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Dynamics

dates the concept of point particles and shows the relevance of forces; maybe

more importantly, it brings mathematics (calculus) to the center of our un-

derstanding of mechanical phenomena (a program initiated by Archimedes

of Syracuse in his palimpsest, and evolving through much of modern mathe-

matical physics).

Essential mathematical concepts are vectors and differentials; additional

mechanical ideas include stresses (in common with solid mechanics, under

the umbrella of continuum mechanics).

The extension of Newtons second law from point particles to continua is

basis for both elasticity theory and advanced fluid dynamics. Euler took

the first step in this direction, by combining the use of material derivatives

with the knowledge (from fluid statics) that a pressure gradient is an internal

force. Dividing by the uniform density in an incompressible flow1

1

t u + u u = p (3.1)

1

The distinction between an incompressible flow, in which there are no significant effects

of compressibility, and the flow of an incompressible fluid, is important. Even water is not

incompressible, and a study of incompressible fluids would run head-on into the second

law of thermodynamics; on the other hand, the compressibility of air can be ignored in

low-speed aerodynamics: the weaker assumption of incompressible flow is sufficient to

allow for simple solutions. See Section 3.7 for details.

83

84 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

variant used in the analysis

or

1

t ui + u j j ui = i p (3.2)

Eulers equation represents a leap away from material particles to the velocity

field in space, already discussed in the previous chapter. In hindsight, Eulers

equation is seen as ignoring the effects of viscosity: an approximation.

The next step was the work of Cauchy, who adopted as the basic object of

analysis the collection of particles included in a volume element specified in

some cartesian coordinates as dV = dx dy dz. The Lagrangian description is

implied for now. The free-body diagram (Fig. 3.1) entails body forces (such

as gravity, or the Lorentz force) applied at the center of mass, and surface

forces, applied at the center of each surface, that account for interactions

with the neighboring elements.

The body and surface forces can be decomposed into their cartesian com-

ponents, normalized by the size of the volume or surface to which they are

applied. In the case of surface forces, taking the outward normal as one of

the local axes, the normal component for force per unit area is a familiar

concept: negative pressure2 . The tangential forces per unit area on each

surface are the components of stress, one of the cornerstones of continuum

2

The negative sign comes from the simple consideration that the force in the equation

is the force applied to the fluid element, rather than by the fluid to the surface at which

it is measured.

3.1. NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS OF CONTINUA 85

mechanics. Note the direction of local axes to ensure right-handed local axes

on each surface element, which is specified by its direction and its area; for

each possible direction, there are 3 components of force. Thus there are 9

components of stress at each point. A vector such as position has 3 compo-

nents, that can be arranged as a vector for which the single index can have

3 possible values; whereas the stress requires two such indices, one for the

direction of the surface on which the stress is acting, and one for the com-

ponent of force. Thus the stress will be represented as a 3x3 matrix, with

intrinsic, component and index representations respectively as

Txx Tyx Tzx

T or Txy Tyy Tzy or Tij (3.3)

The first index denotes the direction of the surface, the second index the

direction of the force. Normal forces (per unit area) are therefore the diagonal

elements of stress. The resultant force on a surface with a given direction n

or ni is given by Cauchys relation

F =nT (3.4)

or

Txx Tyx Tzx

Fx Fy Fz = nx ny nz Txy Tyy Tzy

(3.5)

Txz Tyz Tzz

or

Fi = nj Tji (3.6)

In this framework, rotational equilibrium of the material element gives an

important result. With the body forces applied at the center of mass, their

moment about the center of mass is zero. Taking the centroidal moment of

the components of stress (see Panton p120), we obtain

This for static conditions, no rotational body forces. The symmetry of the

stress tensor is very important in all areas of continuum mechanics.

Then, momentum balance includes the net effect of all surface and body

forces (Fig. 3.2). The derivation is carried out in 2D, with the 3D version

similar (but with more terms). Consider the rectangular volume element

86 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

Figure 3.2: The 2-D free body diagram for a fluid element

centered at (x, y) and of sides dx and dy. Let us focus on the x-component

of force dFx :

dFx = Bx dxdy + Txx |x+dx/2 dy Txx |xdx/2 dy

+Tyx |y+dy/2 dx Tyx |ydy/2 dx (3.8)

Expanding the various terms in Taylor series, we see that the leading terms

cancel out in pairs of opposite signs, and that the terms of order dx dy

remain. Dividing throughout by the volume gives for the x-component

Fx = Bx + x Txx + y Tyx (3.9)

or in intrinsic notations

F =B+T (3.10)

or again

Fi = Bi + j Tij (3.11)

(summation over j is implied). Cauchys idea that the divergence of stress is

equivalent to a force, has implications throughout continuum mechanics.

While Cauchys equation represents Newtons equation in continua, the ex-

pression for the stress tensor is not governed by fundamental laws (although

3.2. STRESS AT A POINT, NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 87

the stress as function of other variables). It belongs in the group of phe-

nomenological (or constitutive) equations (or again equations of state), which

include Newtons law of viscosity, Ohms law of electrical resistance, Hookes

law of elasticity or Newtons law (again?!!) of heat exchange, and many

other empirical approximations: assuming a simple relation between shear

stress and shear rate (respectively: voltage and current, strain and deforma-

tion, heat flux and temperature difference), a truncated Taylor series yields

a sensible result. A complete theory is provided within the framework of

continuum mechanics; only the simplest variants need to be considered here.

First, we note that pressure is independent of direction, separate the

isotropic part of the stress:

Tij = pij + ij (3.12)

where (the deviatoric of stress, or viscous stress in the simple cases of in-

terest at this level) includes the non-isotropic contributions. In this instance,

we need to model the dependence of stress on flow variables. It is clear that

the viscous stress tensor cannot depend on velocity, because the addition of a

uniform velocity cannot modify the stress (Galilean invariance). The obvious

option is that the stress could depend on the velocity gradient; alternatives

include higher derivatives, time-derivatives (visco-elastic materials) or mem-

ory effects, or even non-local combinations of properties (required in some

polymer and biological flows). Here, we assume

= F (u) (3.13)

or

ij = Fij (k um ) (3.14)

Because is symmetric, linear algebra dictates that it can only be a

function of the symmetric part of the velocity gradient, i.e. the rate-of-strain

ij = Fij (skm ) (3.15)

(Note that, in index notations, the dependence of the i-j-component of stress

on any or all of the k-m-components of rate-of-strain is made explicit: writing

Fij (sij ) would imply that the x-y component of stress could not depend e.g.

on sxx , would be quite restrictive.) Assuming that the function F can be

expanded in Taylor series, the first few terms are

ij = C 0 ij + Cijkm

1 2

skm + Cijml smk skl + ... (3.16)

88 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

skm 3 .

Because the viscous stress has no isotropic contribution, we have C 0 = 0.

We will limit ourselves in this course to the first term in the series. The

student should be aware that relatively simple substances, such as power-

law fluids and visco-elastic fluids, are excluded. Also, we assume that the

coefficients C 1 , ... in the series are independent of the scalar invariants of

the rate-of-strain. It turns out that these assumptions allow for accurate

descriptions of many common gases and liquids.

Then, the simplest approximation is to neglect non-isotropic stresses

ij = 0 (3.17)

The corresponding force per unit volume is then

fi0 = i p (3.18)

which corresponds to Eulers inviscid dynamics. In intrinsic notations, we

have

T = p1 (3.19)

worked out rigorously by Stokes (1845) but first included in the equations of

motion by Navier (1821). For an incompressible fluid, we have

Tij = pij + 2sij (3.20)

See Panton for the additional terms for compressibility. It is easy to see

that, in a uniform shear flow (Couette flow) between two flat plates, this

expression reduces to Newtons definition of viscosity; hence the Newtonian

fluid.

On this basis, we obtain our basic form of momentum balance (Newtons

second law) for incompressible Newtonian fluids:

1 2

t ui + uj j ui = bi i p + jj ui (3.21)

3

First, second and third invariants of sij . See a textbook on linear algebra for details.

3.2. STRESS AT A POINT, NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 89

90 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

1

t u + (u )u = b p + 2 u (3.22)

The body force per unit mass bi = Bi / is assumed to derive from a

potential from now on. Specifically,

bi = gi3 (3.23)

where the index 3 corresponds to the vertical upward direction. The corre-

sponding potential energy per unit mass is gx3 .

Impermeable walls moving at velocity uw . Then, the normal velocity must

match the motion of the wall:

u n = uw n (3.24)

u n = uw n (3.25)

rather than merely

u = uw (3.26)

For an additional discussion, see Tritton Section 5.7 p.63. In addition to

the rarefied gas dynamics case mentioned there, it should be noted that the

no-slip condition (introduced by Stokes) is not necessarily exact, as recent

microfluidics studies have shown.

Boundaries may also be associated with the application of forces driving

the flow. Depending on the problem, it may be necessary to to impose

pressure or components of tangential stress.

3.2.3 Pressure

From experience in thermodynamics and pipe flows, pressure may appear

to be a simple term. As a matter of fact, if pressure is known, taking its

gradient and seeing its effect on velocity can be rather simple; but the inverse

problem, when the velocity field is known and pressure is the unknown, is

quite different. The analogy with the vorticity/velocity relationship in Ch.3

3.2. STRESS AT A POINT, NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 91

the Biot-Savart relation is far from trivial!) is very deep and the student

should ponder this.

Indeed, mass conservation for the incompressible flows

i ui = 0 (3.27)

gives, by application of the divergence:

2 p = i uj j ui = ij2 (ui uj ) = rhs (3.28)

(Note that, in intrinsic notations, the divergence of the nonlinear term is

ambiguous, whereas the index notation is quite clear). This is a Poisson equa-

92 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

tion, similar to the relation between vector potential and vorticity, between

velocity and flexion. Here, the velocity gradients are the sources of pressure

variations, and the use of Greens functions gives the general solution for 3D

in the absence of boundaries:

1 rhs(x0 )

Z

p= dV 0 (3.29)

4 | x x0 |

point depends on sources in the entire field, with vanishing awareness for

remote sources. Just as a vortex induces velocity throughout the flow domain,

velocity gradients induce pressure variations at large distances. We can hear

wind noise when driving a car, and it has been shown that vorticity is a

dominant source of pressure variations (hence the term: vortex noise). The

compressibility of air results in a finite speed of propagation of the pressure

fluctuations, captured in Kirchhoffs theory of delayed potentials.

3.2.4 Vorticity in NS

This brings up the idea of looking for vorticity in the Navier-Stokes dynamics.

We make use of two identities. First

( u) = = 2 u + ( u) (3.30)

in which the last term vanishes; second, the Lamb vector (see Ch. 2) reap-

pears since

1

( u) u = u = u u (u u). (3.31)

2

Then, the momentum equation can be rewritten as

p u2

t u + u = ( + + gz) (3.32)

2

viscous term and part of the nonlinear term when moved to the right-hand

side and multiplied by density, the Lamb vector is also called the Magnus

force. This term is a major contributor to pressure sources (above), i.e vortex

noise. The u2 -term on the r.h.s. is obviously related to Bernoullis equation,

a topic to be pursued in Ch.5.

3.2. STRESS AT A POINT, NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 93

94 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

Sensing the need to now more about vorticity, we turn to its dynamics. Tak-

ing the curl of the Navier-Stokes equations, we get after some rearrangement

2

t i + uj j i = j j ui + jj i (3.33)

On the l.h.s., we have the material derivative of the vorticity; on the r.h.s.,

the inviscid term is interpreted as a stretching term. We will return to it also

in Ch. 5.

While pressure is non explicitly present in the vorticity equation, its ef-

fects are implied through the velocity field. When reconstructing the velocity

from vorticity with the Biot-Savart formula, the irrotational part (with local

pressure: see Ch. 5) is missing and is uniquely determined by matching the

boundary conditions; the rotational part included in Biot-Savart is induced

by vorticity distribution throughout the field.

Finally, the kinetic energy equation is obtained by taking the dot product

of NS on u it turns out that index notations work out better. Calling

u2 = ui ui , we have

u2 u2

t + uj j = bi ui + ui j Tij

2 2

= bi ui + j (ui Tij ) j ui Tij

= bi ui + j (ui Tij ) sij Tij

2

= bj uj + j (j u2 1 puj ) (j ui )2 , (3.34)

indices. The rate-of-strain appears because of the symmetry of Tij , which

cancels out the non-symmetric part of the velocity derivative. We recognize

the material derivative (as for all balance equations: Reynolds Transport

Theorem) on the l.h.s., then on the r.h.s. the rate of work from body forces,

rate of work from stresses (isotropic and viscous), and finally a term that

cannot be positive: the energy dissipation rate. Note that the dissipation

rate depends (quadratically) on the rate of strain, not vorticity.

3.4. ENERGY AND DISSIPATION 95

energy is conserved in the sense that all changes are accounted for, but with

a net loss assoicated with dissipation. This is rather different from the ther-

modynamic perspective. The two viewpoints are reconciled by including a

thermal part of internal energy and energy exchange (Fig. 3.6). Then, the

dissipation term corresponds to the rearrangement of energy from mechani-

cal (as in the equation above) to internal energy, and does not show in the

overall budget.

96 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

We can relate the energy considerations to Bernoullis equation with losses.

Strictly speaking, Bernoullis equation is a momentum equation (see Ch. 5),

derived under the assumption of inviscid flow. Also the spirit of Bernoullis

equation is to establish the conditions under which the Bernoulli term B is

constant, while Croccos theorem (Ch. 5), deriving how B varies, is closer to

the present topic. But the effect of viscosity is known as Bernoullis equation

with losses, and can be studied at this time in the context of energy.

We start from the NS equations in the form

t u + u = B + 2 u (3.35)

and evaluate the changes of B along a streamline (note the subtle meanings

of the u operation):

u B = u t u + u (2 u)

2 2

= (t u2 + 2 u2 ) (u)2 (3.36)

Two contributions are recognized on the r.h.s. First is the unsteady diffusion

of kinetic energy. For steady pipe flow, the time derivative term cancels out,

and the velocity profile shows a maximum at the centerline in the direction

of the flow, so the Laplacian of energy is negative, and kinetic energy diffuses

from the centerline toward the walls. Second, we see the dissipation term,

always negative. Both contributions (diffusion and dissipation) are negative

in steady flow, leading to a gradual loss in the value of B as we follow a

streamline. These effects are modeled in practice (see undergraduate texts)

in terms of an empirical formula based on the Darcy friction factor.

3.5 Enstrophy

Similar considerations apply to the square vorticity 2 = i i . The enstro-

phy 2 /2 plays an important role in geophysical applications and turbulence

theory. Starting from the vorticity equation and multiplying (with summa-

tion) by i , we get

2 2 2 2

t + uj j = i j j ui + jj 2

(j i )2

2 2

2 2

= i j sij + jj 2

(j i )2 (3.37)

3.6. STRUCTURE OF THE EQUATIONS 97

Beside the familiar convection and diffusion terms, we see a vortocity dissi-

pation term similar to its counterpart in the energy equation. The vortex

stretching term is quadratic in vorticity, and retains only the symmetric part

of velocity derivatives (rate-of-strain). We will return to this term in Ch. 5.

Our equations can be categorized in several ways:

energy, enstrophy and related equations as corollaries), as distinct from

the constitutive equations and from kinematic definitions, relations

and/or assumptions. The distinction is physical in nature.

the similarities betwen the momentum, vorticity, energy and enstrophy

equations on one side, as distinct from the Poisson/Laplace equations

for pressure and other properties as seen later in these notes, and from

the definitions and constitutive relations and kinematic relations.

A common feature of the momentum, vorticity, energy and enstrophy

equations is that they include (Fig. 3.7)

each of these properties;

divergence form (also called transport terms), which Gauss theorem

associates with boundary terms (what is the physics here? how about

numerical implications?)

known, or simply source/sink terms otherwise.

function (they are not independent) and may be divided among

the Poisson and related equations (Laplace, Biot-Savart), for which the

Greens function introduces non-local effects.

98 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

other definitions

the nonlocal effects relies on linearity (Laplacian) of either kinematic or dy-

namical relations: superposition of effects from distributed sources is essential

for Greens functions to be applicable. In the Navier-Stokes equations, the

nonlinear terms preclude the use of this approach: solutions based on Greens

function for diffusion cannot accommodate the convective terms.

These notes deal exclusively with incompressible flows, where the simplified

form of the continuity equation applies:

i ui = 0. (3.38)

This is not the same as assuming that the fluid density is constant, which

would be an equation of state. For example, it is well known that ideal gas

behavior

pv = RT (3.39)

is consistent with incompressible aerodynamics. The resolution of this ap-

parent paradox rests on the observation that we only need to assume that the

effects of density variations are dynamically unimportant a much weaker

assumption. Two important classes of incompressible flows are established:

the small-Mach-number (low speed) flows, and the small-buoyancy natural

convection flows (Boussinesq approximation).

The analysis is based on the adoption of some reference density 0 and

small departures from it (/0 1); and the subtraction of the refer-

ence hydrostatic balance

3 p0 = 0 g (3.40)

from the momentum equation. The remaining terms are

1

t ui + u j j ui = i p gi3 + jj ui (3.41)

0

3.7. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW APPROXIMATION 99

100 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

the buoyancy force responsible for natural convection and also relevant in

centrifuges and other applications. Compressibility effects are then captured

by = p

dp or

1

= p = p (3.42)

p

where is the (isentropic) compressibility coefficient.

What would be the order of magnitude of pressure variations? The NS

equation shows that it can scale as the convective term or as the viscous

term. Focussing first on the former, we see that x p 12 x u2 , so that

Bernoulli-type scaling applies (p u2 ) and

u2 (3.43)

Introducing the general relation for the speed of sound a

p 1

a2 = |s (3.44)

we obtain

u2

2 M a2 . (3.45)

a

Consequently, density variations can be neglected if M a 1.

If viscous scaling is relevant, the incompressibility condition becomes

M a2 Re (3.46)

The Boussinesq approximation seems paradoxical at first: in natural con-

vection, the buoyancy force (dependent on thermal expansion) cannot be

neglected, so how come we can neglect density variations in mass balance?

In the full continuity equation

(t + ui i ) + i ui = 0 (3.47)

3.8. SUMMARY 101

whereas the last group of 3 terms (summation...) scale as 0 U/L. So, as long

as /0 is small, we can keep the simpler form i ui = 0.

Consistency with momentum balance results form the fact that the buoy-

ancy term (variable density) is at most comparable to the other terms. It

can be shown that the corresponding scaling requirement is

gL < 1 (3.48)

3.8 Summary

The Navier-Stokes equations are the cornerstone of fluid dynamics. They

embody Newtons second law (F = ma) for incompressible Newtonian fluids,

with more general forms available in the literature. They have also been

shown to be the statistical limit of kinetic theory (Chapman-Enskog) for

gases slightly out of equilibrium. In conjunction with kinematic constraints,

they represent the only analytic basis for the study of fluid motion.

Thus, it is humbling to realize that, nearly two centuries after they were

derived, so few solutions have been obtained. The undergraduate student

is exposed to Poiseuille and Couette flows, in which stationary flow and

geometry eliminate the time dependence and nonlinearities. Oseens vortex

is time-dependent, but there are no convective effects; the same holds for

Stokes two classic problems (see Ch. 6). See Pantons Chs. 7 and 11 for list

of solutions; see e.g. Acheson for the Burgers vortex.

But, as the leading idea through the remainder of the course, one can learn

from the equations without solving them. By understanding their physical

content, we will be able to work out rational approximations, keeping in mind

when they might fail and what the telltale signs might be.

ing

Compressible flows, acoustics.

102 CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS

Problems

1. Show that the energy dissipation rate depends on the rate-of-strain

(and not on vorticity). Show that, in the case of a flow enclosed by

rigid boundaries, the vanishing boundary flux terms (divergence) allow

the rewriting of dissipation rate as proportional to square vorticity.

(Adapted from Batchelor, p.263)

non-vanishing velocity component. Show that the equations of motion

take the form of unsteady diffusion. (from Tritton, p 471.)

3. Consider an infinite flat plate oscillating it its own plane with velocity

U = U0 sin t . Assume that the fluid oscillates at the same frequency

(but not in phase). How do the amplitude and phase of fluid motion

vary with distance from the plate (Stokes second problem).

strophy, temperature...) to emphasize transport terms (i.e. make di-

vergence terms appear wherever possible). Are these forms unique?

in 2-D, and can serve as an indicator of 3-dimensionality. Using index

notations, derive the evolution equation governing helicity and label its

various terms.

Lamb vector and label its various terms.

kinematic relation

[(u )u] = 21 2 (u u) u (2 u) , or k (uj j uk ) = 12 kk

2

uj uj

2

uj kk uj j j , and discuss the nature of the various terms as sources

in the pressure equation.

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