
Armaturesuffersimpactandisbrakedhydraulically-needlevalveclosed.

Withthesevalues,calculatedfromcurrentandvoltagevaluesfromtheabovementionedneedle
movements,theDigitalMotorElectronicscandeterminetheactualopeningperiodofthehigh-
pressurefuelinjectionvalves.Ifthepreciseopeningperiodsareknown,theDigitalMotorElectronics
canalsodeterminetheexactfuelinjectionratebasedonthisinformation.

125
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Ifvariablefuelinjectionratesarenowtobeused,theDigitalMotorElectronicscanvarythefuel
injectionratethroughouttheopeningperiodbyactivatingtherespectivehigh-pressurefuelinjection
valveindividually.TheDigitalMotorElectronicsthushastheoptiontoadjustallhigh-pressurefuel
injectionvalvestothesamenominalfuelinjectionrate.

Thismeasureguaranteesthesamenominalfuelinjectionrateinallcylinders,especiallyintherange
whereextremelysmallamountsareinjected,aswellasatidlespeed,sothattheexhaustre-treatment
canalwaysworkefficiently.Thismeasureinsidetheenginereducesexhaustemissionsandtherefore
ensurescompliancewiththeexistingexhaustemissionstandards.

CylinderImbalanceMonitoring(CIM)

The"CylinderImbalanceMonitoring"functionisanadditionalsoftwarefunctionintheDigital
MotorElectronicswhichmonitorsthecorrectnessofthemixturepreparation.Theprimaryaimisto
determine,withtheassistanceofthisfunction,age-relatedoperatingtimeimpairmentsofthefueland
intakearea.Conclusionscanbedrawnabouttheairflowdifferencesanddifferentfuelinjectionrates,
forexample.Thesekindofdifferencesarenormallyattributabletoage-relatedleaksoftheintake-
componentsandpressurefluctuationsintherailorcokingoftheinjectors.

ThefollowinggraphicillustratestheoperatingprincipleoftheCylinderImbalanceMonitoringsoftware:

CylinderImbalanceMonitoringfunction

126
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Index Explanation
A Cylinderinnormaloperation
B Testcylinderwithhigherair/fuelratio
C Cylinderoutsidethetolerance
D Cylinderinsidethetolerance
E Richrange
F Leanrange
n Speedofcrankshaft
Airratio
1 Cylinderinrichrange
2 Testcylinderspeedconstant
3 Cylinderinidealrange
4 Testcylinderspeedslightlyslower
5 Cylinderinleanrange
6 Speedoftestcylindersignificantlyslower

ThefunctioniscyclicallyactuatedbytheDigitalMotorElectronics.Duringthisprocess,theair/fuel
ratioisincreasedforeachcylinderinsuccessionduringengineoperation.Atthesametimeastheair/
fuelratiointhetestcylinderisincreased,theremainingcylindersareenrichedinordertomaintain
theoveralllambdavalueoftheexhaustgaspassagewithintherange=1.Thisensuresperfect
functionalityofthe3-waycatalyticconverter.

Ifatestcylinderisoperatedwhentheair/fuelratioistoolow,aslightincreasewillnotbringabouta
changeinthecrankshaftspeed.

Whentheair/fuelratioinatestcylinderisincreasedintheidealrange,thisbringsaboutaslightchange
inspeedatthecrankshaft.

Ifatestcylinderisoperatedwhentheair/fuelratioistoohigh,thespeedatthecrankshaftdrops
rapidly.

Theenginespeedvariationsatthecrankshaftarenotevaluateddirectly,butratherthechangesin
smoothrunningduringengineoperation.Roughrunningofthecylindersinrelationtooneanotheris
balancedoutbyaso-called'cylinderbalancingcontrol'.Thetestcylinderintherichrangetherefore
bringsaboutaminorchangeinroughrunningandthetestcylinderintheleanrangebringsabouta
majorchangeinroughrunning.

MixtureerrorsdeterminedarestoredasafaultcodeentryintheDigitalMotorElectronics.Thefault
codeentryprovidesinformationaboutwhichcylinderisaffectedandtherichorleanvaluedetermined.
Thedriverisinformedabouttheerrorviaamalfunctionindicatorlamp.

127
B46Engine
7.FuelSystem
Servicenote

Whenreplacingtheinjector,thetaught-invaluesoftheCVOfunctionandCIMfunctionmustbe
reset.ThisisdonewiththeassistanceoftheBMWdiagnosissystemISTA.Adjustmentfunctionsare
availableintheservicefunctions.InordertoinformtheDigitalMotorElectronicsabouttheinjector
replacement,everyULEVIIsolenoidvalveinjectorwiththesamedummyvalue(215)istaughtin.
Oncetheteach-inprocedurehasbeensuccessfullycompleted,thestoredadaptationsareresetand
newadaptationsaretaughtinviatheCVOandCIMfunction.

Whenthesolenoidvalveinjectorsarereplaced,theymustbestartedupwiththeassistanceofthe
BMWdiagnosissystemISTA.

128
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
8.1.DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)
DifferentvariantsoftheDigitalMotorElectronicsMEVD17.2.3areused,dependingonthecharge
cyclemethod.Thehardwareofthethrottlevalve-controlledenginecontrolunitsisthereforenotthe
sameasthehardwareoftheValvetronic-controlledenginecontrolunits.

Thecontrolunitnumberismadeupofthefollowing:

M=engineelectronics
E=electricalloadcontrol(withoutcable)
V=Valvetroniccontrol
D=directfuelinjection
17=controlunitgeneration
2=Bosch-internalprojectnumberforBMW
3=controlunitindex

TheDigitalMotorElectronicsisthecomputingandswitchingcenter.Sensorsontheengineand
thevehicledelivertheinputsignalsandactuatorsimplementthecommands.TheDigitalMotor
Electronicscalculatesthecorrespondingactivationsignalsfortheactuatorsfromtheinputsignals,
andalsothecomputingmodelsandcharacteristicmapsstored.

TheoperatingvoltagerangeoftheDigitalMotorElectronicsisbetween6and16volts.

AnambientpressuresensorandatemperaturesensorareintegratedintheDigitalMotorElectronics.

Theambientpressuresensorpermitsprecisedeterminationofthedensityoftheambientair.This
informationisrequiredforvariousdiagnosticfunctions.Inaddition,intheeventofafailureofthehot
filmairmassmeter,aprecisesubstitutevaluecanbecalculatedforthecylinderfillingwiththehelpof
additionalinputvariables.

Thetemperaturesensormeasuresthetemperatureinsidethecontrolunit.Ifthetemperaturethere
risestoosharply,multiplefuelinjectionisreducedforexample,inordertocooltheoutputstages
slightlyandtokeepthetemperatureinsidethecontrolunitinanon-criticalrange.

129
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
8.2.Systemwiringdiagram,B46engine

Systemwiringdiagram(ULEVIIversion),Bx8engine
130
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Index Explanation
1 EngineelectronicsValvetronicdirectfuelinjectionMEVD17.2.3
2 Temperaturesensor
3 Ambientpressuresensor
4 Startermotor
5 Brakelightswitch
6 BodyDomainController(BDC)
7 Airconditioningcompressor
8 Refrigerantpressuresensor
9 Fuelpumpcontrolmodule
10 Electricfuelpump
11 N/A
12 Relay,terminal15N
13 Relay,Valvetronic
14 Relay,ignitionandfuelinjection
15 Diagnosticmodulefortankleaks(DMTL)
16 Relay,terminal30B
17 Relayforelectricfan
18 Electricfan
19 Mapthermostat
20 Electriccoolantpump(20W)
21 Tankventvalve
22 VANOSsolenoidvalve,intakecamshaft
23 VANOSsolenoidvalve,exhaustcamshaft
24 Map-controlledvalve,oilpump
25 Quantitycontrolvalve
2629 Injectors,4-cylinderengine
3033 Ignitioncoils,4-cylinderengine
34 Engineventilationheating(cold-climateversiononly)
35 Earthconnections
36 Actuatorforelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
37 Oxygensensoraftercatalyticconverter
(LSFXfourvoltage-jumpsensor)
38 Oxygensensorbeforecatalyticconverter
(LSUADVbroadbandoxygensensor)
39 Diagnosticsocket
40 Intake-manifoldpressuresensorafterthrottlevalve

131
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Index Explanation
41 Railpressuresensor
42 Chargeairtemperatureandchargingpressure
sensorupstreamofthrottlevalve
43 Knocksensor
44 Knocksensor
45 Hotfilmairmassmeter
46 Gearsensor
47 Camshaftsensor,intakecamshaft
48 Camshaftsensor,exhaustcamshaft
49 Crankshaftsensor
50 Acceleratorpedalmodule
51 Electromotivethrottleactuator
52 Coolanttemperaturesensor
53 Oilpressuresensor
54 Valvetronicservomotor
55 Oillevelsensor
56 Alternator
57 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

8.3.Mapignition
TheB46engineisequippedwithaninductiveignitionsystemwithstaticignitiondistribution.
Eachcylinderhasaseparateignitioncoilwhichisinserteddirectlyintothecylinderheadcover.

Toachieveoptimumconsumptionandminimumpollutantemissionsandthehighestpossibletorque,
theignitionpointmustbeperfectlyadjusted.

Thefollowingfactorsinfluencetheignitionpoint:

Enginespeed
Enginetorque
Chargingpressure
Currentairratio
Coolanttemperature
Intakeairtemperature
Fuelgrade
Operatingcondition(enginestart)

132
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
ThesevariablesarerecordedbytheDigitalMotorElectronicsviasensors,processedwiththe
assistanceofdifferentcharacteristicmapsandoutputascontrolsignalstotheignitioncoils.

8.3.1.Diagnosticfunctions
Asfaultsintheareaoftheignitionsystemdirectlyaffectthequalityoftheexhaustgas,theignition
processesaremonitoredbytheDigitalMotorElectronics.Duringthisprocess,thecombustionperiod
fortheignitionofeachindividualcylinderisevaluatedasapriority.Thevoltagedifferenceofthe
primarycoilatterminal1andterminal15isdeterminedandevaluatedbycarryingoutameasurement
withintheDigitalMotorElectronics.Anincreasedvoltagedifferenceismeasurablewhileanignition
sparkispresent.Theperiodofthisvoltagedifferenceisreferredtoas'combustionperiod'.
Thecombustionperiodisnotevaluatedduringthefollowingoperatingconditions:

Duringthestartingoperation
Vehiclevoltage<12volts

Currentandvoltagecurveofignition

Index Explanation
A Voltagecurve
B Currentflow
1 Chargingtimeofprimarycoil
2 Combustionperiodofignitionspark
3 Startofchargingofprimarycoil
4 Startofignition
5 Endofignition

133
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Combustionperiodtooshort

TheminimumthresholdsforthecombustionperiodaredeterminedbytheDigitalMotorElectronics
dependingontheenginespeedandload.Whentheseminimumthresholdsareundercutandmisfiring
alsooccurs,afaultcodeentry"Combustionperiodtooshort"isstoredintheDigitalMotorElectronics.

Combustionperiodoutsidethetolerance

Thecurrentcombustionperiodofallindividualcylindersisreadinandcombinedtoobtainamean
value.Asthespeedandloadisthesameinallcylinders,thecalculatedmeanvalueissimilartothe
individualvaluesreadin.Bycomparingtheindividualvalueswiththemeanvalueobtained,theDigital
MotorElectronics(DME)candrawconclusionsaboutthecombustionperiod.Ifanindividualvalue
exceedsorundercutstheminimumthresholdsstored,afaultcodeentry"Combustionperiodoutside
thetolerance"isstoredintheDigitalMotorElectronics.

NoteforService

Faultcodeentrieswiththenote"Combustionperiodtooshort"or"Combustionperiodoutside
thetolerance"arenotnecessarilyalwaysattributabletoadefectinoneorseveralignitioncoils.
CombustionperiodabnormalitiescanbeidentifiedviathediagnosisentryintheDigitalMotor
Electronics,theircausescanbefoundinmanydifferentenginesystems.

Thefollowingcancausedeteriorationofthecombustionperiod:

Contactresistancesattheenginewiringharnessoftheignitioncoil.
Poorplug-incontactattheconnectoroftheignitioncoil.
Coilresistanceofignitioncoilsoutsidethepermissiblerange.
Ignitionsparksinsidesiliconehoseoftheignitioncoil.
Heavilycarbonfouledsparkplug(s).

Thefollowinggraphicshowsaheavilysootedsparkplug.

Heavilycarbonfouledsparkplug

Thefaultcodeentry"Combustionperiodtooshort"isfrequentlycausedbyoneorseveralheavily
carbonfouledsparkplug(s).Thecarbonloadingleadstodeteriorationoftheignitionsparkand
thereforeaveryshortcombustionperiod.

134
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Increasedsootloadingatthesparkplugsaccompaniedbyareductioninthecombustionperiodmay
becausedbythefollowing:

Faultinthemixturepreparation
-leaksattheairintakesystem
-faultattheinjector
-faultatthehighpressurepump
-depositsintheareaoftheintakevalves
Faultintheengineelectricalsystem
-faultintheareaofthecoolanttemperaturesensor
-faultintheareaoftheoxygensensor
-faultintheareaofthehotfilmairmassmeter
Largenumberofcoldstarts
-frequentcatalyticconverterheatingphases
-fewself-cleaningphasesofthesparkplugs

Withthefaultcodeentry"Combustionperiod",apotentialcomponentfaultattherelevantcoilcanbe
confirmedordisprovedbycross-swappingtheignitioncoil.

Ifmisfiringoccursfollowingcomponenterrors,differenttestmodulesintheworkshopanddiagnosis
systemISTAcanbeprocessed.Asthecausesoffaultsintheignitionsystemaremanyandvaried,the
varioustestanddiagnosisinstructionsinthetestmodulemustbefollowed.Ifafaultycomponentis
replacedwithouteliminatingtheactualcause,thiswillonlyremedytheproblemintheshortterm.

8.3.2.Ignitioncoils

Overviewofignitioncoils

Thefollowinggraphicprovidesanoverviewofthedifferentignitioncoilscurrentlyusedwiththe
variousBMWengines:

135
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem

Overviewofignitioncoils

Index Explanation
A Compactignitioncoil(manufacturer:Eldor)
B Rodignitioncoil(manufacturer:Delphi)
1 Electricalplug-incontact
2 Siliconehose
3 Mountingbolt
4 Rearclosureplate

Thetablebelowprovidesanoverviewoftheenginesinwhichthevariousignitioncoilsareused:

Engine Compactignitioncoil Rodignitioncoil


B46 X
N20 X
N55 X
N63TU2 X
N74TU X

136
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Compactignitioncoil

Ignitioncoil,Bx8engine

Index Explanation
1 ManufacturedforBMW
2 BMWpartnumber
3 Supplier
4 Suppliercode
5 Productiondate
6 Terminal15
7 Terminal4a
8 Siliconehose
9 Serialnumber
10 Terminal1
11 Mountingbolt

Theprimaryandsecondarycoilrequiredtoraisetheignitionvoltagecanbefoundintheareaofthe
electricalplug-incontact.Thetransferfactorachievedbybothcoilsisaround1:80.

137
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Whenservicingtheignitioncoils,observethefollowing:

Aslightrotationalmovementwhenpullingoutandinsertingtheignitioncoilsmakes
disassemblyandinstallationeasier.
Theremustbenosignofcontaminationbyoilorotherfluidsintheareaofthe
electricalplug-incontact.
Thepinsoftheelectricalplug-incontactmustnotbebent.
Theremustbenosignofcrackingonthesiliconehose.
Thespringwhichtransmitstheignitionsparkmustbepositionedatthecenter
ofthesiliconehose.
Thesiliconehoseoftheignitioncoilsmustnotcomeintocontactwithfuelormineraloils.
Thespecifiedtorqueofthemountingboltmustbeobserved.
Priortodisassemblyoftheignitioncoil,removetheplug-incontactfromtheengine
wiringharness,astheignitioncoilscannotbeoperatedwithoutsparkplugs.

Theignitioncoilsarenotfuel-resistant.Allignitioncoilsshouldthereforeberemovedbeforeopening
thefuelsystem.Fuelresiduesmustberemovedbeforeinsertingtheignitioncoilsinthesparkplug
shaft.

8.3.3.Sparkplugs
Thepositionofthesparkplugelectrodeinthecombustionchamberisthereforeparticularlyimportant.
Toavoidcoatingthesparkplugelectrodewithfuel,itispositionedgeometricallybetweenthefuel-
injectionsprayoftheinjector.

Achangeintervalappliesforsparkplugsandtheymustberenewedinaccordancewiththe
manufacturer'sspecifications.Toavoiddamageandensureperfectfunctionofthesparkplugs,
theprescribedtighteningtorquesmustbeobserved.

8.4.Systemoverviewforengineelectricalsystem
Thesensorsandactuatorsarealreadyknownfromotherenginesandarethereforenotdescribedin
detailinthisdocumentation.Thefollowinggraphicsprovideanoverviewofthedifferentinstallation
positionsofthesensors.

138
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
8.4.1.Transmissionside

SystemoverviewforelectricalsystemintheB38engine,transmissionside

Index Explanation
1 Railpressuresensor
2 Ignitioncoil
3 Quantitycontrolvalve
4 High-pressurepump
5 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
6 Broadbandoxygensensorbeforecatalyticconverter
7 VANOSexhaustcamshaft
8 Voltagejump,oxygensensoraftercatalyticconverter
9 Pinionstarter
10 Crankshaftsensor,crankshaft

139
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Index Explanation
11 Electromotivethrottlecontroller
12 Combinedchargingpressureandtemperaturesensor
13 Throttlevalveunit
14 VANOSintakecamshaft

8.4.2.Sideview

SystemoverviewforelectricalsystemintheB38engine,topview

Index Explanation
1 Camshaftsensor,intakecamshaft
2 Intakemanifoldpressuresensor
3 Knocksensor
4 Coolanttemperaturesensor
5 Hot-filmairmassmeter
6 Combinedchargingpressureandtemperaturesensor
7 Throttlevalveunit

140
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Index Explanation
8 Oilpressuresensor
9 Map-controlledcontrolvalveofthevane-typecompressor
10 Combinedoilqualityandoil-levelsensor
11 Mapthermostat
12 Localinterconnectnetworkbusconnection
13 Valvetronicservomotorwithintegratedpositionsensors

8.4.3.Beltside

SystemoverviewforelectricalsystemintheB38engine,beltside

Index Explanation
1 Camshaftsensor,exhaustcamshaft
2 Railpressuresensor
3 Camshaftsensor,intakecamshaft
4 Valvetronicservomotorwithintegratedpositionsensors
5 Generatorwithintelligentgeneratorcontrol

141
B46Engine
8.EngineElectricalSystem
Index Explanation
6 Solenoidswitch,pinionstarter
7 Actuatorofelectricallyadjustablewastegatevalve
8 Broadbandoxygensensorbeforecatalyticconverter
9 Voltagejump,oxygensensoraftercatalyticconverter
10 DigitalMotorElectronics(DME)

142
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