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2000 Solid State Communications paper Caetano et al.

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E.W.S. Caetano a,*, E.F. Bezerra a, V.N. Freire a, J.A.P. da Costa b, E.F. da Silva Jr c

a

Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil

b

Departamento de Fsica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1641, 59072-970 Natal,

Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

c

Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

Received 22 July 1999; accepted 22 July 1999 by D. Van Dyck; received in final form by the Publisher 15 November 1999

Abstract

A theoretical study on the ultrafast high-field transport transient properties of electrons in 3CSiC is performed within a

parabolic and a nonparabolic band scheme. In both cases, the transient regime before the electron energy and drift velocity

attain their steady-state is shown to be shorter than 0.2 ps. When the applied electric field intensity is higher than 300 kV/cm, an

overshoot always occurs in the electron drift velocity, which is more pronounced when band nonparabolicity is considered.

q 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: A. Semiconductors; D. Electronic transport

Silicon carbide (SiC) carries a great potential for a new properties such as high mobility and high saturated drift

generation of advanced devices due to its physical (e.g. high velocity, associated with further developments on the

stability, strong SiC chemical bonding, large thermal growth processes, make 3CSiC of great potential for

conductivity, etc.) and electrical (e.g. high saturation developing high temperature and hazard safe electronic

velocity, large breakdown fields, low leakage current, etc.) devices. 6HSiC Eg 2:86 eV is very promising for

properties. SiC may crystallize in either cubic or hexagonal blue laser and light-emitting diode applications, but it has

forms, presenting a large number of polytypes. 3C, 2H, the lowest mobility of the polytypes, which is a drawback in

4H and 6HSiC are some of the silicon carbide polytypes, several applications. In contrast, the high mobility and high

each presenting characteristics that are particularly suitable saturation drift velocity of 3CSiC makes it an important

for high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency, radiation- candidate not only for high-speed electronics, but also for

resistant, and light-emitting device applications. According high-temperature and high-power device developments up

to ab initio calculations [14], the SiC polytypes have a to the submicron level. The improvement of the SiC growth

wide range of band gaps (1.272.10 eV) as well as carriers processes in the last years overcame several problems with

effective masses due to the remarkable differences in their sample preparation [58], and has a key role in those

band structures. The polytypes 3CSiC Eg 2:39 eV and achievements.

6HSiC Eg 2:86 eV have been extensively studied, in For reduced size devices, and in particular for high-speed/

part because they present the highest saturation velocities high-field switching applications, nonstationary physical

under strong applied external electric fields, which suggests conditions are often imposed upon electron transport

potential applications for submicron high-speed devices in mechanisms, which lead to the electron drift velocity and

the high-temperature domain. energy time transients before steady-state transport con-

Although the best crystal quality nowadays has been ditions are attained. To date, investigations of the SiC

attained with the 6HSiC polytype, consideration of high-field transport were restricted only to steady-state

phenomena, principally the electron saturated drift velocity

* Corresponding author. Fax: 155-85-2874138. determination. Since the high-field electron transport

E-mail address: valder@fisica.ufc.br (E.W.S. Caetano). transient should be important due to possible conduction

0038-1098/00/$ - see front matter q 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0038-109 8(99)00522-0

540 E.W.S. Caetano et al. / Solid State Communications 113 (2000) 539542

with multiple minima, obtaining a 33% lower velocity

saturation in the c direction than that calculated by Joshi

)

ity (10 7cm /s

[12] considering a simple nonparabolic band. Tsukioka et

6 al. [13] have investigated the high-field steady-state trans-

port in 3CSiC within the single valley isotropic model and

4 have taken into account both parabolic and nonparabolic

D rift Veloc

9 bands. They showed that the steady-state electron drift

velocity has a gentle peak around 1:9 107 cm=s for a

E (1

6 2

field of 4 105 V=cm; and that nonparabolic effects are

0 k

2

V /c

0.15

0 0.10 velocity and energy. Monte Carlo simulations have been

0.05

m

s)

0.00 e (p the overwhelmingly preferred tool for these investigations

)

T im

[9,1113], although recently a hydrodynamic balance

equation method [10] has also been used. According to

these works, acoustic deformation potential, polar-optical

1.6

phonon, intervalley phonon, ionized-impurity and impact

ionization are the main scattering mechanisms determining

1.2

Energy (eV)

6H, and 3CSiC polytypes.

0.8

To investigate the time evolution of the mean electron

0.4 drift velocity vt and energy et in 3CSiC, the following

9 two coupled Boltzmann-like transport equations are solved

6

E

(1

3 0.20

0.15

0

2

kV

0 0.05

(p s )

/c

0.00 dvt qE vt

T im e

m

2 ; 1

)

dt mc tp e

Fig. 1. Time evolution towards the steady-state of the mean drift

velocity (top) and energy (bottom) of electrons in 3CSiC calcu- det et 2 eL

qvtE 2 ; 2

lated within the parabolic band scheme. dt te e

where eL 3kB TL =2 is the average electron thermal energy

channel shrinkage in SiC devices, it is necessary to have at the lattice temperature TL; tp e and te e are the momen-

information on the ultrafast transport transient properties tum and energy relaxation times, respectively; kB is the

of silicon carbides. Boltzmann constant, q is the electric charge of the electron.

The purpose of this work is to present, for the first time, an The numerical calculations are performed for electric

investigation of the ultrafast high-field transport behavior of fields 0 , E , 1000 kV=cm taking into account both para-

electrons in 3CSiC during the transient regime, both within bolic and nonparabolic SiC band structures, the latter

the parabolic and nonparabolic band scheme. It is shown considering "2 k2 =2m e1 1 ae; where a 0:323 eV is

that the time for the electron drift velocity and energy to the nonparabolic coefficient, and m is the electron effective

arrive at their steady-state in 3CSiC under electric fields E mass [13]. As in Ref. [13], the electric field is assumed to be

up to 1000 kV/cm is shorter than 0.2 ps. The band non- applied in the k111l direction for the sake of disregarding

parabolicity considerably enhances the electron velocity electron redistribution among equivalent valleys, and to

overshoot occurring for E . 150 kV=cm: minimize the electron population in higher-lying subsidiary

In the domain of high-field transport in wide gap semi- minima. This approach allows the calculations to be

conductors, the pioneering work developed by Ferry [9] performed within a single equivalent isotropic valley picture

(which dates back more than 20 years) presented a [13], in which the electron conduction mass m 0:313m0

theoretical investigation of the cubic SiC steady-state trans- (m0 is the free electron mass).

port properties based on the balance equation method. New Instead of using expressions for the relaxation times, the

and interesting results on SiC-polytypes steady-state trans- steady-state relations e E and v E as calculated by

port properties followed only recently. Weng and Cui [10] Tsukioka et al. [13] allow one to obtain the momentum

studied the high temperature hot electron steady-state trans- and energy relaxation times, te e and tp e; respectively,

port in 6H and 3CSiC, finding that the electron drift within the successful scheme pioneered by Shur [14], Roll-

velocities in both polytypes exhibit a gentle peak in the and et al. [15], Carnez et al. [16], and Nougier et al. [17].

electron drift velocityelectric field relation. Nilsson et al. This scheme was used by Alencar et al. [18] to investigate

[11] have performed a simulation of the steady-state the high-field transport transient of minority carriers in

E.W.S. Caetano et al. / Solid State Communications 113 (2000) 539542 541

twice as fast as the high-field transport transient of electrons

in bulk GaN zinc-blende and wurtzite subjected to electric

)

field intensities up to 100 kV/cm [22].

6 For steady-state conditions (longer time scale) the results

shown in Figs. 1 and 2 reproduce very well those obtained

4 by Tsukioka et al. [13]. In the parabolic band scheme the

D rift Veloc

9 scattering mechanisms are not enough to saturate the mean

2 electron drift velocity (which increases monotonically when

E (1

6

the electric field becomes stronger) and to avoid a rapid

0 k

3

2

0.15

V/

cm )

0.05

0.00 s) effective in 3CSiC for electric fields E . 100 kV=cm:

e (p

T im

When nonparabolic band effects are taken into account,

polar runaway is not observed (see Fig. 2). The steady-

state mean electron drift velocity is stabilized, presenting

1.6

a maximum gentle peak around 400 kV/cm, after which it

decreases smoothly. The steady-state mean electron energy

Energy (eV)

1.2

obtained considering nonparabolic band effects does not

increase as much as that calculated within the parabolic

0.8

band scheme, which is due to the very effective role of the

0.4 isotropic intervalley phonon scattering mechanism in

9 dissipating the electron energy.

6

E

(1

3 0.20

0

2

0.15 the mean electron drift velocity and energy are higher when

kV

0 0.10

0.05 calculated within the parabolic band scheme since impact

/c

0.00 (p s )

m

T im e

)

isotropic intervalley phonon scattering, dominating the

Fig. 2. Time evolution towards the steady-state of the mean drift relaxation rates of energy and momentum. In both the

velocity (top) and energy (bottom) of electrons in 3CSiC calcu- parabolic and nonparabolic schemes it is shown, for the

lated within the nonparabolic band scheme.

first time to the knowledge of the authors, that the mean

electron drift velocity in 3CSiC can overshoot its steady-

p-GaAs, and by Caetano et al. [19] to study high-magnetic- state value when the applied electric field intensity is higher

field effects on the terahertz mobility of hot electrons in n- than 150 kV/cm. The overshoot effect occurs at low fields

type InSb. Recently, Foutz et al. [20] compared transient E , 300 kV=cm because the momentum relaxation rate of

electron transport results in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN the electron is larger than its energy relaxation rate [23,24].

calculated with Monte Carlo and the energy-momentum The results presented in this paper suggest that the tran-

balance approach, finding a quite reasonable overall agree- sient electron transport in wide band gap 3CSiC devices

ment. The great advantage is that the solution approach used can be as fast as in nitride compounds [20]. They indicate

in this work requires a shorter computation time in also that steady-state relations can be retained during 3C

comparison with the full Monte Carlo method. The acoustic- SiC device simulation for channels in the mm range. These

deformation-potential, the polar-optical phonon, two implications should stimulate the experimental confirmation

different equivalent-intervalley phonon, the ionized- of the ultrafast high-field transport properties of electrons in

impurity and the impact ionization are the electron scatter- 3CSiC, which is a formidable task. Finally, it is important

ing channels used in the calculations. to highlight that the high-field transport description used in

The time evolution of both the mean drift velocity (top this work requires shorter computation time in comparison

panels) and mean energy (bottom panels) of electrons in with the full Monte Carlo method, but the results should be

3CSiC subjected to electric field intensities up to recognized, however, as very good approximations instead

1000 kV/cm are presented in Figs. 1 and 2, the former of giving strictly accurate figures.

obtained within a parabolic band picture, while non- In conclusion, ultrafast high-field transport properties of

parabolic band effects are considered to calculate the results electrons in 3CSiC were studied considering a parabolic

presented in the latter. One can observe in both figures that and a nonparabolic band structure description. In both cases,

vt and et attain their steady-state in less than 0.2 ps, it was found that the transient regime for the mean electron

which is about 10 times faster than the high-field transport drift velocity and energy before attaining steady-state

transient of electrons in GaAs [16,17,21] and of minority values is shorter than 0.2 ps. An overshoot in the mean

carriers in p-GaAs subjected to electric field intensities electron drift velocity was observed for fields higher than

542 E.W.S. Caetano et al. / Solid State Communications 113 (2000) 539542

150 kV/cm, being enhanced when nonparabolic band effects [6] A. Fissel, B. Schroter, W. Richter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995)

are taken into account. The overshoot is due to the fact that 3182.

the momentum relaxation rate of the electron is larger than [7] H.M. Hobgood, D.L. Barrett, J.P. McHuch, R.C. Clarke, S.

its energy relaxation rate. These results should stimulate Sriram, A.B. Burk, J. Greggi, C.D. Brandt, R.H. Hopkins,

W.J. Choyke, J. Cryst. Growth 137 (1994) 181.

experimental research on ultrafast transport phenomena in

[8] S. Nishino, J.A. Powell, H.A. Will, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42 (1983)

3CSiC. 460.

[9] D.K. Ferry, Phys. Rev. B 12 (1975) 2361.

[10] X.M. Weng, H.L. Cui, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 201 (1997) 161.

Acknowledgements

[11] H.-E. Nilsson, U. Sannemo, C.S. Patersson, J. Appl. Phys. 80

(1996) 3365.

E.A. Mendes and E.F. Bezerra received fellowships from [12] R.P. Joshi, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 5518.

the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) at the [13] K. Tsukioka, D. Vasileska, D.K. Ferry, Physica B 185 (1993)

Physics Department of the Universidade Federal do Ceara 466.

during the realization of this research. V.N.F. and E.F.S. Jr [14] M. Shur, Electron. Lett. 12 (1976) 615.

would like to acknowledge the financial support received [15] P.A. Roland, E. Constant, G. Salmer, R. Fauquembergue,

during the development of this work from the Science Electron. Lett. 15 (1979) 373.

Funding Agencies of the Ceara and Pernambuco states in [16] B. Carnez, A. Cappy, A. Kaszynski, E. Constant, G. Salmer, J.

Appl. Phys. 51 (1980) 784.

Brazil (FUNCAP and FACEPE, respectively), the Brazilian

[17] J.P. Nougier, J.C. Vaissiere, D. Gasquet, J. Zimmermann,

National Research Council (CNPq), and the Ministry of E. Constant, J. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 825.

Planning (FINEP) under contract PADCT/SDRI # [18] A.M. Alencar, F.A.S. Nobre, A.J.C. Sampaio, V.N. Freire,

77.97.1120.00 3235/97. J.A.P. da Costa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42 (1991) 558.

[19] E.W.S. Caetano, E.A. Mendes, V.N. Freire, J.A.P. da Costa,

X.L. Lei, Phys. Rev. B 57 (1998) 11872.

References [20] B.E. Foutz, S.K. OLeary, M.S. Shur, L.F. Eastman, J. Appl.

Phys. 85 (1999) 7727.

[1] W.R.L. Lambrecht, B. Segall, Phys. Rev. B 52 (1995) R2249. [21] V.N. Freire, A.R. Vasconcellos, R. Luzzi, Phys. Rev. B 39

[2] B. Wenzien, P. Kackell, F. Bechstedt, Phys. Rev. B 52 (1995) (1989) 13264 and references therein.

10897. [22] E.W.S. Caetano, R.N. Costa Filho, V.N. Freire, J.A.P. da

[3] C.H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, K.-H. Lee, K.J. Chang, Phys. Rev. B Costa, Solid State Commun. 110 (1999) 469.

49 (1994) 4485. [23] S. Tiwari, Compound Semiconductor Device Physics,

[4] P. Kackell, B. Wenzien, F. Bechstedt, Phys. Rev. B 50 (1995) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1992.

10761 and references therein. [24] P.Y. Yu, M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors,

[5] A. Hoh, H. Akita, T. Kimoto, H. Matsunami, Appl. Phys. Lett. Springer, Berlin, 1996.

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