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# Populations and Population Parameters

## Often we are interested in estimating a numerical characteristic of a population

known as a population parameter. Some examples of population parameters
follow:

customer.

## 6. Median income of families in Houston, Texas

Samples and Sample Statistics
A complete enumeration of a population is a census. A sample is a part of the population that we
observe in an attempt to glean insights about the population. Samples are used for several
reasons.

1.If the population is large, it is impractical to take a census. How do we ask every registered
voter who they are for?

2.Sampling involves examining fewer items than a census, so measurement error should be
reduced.

3.Sampling may involve destroying elements of the population. For example, testing a chip to
see if the chip is defective may involve destroying the chip.

Often a function of the sample data (called a statistic) is used to estimate a population parameter.
For example,

1.We could estimate the median income of Houston families by taking a sample of 100 Houston
families and using the median income in the sample to estimate the populations median income.

2.We could estimate the fraction of defective chips by testing 100 chips, and using the fraction
of defective chips in the sample to estimate the fraction of defective chips in the population For
example, if 5 of the 100 tested chips are defective we would estimate that 5% of the chips
produced that day are defective.

3.We could estimate the average weight of all cows in India by weighing 100 cows and using the
average weight of the cows in the sample to estimate the average weight of all Indian cows

4. We could estimate the fraction of registered voters for HRC in 2016 by looking at fraction of
registered voters in sample for HRC.
Suppose a population has N individuals and we want to take a sample of size n. The sample is a simple
random sample if each set of n individuals has the same chance of being chosen. For example, consider
a random sample without replacement of two items from a population of size 5 (n= 2, N = 5.) Then each
of the possible ten samples shown below has the same chance (1/10)of being chosen.

(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5).
A B C D E F G
1
2
3 Sort on Rand column and
4 pick players with 10 largest random numbers
5
6 Rand Player
7 0.996804 Joel_Anthony
9 0.982225 Byron_Mullens
10 0.981401 Andrew_Bynum
11 0.981134 Dirk_Nowitzki
12 0.980461 Elton_Brand
13 0.978092 Brendan_Haywood
14 0.97305 Anthony_Tolliver
15 0.956591 Greg_Monroe
16 0.942004 Paul_Pierce
17 0.93729 Ricky_Ledo
18 0.935591 LeBron_James
19 0.931829 Jeff_Taylor
20 0.928119 Chauncey_Billups
21 0.927295 Hilton_Armstrong
22 0.920549 Wesley_Johnson
23 0.915805 Andre_Miller
24 0.914423 Chris_Kaman
25 0.914025 Andrew_Bogut
26 0.911792 Andrei_Kirilenko
27 0.911155 Jordan_Hill
28 0.899949 Harrison_Barnes
29 0.898656 Ersan_Ilyasova
30 0.887971 Tony_Snell
31 0.884259 Pau_Gasol
32 0.882847 Ramon_Sessions
33 0.874902 Josh_Smith
34 0.873304 Francisco_Garcia
35 0.870564 Jerryd_Bayless
36 0.868053 Xavier_Henry
37 0.864866 Willie_Green
38 0.864751 Peyton_Siva
39 0.864172 Mike_Dunleavy_Jr.
40 0.859377 Tyshawn_Taylor
41 0.85542 Phil_Pressey
42 0.850886 Festus_Ezeli
43 0.850442 Corey_Brewer
44 0.843594 Kobe_Bryant
45 0.843423 Blake_Griffin
46 0.8386 Chris_Bosh
47 0.828574 Hedo_Turkoglu
48 0.82662 Greg_Smith
49 0.824 Jermaine_O'Neal
50 0.821775 DeJuan_Blair
51 0.817682 Chris_Paul
52 0.81152 Kyrie_Irving
53 0.810853 Omer_Asik
55 0.805087 DeWayne_Dedmon
56 0.802217 Zaza_Pachulia
57 0.792064 Mike_Conley
58 0.790879 Ronnie_Brewer
59 0.790268 Ian_Mahinmi
60 0.789687 MarShon_Brooks
61 0.786767 Lance_Stephenson
62 0.786136 Alonzo_Gee
63 0.785876 Bismack_Biyombo
64 0.783764 Jordan_Crawford
65 0.780751 Quincy_Miller
66 0.777573 Kevin_Garnett
67 0.773539 Nemanja_Nedovic
68 0.77308 Zach_Randolph
69 0.770883 Lou_Williams
70 0.770631 Norris_Cole
71 0.770191 Andre_Iguodala
72 0.769843 Luis_Scola
73 0.769644 Taj_Gibson
74 0.765471 Chandler_Parsons
75 0.758249 George_Hill
76 0.753656 Rashard_Lewis
78 0.747712 Cartier_Martin
79 0.744802 Mason_Plumlee
80 0.742939 Keith_Bogans
81 0.742442 Joakim_Noah
82 0.738434 Omri_Casspi
83 0.728738 Brandon_Knight
84 0.728463 A.J._Price
85 0.728061 DeAndre_Jordan
86 0.724132 Udonis_Haslem
87 0.716813 Al_Horford
88 0.716223 Draymond_Green
89 0.703026 Stephen_Curry
90 0.697295 Gustavo_Ayon
91 0.694857 Dante_Cunningham
92 0.692751 Deron_Williams
93 0.69164 Andrew_Bynum
94 0.680734 Jeremy_Lin
95 0.677115 Roger_Mason_Jr.
96 0.674575 James_Southerland
97 0.670056 Brandan_Wright
98 0.669351 Greg_Oden
99 0.66491 Steve_Nash
101 0.656889 Jason_Terry
102 0.643195 Jordan_Hamilton
103 0.642467 James_Nunnally
104 0.640524 Nick_Calathes
105 0.640121 John_Jenkins
106 0.633837 Carlos_Delfino
107 0.628894 Khris_Middleton
108 0.623405 Henry_Sims
109 0.615838 Ben_Gordon
110 0.608062 David_West
111 0.607036 Orlando_Johnson
112 0.606651 Vitor_Faverani
113 0.599782 Kentavious_Caldwell-Pope
114 0.59485 Maalik_Wayns
115 0.594115 Aaron_Brooks
116 0.590207 Patrick_Beverley
117 0.5885 Paul_Millsap
118 0.586737 Jonas_Jerebko
119 0.584195 Brook_Lopez
120 0.584049 Ed_Davis
121 0.581518 Erik_Murphy
122 0.580978 Darius_Morris
123 0.574106 Dwight_Howard
124 0.573184 Kirk_Hinrich
125 0.563633 Tristan_Thompson
126 0.556463 Quincy_Pondexter
127 0.55025 Mike_James
128 0.549294 Marreese_Speights
129 0.549168 O.J._Mayo
130 0.537442 Charlie_Villanueva
131 0.534583 Tony_Mitchell
132 0.527398 Jamaal_Franklin
133 0.522438 Caron_Butler
134 0.521533 Anderson_Varejao
135 0.516985 JaVale_McGee
136 0.513404 Antawn_Jamison
137 0.512452 MarShon_Brooks
138 0.510462 Ekpe_Udoh
139 0.506359 Chris_Copeland
140 0.50575 Ryan_Gomes
141 0.503955 Jamal_Crawford
142 0.501192 Timofey_Mozgov
143 0.499643 Elias_Harris
144 0.495532 Robert_Sacre
145 0.492272 Seth_Curry
146 0.491985 Kenneth_Faried
147 0.491918 Danilo_Gallinari
148 0.471933 DeMarre_Carroll
149 0.468781 Joel_Anthony
150 0.463043 Carlos_Boozer
151 0.461502 Derrick_Rose
152 0.460017 Larry_Sanders
153 0.45841 C.J._Miles
154 0.452843 Nate_Robinson
155 0.445921 Matthew_Dellavedova
156 0.444243 Jon_Leuer
157 0.443239 Chase_Budinger
158 0.441529 Josh_Harrellson
159 0.439749 Kosta_Koufos
160 0.435799 Luke_Ridnour
161 0.429847 Toney_Douglas
162 0.424199 Chris_Johnson
163 0.424114 Gorgui_Dieng
164 0.422852 Will_Bynum
165 0.422194 Matt_Barnes
166 0.419473 Jordan_Farmar
167 0.418122 D.J._Augustin
168 0.411269 Gerald_Henderson
169 0.407104 Nazr_Mohammed
170 0.405963 Kevin_Love
171 0.401609 Robbie_Hummel
172 0.401013 Devin_Harris
173 0.394779 J.J._Redick
174 0.39428 Josh_McRoberts
175 0.393723 Jeff_Green
176 0.393048 Nick_Young
177 0.391213 Jeff_Teague
178 0.386601 Jarrett_Jack
179 0.386387 Kevin_Martin
180 0.380957 C.J._Watson
181 0.379762 Darrell_Arthur
182 0.377326 Vince_Carter
183 0.376962 Shaun_Livingston
184 0.367833 Gary_Neal
185 0.363241 Ryan_Hollins
186 0.353372 Ryan_Kelly
187 0.353232 Marquis_Teague
188 0.35171 Cody_Zeller
189 0.34833 Anthony_Randolph
190 0.341918 Chris_Andersen
191 0.340342 Jimmy_Butler
192 0.339773 Tony_Allen
193 0.336252 Jodie_Meeks
194 0.33204 Pero_Antic
195 0.327789 Kelly_Olynyk
196 0.327674 Sergey_Karasev
197 0.327556 Bernard_James
198 0.322798 Ricky_Rubio
199 0.317838 Mario_Chalmers
200 0.314606 Shane_Battier
201 0.311398 Jared_Dudley
202 0.311126 Shane_Larkin
203 0.305409 Samuel_Dalembert
204 0.305008 Courtney_Lee
205 0.304227 Rasual_Butler
206 0.299052 Tayshaun_Prince
207 0.295141 Jae_Crowder
208 0.294739 Carrick_Felix
209 0.289324 Vander_Blue
210 0.28913 Solomon_Hill
211 0.28631 Stephen_Jackson
212 0.285431 John_Henson
213 0.282258 Earl_Clark
214 0.280118 Terrence_Jones
215 0.277874 Giannis_Antetokounmpo
216 0.274871 Wilson_Chandler
217 0.274555 Evan_Fournier
218 0.268803 Isaiah_Canaan
219 0.264848 David_Lee
220 0.263801 Danny_Granger
221 0.261857 Nikola_Pekovic
222 0.257427 Reggie_Evans
223 0.251772 Monta_Ellis
224 0.251322 Kyle_Singler
225 0.248908 Paul_George
226 0.240376 Gal_Mekel
227 0.233448 Andray_Blatche
228 0.22755 Luol_Deng
229 0.225706 Brandon_Bass
230 0.224928 Mike_Miller
231 0.220346 Klay_Thompson
232 0.217493 Luol_Deng
233 0.205871 Jerryd_Bayless
234 0.204193 Cartier_Martin
235 0.202952 Jannero_Pargo
236 0.197432 Shawne_Williams
237 0.193269 James_Jones
239 0.179842 Reggie_Bullock
240 0.177092 Jose_Calderon
241 0.176009 Dennis_Schroder
242 0.173786 Alan_Anderson
243 0.163204 Shawn_Marion
244 0.163053 Ray_Allen
245 0.143838 J.J._Barea
246 0.138961 Randy_Foye
247 0.133175 Ognjen_Kuzmic
248 0.123001 Tyler_Zeller
249 0.122975 Joe_Johnson
250 0.120967 James_Johnson
251 0.104934 Kent_Bazemore
252 0.103792 Marc_Gasol
253 0.100613 Tornike_Shengelia
254 0.092871 Marquis_Teague
255 0.092478 Al_Jefferson
256 0.088468 Darren_Collison
257 0.08639 Donatas_Motiejunas
258 0.082489 Brandon_Jennings
259 0.081693 Shelvin_Mack
260 0.074321 Rajon_Rondo
261 0.072672 Robert_Covington
262 0.069391 Roy_Hibbert
263 0.067495 Manny_Harris
264 0.066689 Anthony_Bennett
265 0.065184 Tornike_Shengelia
266 0.057371 Donald_Sloan
267 0.05454 Mike_Scott
268 0.054039 Rodney_Stuckey
269 0.047941 James_Harden
270 0.043355 Dion_Waiters
271 0.043283 Michael_Beasley
272 0.040838 Courtney_Lee
273 0.040153 Ty_Lawson
274 0.035287 Kemba_Walker
275 0.034723 Toney_Douglas
276 0.034219 Steve_Blake
277 0.031932 Nate_Wolters
278 0.031405 Luigi_Datome
279 0.031218 JJ_Hickson
280 0.028571 Kris_Humphries
281 0.027687 Wayne_Ellington
282 0.024872 Kyle_Korver
283 0.023968 Mirza_Teletovic
284 0.020628 Kendall_Marshall
285 0.017652 Jared_Sullinger
286 0.016185 Jared_Cunningham
287 0.015131 Chris_Douglas-Roberts
288 0.012371 Jordan_Crawford
289 0.007385 Andre_Drummond
290 0.002576 Michael_Kidd-Gilchrist
291 0.002112 Gerald_Wallace
A B C D E F G
1
2
3 Sort on Rand column and
4 pick players with 10 largest random numbers
5
6 Rand Player
7 0.998152 Chris_Douglas-Roberts
8 0.994134 Nick_Calathes
9 0.987062 Paul_Pierce
10 0.986242 Patrick_Beverley
11 0.985116 Roger_Mason_Jr.
12 0.973976 Carlos_Delfino
13 0.973319 Kelly_Olynyk
14 0.970552 David_Lee
15 0.967327 Tony_Mitchell
16 0.961087 Blake_Griffin
17 0.960373 Tornike_Shengelia
18 0.956705 Shane_Larkin
19 0.955977 Samuel_Dalembert
20 0.953055 Corey_Brewer
21 0.950523 Jared_Dudley
22 0.948949 Anderson_Varejao
23 0.940654 James_Jones
24 0.923872 Nikola_Pekovic
25 0.923109 Ray_Allen
26 0.920147 Festus_Ezeli
28 0.917797 Jamaal_Franklin
29 0.906867 Wesley_Johnson
30 0.906256 Jonas_Jerebko
31 0.901161 Vitor_Faverani
32 0.899444 Francisco_Garcia
33 0.888597 Chris_Bosh
34 0.885611 Courtney_Lee
35 0.88461 Gerald_Henderson
36 0.884492 Jared_Cunningham
37 0.884316 Ty_Lawson
38 0.883865 Danny_Granger
39 0.882033 Elias_Harris
40 0.876128 Courtney_Lee
41 0.875564 Andre_Drummond
42 0.867363 Gorgui_Dieng
43 0.86286 Dwight_Howard
44 0.861843 Kyrie_Irving
45 0.861264 Andray_Blatche
47 0.856076 Henry_Sims
48 0.854863 Dante_Cunningham
50 0.834796 JJ_Hickson
51 0.83434 Gerald_Wallace
52 0.831938 MarShon_Brooks
53 0.83142 Joel_Anthony
54 0.829812 Kent_Bazemore
55 0.827652 J.J._Barea
56 0.827326 Phil_Pressey
57 0.819589 Taj_Gibson
58 0.817852 Quincy_Miller
59 0.816221 Ryan_Gomes
60 0.81317 Nazr_Mohammed
61 0.812983 Tony_Allen
62 0.807447 Stephen_Curry
63 0.79347 Danilo_Gallinari
64 0.791695 Chris_Andersen
65 0.781703 Greg_Oden
66 0.7778 Shawne_Williams
67 0.772418 Andrew_Bynum
68 0.768881 Will_Bynum
69 0.768836 Jeff_Taylor
70 0.76124 DeJuan_Blair
71 0.759405 Toney_Douglas
72 0.757978 Brendan_Haywood
73 0.757525 Dirk_Nowitzki
74 0.748015 Kosta_Koufos
75 0.74681 Jason_Terry
77 0.744144 Mike_Dunleavy_Jr.
78 0.730715 Roy_Hibbert
79 0.723184 Mike_Scott
80 0.720837 DeWayne_Dedmon
81 0.714682 Brandon_Jennings
82 0.713214 Carrick_Felix
83 0.710783 Paul_George
84 0.709159 Dion_Waiters
85 0.705985 Matt_Barnes
86 0.705697 Chris_Johnson
87 0.702698 Gal_Mekel
88 0.701488 Luis_Scola
89 0.698376 Anthony_Tolliver
90 0.697791 Luke_Ridnour
91 0.695798 Josh_Smith
92 0.693243 Willie_Green
93 0.691917 Jae_Crowder
94 0.686878 Erik_Murphy
95 0.685258 Lou_Williams
96 0.685014 John_Jenkins
97 0.680397 Harrison_Barnes
98 0.678701 Cartier_Martin
99 0.675995 Kenneth_Faried
100 0.675728 Solomon_Hill
101 0.675137 Jerryd_Bayless
102 0.662259 Kendall_Marshall
103 0.660894 Jamal_Crawford
104 0.64619 DeAndre_Jordan
105 0.645481 Wayne_Ellington
106 0.642198 Alonzo_Gee
107 0.641733 Jeff_Teague
108 0.640086 Andrew_Bogut
109 0.639766 Charlie_Villanueva
110 0.639096 Quincy_Pondexter
111 0.638314 Mirza_Teletovic
112 0.637041 Keith_Bogans
113 0.633792 Pero_Antic
114 0.63204 Jon_Leuer
115 0.624977 Seth_Curry
116 0.6204 C.J._Miles
117 0.618143 D.J._Augustin
118 0.61662 C.J._Watson
119 0.61233 Joe_Johnson
120 0.606756 Hilton_Armstrong
121 0.606603 Joakim_Noah
122 0.6018 Jarrett_Jack
123 0.600566 Tony_Snell
124 0.59596 Marc_Gasol
125 0.592705 Kobe_Bryant
126 0.592226 Ramon_Sessions
127 0.592216 Steve_Nash
128 0.591706 Kentavious_Caldwell-Pope
129 0.590601 Norris_Cole
130 0.589069 Robbie_Hummel
131 0.588968 Manny_Harris
132 0.585896 Ben_Gordon
133 0.581698 Earl_Clark
134 0.575448 Ricky_Ledo
135 0.571675 Carlos_Boozer
136 0.570409 Chandler_Parsons
137 0.568722 Ricky_Rubio
138 0.56349 Jimmy_Butler
139 0.563123 Bismack_Biyombo
140 0.559565 Jannero_Pargo
141 0.555172 Anthony_Randolph
142 0.552942 Brook_Lopez
143 0.551956 Chauncey_Billups
144 0.548984 O.J._Mayo
145 0.5464 MarShon_Brooks
146 0.542687 Elton_Brand
147 0.54234 Rasual_Butler
148 0.54229 JaVale_McGee
149 0.540295 Jordan_Hill
150 0.540212 Omer_Asik
151 0.538324 Aaron_Brooks
152 0.534813 Kirk_Hinrich
153 0.533252 James_Harden
154 0.518644 Andre_Miller
155 0.512575 Michael_Kidd-Gilchrist
156 0.51182 James_Nunnally
157 0.508811 Toney_Douglas
158 0.507772 A.J._Price
159 0.504102 Andrew_Bynum
160 0.502654 Anthony_Bennett
161 0.492847 Jordan_Farmar
162 0.49177 Randy_Foye
163 0.488197 Mike_Conley
164 0.482515 Peyton_Siva
165 0.476327 Tornike_Shengelia
166 0.470398 Chris_Paul
167 0.470119 Derrick_Rose
168 0.460266 Tristan_Thompson
169 0.4497 Zaza_Pachulia
170 0.439419 Jordan_Crawford
171 0.437908 Gary_Neal
172 0.43751 Nick_Young
173 0.436183 Antawn_Jamison
174 0.433116 Darius_Morris
175 0.432921 Evan_Fournier
176 0.429948 Larry_Sanders
177 0.429916 DeMarre_Carroll
178 0.429641 Jeremy_Lin
179 0.424422 Robert_Sacre
180 0.410324 Steve_Blake
181 0.408856 Zach_Randolph
182 0.403076 Devin_Harris
183 0.40069 Al_Horford
184 0.400513 J.J._Redick
185 0.397451 Mike_James
186 0.394895 Wilson_Chandler
187 0.39374 Greg_Smith
188 0.392744 Reggie_Evans
189 0.390127 Chris_Copeland
190 0.386755 Kyle_Singler
191 0.385409 Nate_Wolters
192 0.379089 Timofey_Mozgov
193 0.376072 Donald_Sloan
194 0.373097 Marreese_Speights
195 0.367256 Luol_Deng
196 0.367186 Kevin_Martin
197 0.361548 Joel_Anthony
198 0.360077 Isaiah_Canaan
199 0.358045 Josh_McRoberts
200 0.353536 Cartier_Martin
201 0.352817 Caron_Butler
202 0.352497 Mike_Miller
203 0.350985 Rodney_Stuckey
204 0.347788 Mason_Plumlee
205 0.343089 Chris_Kaman
206 0.342374 Rajon_Rondo
207 0.335644 Brandon_Knight
208 0.334991 Nemanja_Nedovic
209 0.329894 Marquis_Teague
210 0.323477 Klay_Thompson
211 0.322169 Luigi_Datome
212 0.306455 Vander_Blue
213 0.305174 Rashard_Lewis
214 0.300993 Pau_Gasol
215 0.298259 Mario_Chalmers
216 0.296954 Brandon_Bass
217 0.296387 Marquis_Teague
218 0.296376 Greg_Monroe
219 0.284895 Jodie_Meeks
220 0.280876 Lance_Stephenson
221 0.280734 Jordan_Hamilton
222 0.272136 Ognjen_Kuzmic
223 0.26551 Reggie_Bullock
224 0.256699 Matthew_Dellavedova
225 0.250219 Jared_Sullinger
226 0.24835 Byron_Mullens
227 0.245154 Ekpe_Udoh
228 0.232206 Sergey_Karasev
229 0.221427 Ersan_Ilyasova
230 0.216604 Tyshawn_Taylor
231 0.212775 Tyler_Zeller
232 0.212364 Shawn_Marion
233 0.194593 James_Southerland
234 0.193234 Kevin_Love
235 0.189509 John_Henson
236 0.182935 David_West
237 0.178424 Omri_Casspi
238 0.176318 Andrei_Kirilenko
239 0.169741 Udonis_Haslem
240 0.168358 Paul_Millsap
241 0.166846 Xavier_Henry
242 0.164919 Terrence_Jones
243 0.157956 Robert_Covington
245 0.148124 Gustavo_Ayon
246 0.147698 LeBron_James
247 0.144434 Giannis_Antetokounmpo
248 0.14192 Tayshaun_Prince
249 0.138591 Orlando_Johnson
250 0.134076 Jose_Calderon
251 0.126396 Ed_Davis
252 0.125212 Draymond_Green
253 0.121833 Donatas_Motiejunas
254 0.118704 Dennis_Schroder
255 0.113648 Andre_Iguodala
256 0.102831 Luol_Deng
257 0.102165 Vince_Carter
258 0.100138 Jeff_Green
259 0.095394 Ronnie_Brewer
260 0.09402 Darren_Collison
261 0.088785 Kemba_Walker
262 0.087419 Kyle_Korver
263 0.086053 Kevin_Garnett
264 0.085779 Jordan_Crawford
265 0.0851 Shaun_Livingston
266 0.084951 Alan_Anderson
267 0.082974 Khris_Middleton
268 0.07386 Kris_Humphries
269 0.061023 Cody_Zeller
270 0.060315 Shane_Battier
271 0.055254 Darrell_Arthur
272 0.049476 Brandan_Wright
273 0.044082 Monta_Ellis
274 0.044002 Maalik_Wayns
275 0.043304 James_Johnson
276 0.042151 George_Hill
277 0.04198 Ian_Mahinmi
278 0.039462 Ryan_Hollins
279 0.038899 Jerryd_Bayless
280 0.035368 Michael_Beasley
281 0.034931 Nate_Robinson
282 0.02442 Shelvin_Mack
283 0.021607 Bernard_James
284 0.019075 Jermaine_O'Neal
285 0.016783 Al_Jefferson
286 0.013153 Ryan_Kelly
287 0.012034 Chase_Budinger
288 0.009441 Josh_Harrellson
289 0.00531 Stephen_Jackson
290 0.000563 Hedo_Turkoglu
291 0.00034 Deron_Williams
SAMPLING PROBLEMS

1.Selection bias occurs when each item in population does not have
same chance of being chosen in sample

AlthoughNixonwonthe1972Presidentialelectioninalandslide,Liberal
MovieCriticPaulineKaelsaidshedidnotknowanyonewhovotedfor
Nixon.

WhyisitwrongtotakeanelectionpollatLAX?

WhydidLiterary Digest(ahighbrowmagazine)predictFDRtolosein
1936?

BernieSandersoutperformedpollsinthe2016DemocraticMichigan
primarybecausepollstersassumedelectoratewouldlooklikeprevious
primaries(50%oftheelectorate>=50yearsold.)Inrealitythereweremany
moreyoungvoters.

In2016electionmanypollstersassumedelectoratewouldlooklike2012
electorate,butin2016moreruralvotersandfewerAfricanAmericansvoted
comparedto2012.

Nowonly10%ofallpeoplecontactedbypollstersrespond,makingit
difficulttogetarandomsample.Dopeoplenowliemoreoftentopollsters?

2.PublicationBiasoccursbecausedrugstudieswithpositiveresultsare
morelikelytobepublishedthannegativeresults.Forexample,instudiesof
antidepressants94%ofstudieswithpositiveresultswerepublishedbutonly
14%ofstudieswithnegativeresultswerepublished.

## 3.Survivorship Bias occurs when part of a population disappears. For

example, look at 20 year returns on 100 randomly selected mutual
funds and you find the average return beats the market by a lot. Why?
In a Houston high school mean and median test scores improved a
great deal from 10th to 11th and 11th to 12th grade. Is that a good high
school?
4.Response Bias
occurs when a small fraction of those sampled
respond and the respondents may not be representative of the
population. Usually respondents have more negative opinions than the
entire population. For example, the TV news show Nightline asked
people to call in about whether the US should leave the UN. 67% of
those calling in wanted the US to leave the UN. A correctly designed
sample study estimated only 28% of people wanted the US to leave the
UN. On line teaching evaluations have the same issue

## A sample that is not a simple random sample can cause serious

5.
errors. Suppose every 10th chip produced is defective. Then the
population has 10% defectives. If we sample every 10th item, however,
we would estimate that 100% of the chips would be defective.
Point Estimates of Population Parameters and Sampling Distributions
Suppose we want to estimate unknown mean of a population. Suppose this unknown me
xbar, the sample mean as an estimate of . If we take a sample of n independent observa

xbar=(x1+x2+.,xn)/n
The sample mean is an unbiased estimate of . This means that if we take many samples
Xbar values we should get .

## Expected Value of Xbar

/n +/n +,/n
=

Since the sample mean is a random variable it has a variance. Suppose the var
has a variance 2
To find the variance of xbar

## we need the following rule. For any random variable X

xbar=(x1+x2+.
Var(cX) = c2Var X.

## The Standard Deviation of Xbar

xbar=(x1+x2+.,xn)/n

is /sqrt(n)

## /sqrt(n) is referred to as the Standard error of

Xbar
ng Distributions
ose this unknown mean = . We use the sample statistic
independent observations x1, x2, .., xn from a population, then

## nce. Suppose the variance of the population we are sampling from

xbar=(x1+x2+.,xn)/n

## ,Var(xn)/ n2 = n2/n2= 2/n.

+.,xn)/n
A B C D E F G H I J
1 Population is tossing a die Mean X = 3.5 Mean Xbar = Mu
2 take sample of size two: do previous formulas work? Variance X =2.91 Var Xbar= 2/n
3 Meanxbar
4 Probability Die 1 Die 2 Xbar Squared dev
5 0.027777778 1 1 Variance xbar
6 0.027777778 1 2
7 0.027777778 1 3
8 0.027777778 1 4 Var X =2.91
9 0.027777778 1 5 Var Xbar=2.91/2
10 0.027777778 1 6
11 0.027777778 2 1
12 0.027777778 2 2
13 0.027777778 2 3
14 0.027777778 2 4
15 0.027777778 2 5
16 0.027777778 2 6
17 0.027777778 3 1
18 0.027777778 3 2
19 0.027777778 3 3
20 0.027777778 3 4
21 0.027777778 3 5
22 0.027777778 3 6
23 0.027777778 4 1
24 0.027777778 4 2
25 0.027777778 4 3
26 0.027777778 4 4
27 0.027777778 4 5
28 0.027777778 4 6
29 0.027777778 5 1
30 0.027777778 5 2
31 0.027777778 5 3
32 0.027777778 5 4
33 0.027777778 5 5
34 0.027777778 5 6
35 0.027777778 6 1
36 0.027777778 6 2
37 0.027777778 6 3
38 0.027777778 6 4
39 0.027777778 6 5
40 0.027777778 6 6
A B C D E F G H
1
2
3 Meanxbar
4 Probability Die 1 Die 2 Xbar Squared dev 3.5
5 0.027777778 1 1 1 6.25 Variance xbar
6 0.027777778 1 2 1.5 4 1.4583333333
7 0.027777778 1 3 2 2.25 Std Dev xbar
8 0.027777778 1 4 2.5 1 1.2076147288
9 0.027777778 1 5 3 0.25
10 0.027777778 1 6 3.5 0
11 0.027777778 2 1 1.5 4
12 0.027777778 2 2 2 2.25
13 0.027777778 2 3 2.5 1
14 0.027777778 2 4 3 0.25
15 0.027777778 2 5 3.5 0
16 0.027777778 2 6 4 0.25
17 0.027777778 3 1 2 2.25
18 0.027777778 3 2 2.5 1
19 0.027777778 3 3 3 0.25
20 0.027777778 3 4 3.5 0
21 0.027777778 3 5 4 0.25
22 0.027777778 3 6 4.5 1
23 0.027777778 4 1 2.5 1
24 0.027777778 4 2 3 0.25
25 0.027777778 4 3 3.5 0
26 0.027777778 4 4 4 0.25
27 0.027777778 4 5 4.5 1
28 0.027777778 4 6 5 2.25
29 0.027777778 5 1 3 0.25
30 0.027777778 5 2 3.5 0
31 0.027777778 5 3 4 0.25
32 0.027777778 5 4 4.5 1
33 0.027777778 5 5 5 2.25
34 0.027777778 5 6 5.5 4
35 0.027777778 6 1 3.5 0
36 0.027777778 6 2 4 0.25
37 0.027777778 6 3 4.5 1
38 0.027777778 6 4 5 2.25
39 0.027777778 6 5 5.5 4
40 0.027777778 6 6 6 6.25
Suppose we want to estimate an unknown population proportion p.
For example, let p be the fraction of registered voters in Seattle,
Washington who are Independents. To estimate p we might ask n
randomly chosen Seattle voters if they are independents and
estimate p by

## In short, we estimate the population parameter p by the fraction of

successes in the sample. So if 100 of 400 samples voters say they
are independents we would estimate p by phat = 100/400 = 0.25.

## Since we do not know p we use phat in place of p and assume

Standard Deviation (phat)=

SQRT(phat*(1-phat)/n)

## The Standard Deviation of phat is called the standard error of phat.

We see that phat is an unbiased estimate of the population
proportion p. It can be shown that among all unbiased estimates of
the population mean, phat has the smallest variance. Therefore, we
use phat as a point estimate for p.

Example
In a survey 600 of 1500 UK adults are in favor of driverless cars.
Then we estimate fraction
of UK adults in favor of driverless cars as 600/1500= 0.4
The standard deviation of phat in this case is estimated as

0.0126491106

Our estimates of by xbar and p by phat are point estimates of population of paramet
They will differ from sample to sample
so we need to discuss interval estimates of and p.
SQRT(p*(1-p)/n)
=SQRT(0.4*0.6/1500)

## tes of population of parameters.

A B C D E F G H I
1 STANDARD NORMAL
2
3
4 Z.025 2.5 %ile -1.959964 -1.959964 =NORM.INV(0.025,0,1) =NORM.S.INV(0.025)
5 Z.975 97.5%ile 1.959964 1.959964 =NORM.INV(0.975,0,1) =NORM.S.INV(0.975)
6 Z.95 95%ile 1.6448536 1.6448536 =NORM.INV(0.95,0,1) =NORM.S.INV(0.95)
7 Z.05 5th%ile -1.644854 -1.644854 =NORM.INV(0.05,0,1) =NORM.S.INV(0.05)
8 Standard Normal (often called Z)
9 is a normal random variable with mean =0
10 and standard deviation=1
A B C D E
1 Confidence Interval for Population Mean

## You are told the standard deviation of invoice

values is \$500. A sample of 100 invoices taken
2 from a large population of invoices has a sample
mean value of \$4500. You are 95% sure the mean
size of an invoice is between ____ and ____.

samplemean 4500
3 Lower Limit Upper Limit popsigma 500
4 xbar-1.96*sigma/sqrt(n) xbar+1.96*sigma/sqrt(n) samplesize 100
5 z.025 -1.96
6 Sample size n>=30 95% Confidence Interval for unknown Population z.975 1.96
7 Mean
8 Lower Limit 4402
9 Upper Limit 4598
10 If unknown plug in s for sigma
Include 100 True Interpretation of 95% CI
99 Take 100 samples compute 100 95% CI
around 95 will contain the population mean

## Includes 100 Lower Upper Xbar Sample Std dev Sample IQ 1

yes 93.464644 103.08403 98.274338 14.7235522506 1 101.83742
yes 92.719023 102.92468 98.024679 16.241803386 2 109.68955
yes 96.755399 106.47617 101.57617 14.7574558277 3 77.014916
yes 94.336176 104.84563 99.945627 17.1717903785 4 72.934275
yes 97.963533 107.8445 102.9445 15.2478710919 5 94.78059
yes 95.245215 104.54854 99.648536 13.4795563694 6 103.59704
yes 94.231801 104.80309 99.903091 17.3610921996 7 120.36977
yes 97.718165 108.21296 103.31296 17.1269200618 8 83.050104
yes 96.055907 106.73264 101.83264 17.6838672437 9 106.21216
yes 92.435083 102.16026 97.260263 14.7709575551 10 124.70725
yes 95.557878 104.47339 99.57339 12.2923835061 11 85.867825
yes 95.21097 104.225 99.324999 12.5939653253 12 99.891451
yes 91.066418 100.96917 96.069173 15.3145565506 13 89.119692
yes 95.865638 105.68171 100.78171 15.0491891266 14 97.24599
yes 98.821236 108.04671 103.14671 13.2412553861 15 115.99327
yes 98.832181 108.9872 104.0872 16.0868004988 16 114.41489
yes 94.732282 103.43549 98.535492 11.6424803384 17 109.89969
yes 93.691545 103.51972 98.61972 15.086251395 18 120.44273
yes 94.300358 103.52019 98.620191 13.2239800087 19 77.010974
yes 95.377448 105.01537 100.11537 14.5038301957 20 86.175501
yes 95.288638 105.25044 100.35044 15.4952999983 21 102.24301
yes 93.377511 102.3549 97.454899 12.4818005272 22 112.53663
yes 95.794265 105.51151 100.61151 14.7466810991 23 105.07643
yes 91.320659 101.62624 96.72624 16.5476955857 24 112.46018
yes 94.080513 104.42657 99.526569 16.6716008305 25 117.62993
yes 96.992141 106.42492 101.52492 13.8758545562 26 126.20684
yes 99.396627 109.01874 104.11874 14.455456777 27 110.22012
yes 94.892477 104.38865 99.488647 14.0699084554 28 104.28755
yes 95.72836 104.58837 99.688365 12.1224647985 29 95.1598
yes 98.446037 108.89405 103.99405 16.9837191797 30 90.317929
yes 93.758003 103.87669 98.97669 15.9755709596 31 94.780302
yes 92.107755 102.5614 97.661397 17.0009441198 32 95.158204
yes 95.396621 104.48681 99.586809 12.8271086873 33 102.37704
yes 99.106875 108.97418 104.07418 15.2060495755 34 129.965
yes 97.484872 107.7358 102.8358 16.3803972002 35 104.95853
yes 95.763773 105.67179 100.77179 15.3306707878 36 81.992357
yes 95.891547 104.91823 100.01823 12.6327137978 37 111.46975
yes 93.075601 102.75929 97.859287 14.6439375462 38 102.13627
yes 97.074764 106.69057 101.79057 14.4361269049 39 126.88505
yes 96.334525 106.81509 101.91509 17.0833649526 40 108.68986
yes 93.81205 102.9339 98.033899 12.9240282499 41 118.02502
yes 96.476448 106.32516 101.42516 15.149118438 42 92.178742
yes 95.702533 106.18638 101.28638 17.0933937515 43 103.37027
yes 93.825881 103.37041 98.470411 14.2179496043 44 94.055558
yes 94.581343 104.91761 100.01761 16.6416183859 45 86.792455
yes 97.510042 106.83961 101.93961 13.5599028933 46 85.231301
yes 92.099402 102.5685 97.668496 17.0482459601 47 88.913807
yes 97.065719 107.21223 102.31223 16.0607340474 48 103.56234
yes 92.318665 102.32085 97.420855 15.6189478933 49 90.311996
yes 93.21557 102.99722 98.097217 14.9438154332 50 92.521708
yes 93.471364 103.75733 98.857334 16.4876633788 51 109.84022
yes 95.711208 105.64537 100.74537 15.4107105429 52 105.37162
yes 93.165971 101.66866 96.768658 11.0286357181 53 85.065917
yes 93.421821 102.72883 97.82883 13.4908424009 54 114.50048
yes 92.143773 101.8547 96.954696 14.727315104 55 101.18502
yes 91.888364 102.31862 97.418621 16.9293578984 56 95.18169
no 100.31587 109.08394 104.18394 11.8410255232 57 111.5147
yes 94.979029 105.13848 100.23848 16.1003619264 58 107.30763
yes 98.753808 109.48601 104.58601 17.8536760394 59 86.667484
yes 92.812385 103.31647 98.416474 17.155376155 60 92.679481
yes 92.280657 102.49927 97.599275 16.2814816364 61 85.886131
yes 93.912246 103.30106 98.401061 13.7412706342 62 92.906662
yes 94.97768 104.20303 99.303029 13.2408659882 63 101.90896
yes 90.978182 100.24951 95.349507 13.3816049526 64 77.985155
yes 97.452509 106.57635 101.67635 12.9301336228 65 96.704803
yes 94.85038 103.70319 98.803186 12.1004263036 66 89.898551
yes 94.129404 103.91959 99.019593 14.9699654584 67 97.721848
yes 92.991582 103.42078 98.520782 16.9261226412 68 95.053423
yes 95.284812 104.90945 100.00945 14.4631843024 69 118.51633
yes 92.876833 102.44891 97.54891 14.3022770514 70 100.52094
yes 92.813673 102.83884 97.938835 15.6892727785 71 108.72769
yes 93.391801 103.81229 98.912294 16.8994686153 72 120.11853
yes 95.918803 105.73614 100.83614 15.0530649747 73 131.71074
yes 97.905339 108.32655 103.42655 16.9016679489 74 113.22549
yes 92.211812 102.11293 97.212926 15.3095316412 75 113.17397
yes 93.969986 103.13659 98.236587 13.0610238066 76 94.052643
yes 99.651254 109.50348 104.60348 15.1598861783 77 112.50175
yes 95.520919 105.74834 100.84834 16.3084274861 78 122.28122
yes 94.297612 105.74329 100.84329 20.037782215 79 88.726364
yes 93.257095 103.06975 98.16975 15.0387394168 80 111.87508
yes 95.717236 106.21649 101.31649 17.1405788371 81 95.218997
yes 92.14972 101.71279 96.812787 14.2746958587 82 83.776253
yes 93.03073 104.22178 99.321778 19.2583099374 83 141.91543
yes 95.231137 105.16464 100.26464 15.408683284 84 103.50046
yes 95.575342 105.31913 100.41913 14.8279079651 85 100.15777
yes 95.711187 105.70685 100.80685 15.5989678937 86 91.723222
yes 96.689137 106.68642 101.78642 15.6039200409 87 129.31118
yes 98.112544 107.13359 102.23359 12.615437114 88 100.69435
yes 91.928522 102.83907 97.939071 18.3996386434 89 122.04988
yes 95.028567 104.56998 99.669985 14.2084205386 90 110.56122
yes 97.57622 106.33465 101.43465 11.8115116629 91 105.08025
yes 91.467953 101.84048 96.940476 16.7526235257 92 97.533407
yes 94.657907 104.82904 99.929043 16.1361279833 93 117.76192
yes 94.29518 103.90955 99.009551 14.4317473823 94 97.883866
yes 96.096477 105.66229 100.76229 14.2830981715 95 96.108417
yes 95.235458 104.66118 99.761178 13.8542429566 96 104.26722
yes 92.92627 102.97392 98.07392 15.758109856 97 105.13246
yes 98.742837 107.65055 102.75055 12.2685178099 98 91.187979
yes 95.551599 104.72762 99.827617 13.0898529249 99 94.185969
yes 94.358567 104.4154 99.515399 15.7862210568 100 85.684625
IQ 2 IQ 3 IQ 4 IQ 5 IQ 6 IQ 7 IQ 8 IQ 9 IQ 10 IQ 11
102.48609 91.208393 78.217029 106.43404 99.572852 101.40056 83.308538 103.04144 98.450723 115.45806
78.88601 103.88917 103.28799 85.877685 89.515247 104.32401 98.23928 136.1555 73.296514 120.63974
129.03161 138.60652 84.641698 111.20337 114.33154 88.397935 107.1929 75.01073 84.181566 105.57331
89.688838 88.9703 95.946996 105.71689 110.6892 135.2443 105.33146 97.996719 100.88102 88.575427
77.961196 135.41038 106.10776 106.1177 79.686767 106.03201 102.1248 120.55189 89.616078 93.470582
94.298935 90.485942 113.02461 97.682109 104.68921 106.33534 72.531617 96.719835 93.621124 116.41455
117.1469 97.887285 117.93169 98.122036 93.326856 80.334908 108.64493 107.62713 102.80527 100.71692
106.56443 81.230374 104.29069 110.323 134.78604 113.78404 100.29149 84.031656 88.367468 84.378328
92.788941 118.68316 90.180168 146.07421 79.433085 109.99236 81.83131 122.46482 107.0023 142.13199
80.098706 92.666784 105.4005 76.495511 80.172084 78.476463 88.140482 85.040909 92.442625 114.05686
100.18766 93.444847 107.07148 80.451657 106.1897 97.297261 86.672253 117.75802 105.43286 121.22126
114.90027 95.848341 110.4053 102.43683 88.344526 115.28298 100.70943 119.74888 69.770611 96.290081
113.02382 89.432444 91.218202 95.499054 106.60116 110.84597 103.59088 91.993955 79.766297 91.940422
104.85017 110.25632 79.877889 92.080003 113.1377 121.66071 91.122579 136.80193 95.967605 135.40796
125.65003 91.325708 119.49865 94.244075 109.49211 131.46851 79.961737 90.805619 93.666963 96.487451
106.19155 72.7173 102.22735 72.062781 106.17476 108.76447 94.915848 113.03567 106.03102 121.68943
91.736056 89.778107 107.03525 107.97493 93.840605 84.872237 99.571069 88.071626 109.58686 115.16326
84.054789 113.97138 88.507838 69.381543 88.175415 67.770095 97.833965 105.70172 110.45017 83.117015
118.5709 97.587813 98.705617 96.099937 97.14486 102.52105 81.003286 80.2589 107.03321 112.27667
105.95508 93.663677 103.48961 93.011129 83.647343 77.888941 89.657282 99.474369 96.367165 104.01117
105.76935 82.308158 116.63468 102.44277 82.915922 91.661583 88.367816 105.68053 86.002754 82.953362
99.05032 93.61184 93.565974 111.3988 97.009256 101.02917 97.582023 97.865671 94.562597 96.858302
105.49792 94.324849 95.888145 107.42133 89.241444 98.352503 98.854812 104.0521 136.20919 88.084846
97.622738 79.711727 101.73971 98.301732 83.5979 154.92885 100.62709 87.19459 85.842365 89.520845
110.54491 83.022597 86.929305 101.20801 125.07791 99.709818 87.563538 108.10875 148.71547 89.89279
88.519848 106.47817 99.311292 84.257324 99.082412 106.70959 105.86163 135.45118 110.83864 92.308642
115.55103 84.182376 128.77063 94.708063 110.40011 105.06917 120.00327 94.827731 85.336834 119.94477
131.31231 102.42748 109.39751 100.75045 124.04741 114.39367 119.86173 103.46128 98.883104 77.360995
106.37755 101.27747 92.302176 90.125565 96.504288 99.284314 112.07481 84.192123 98.480849 102.2116
114.39407 96.909608 92.055426 94.692506 113.51968 64.613733 96.899456 84.699881 129.29713 102.22556
103.45996 102.3968 122.85031 72.096715 101.51371 99.042508 108.53322 88.230721 104.57304 112.92551
124.77852 76.30248 108.26684 120.52258 107.53371 73.965658 106.88391 77.60172 108.04102 102.75586
97.119029 87.197924 90.288208 93.970163 78.146616 106.66795 94.386153 115.29647 88.419448 100.7101
82.966533 100.58919 108.4033 116.92882 109.81417 125.59973 98.596029 105.52095 81.350489 116.37017
101.86882 118.49122 107.74003 97.028206 104.52459 107.4642 111.62469 72.37699 100.65436 111.69823
75.312379 108.34495 90.61825 95.568432 75.89497 89.364448 93.631076 115.1406 90.16627 99.021593
100.89696 119.16207 95.42087 93.492301 85.029629 91.214443 102.15634 100.42644 135.25173 87.417671
104.4766 111.65374 124.42878 88.222101 82.768377 107.40185 106.38047 101.15295 105.51953 108.80959
113.22106 96.868242 83.074184 112.22504 95.433978 122.10582 114.82672 88.361096 103.14871 106.69204
132.29765 101.62763 67.574668 99.262599 105.04187 71.751646 114.18911 63.795704 100.33562 93.133356
99.436436 100.03363 102.13256 90.404791 102.037 94.458013 119.31681 88.475883 101.15967 113.02182
79.903792 80.997951 87.754732 123.61991 101.62377 121.43875 110.82138 96.954369 116.37711 95.682698
102.23018 91.279527 101.91315 83.84315 104.93202 96.927515 93.42067 85.262503 86.093611 120.50103
104.2673 85.645538 91.105264 86.093875 78.92978 109.78395 109.14923 83.352549 118.83368 89.359519
120.52523 96.709409 74.87193 77.891819 100.07283 114.13413 110.84771 124.83348 110.19905 113.08342
131.26663 117.85665 94.713585 102.62166 98.433173 110.39055 89.189297 82.946386 91.811305 93.172319
72.446115 79.614633 120.08873 126.8079 110.16181 81.681107 75.917657 108.62446 106.13179 102.13311
87.074099 128.73211 98.221902 76.336283 103.30015 81.978728 113.15367 118.41955 89.131287 108.56435
104.87087 99.664985 107.08822 112.39421 89.295512 88.753016 102.9108 81.110655 113.80193 90.711693
102.84996 109.78827 62.990529 59.346161 121.43207 117.40874 119.79852 75.61592 94.558133 121.31444
89.332056 108.61881 119.56909 68.629816 78.012162 114.11458 76.360493 121.15924 74.578272 127.00034
79.357981 99.670373 92.70079 101.11721 107.78528 104.10374 62.751733 78.742235 97.065616 121.13199
79.601062 103.24245 107.46532 89.386026 110.43511 89.286905 90.088531 101.86253 99.980113 85.939179
100.17483 101.8656 106.85545 84.603161 118.97626 68.128139 100.54296 110.55814 66.06791 107.40912
86.659421 90.910698 76.946466 110.53478 71.801388 111.40871 112.10612 110.42018 106.18279 109.98143
87.871569 95.883061 93.328147 89.516326 54.382093 82.120031 108.46924 90.32117 102.23016 108.60693
97.608877 103.34758 91.340936 118.71145 101.76118 99.833627 104.95619 102.59952 97.157067 123.44855
91.620881 71.255463 91.924406 67.717031 98.411091 133.18928 84.317214 113.94944 103.59327 103.78826
115.06881 98.608605 106.42156 117.01097 111.45811 107.22962 114.71032 59.019752 144.05098 75.838203
107.51742 122.68495 73.805265 104.70896 114.68826 85.252119 128.69584 88.806254 76.387042 97.258683
88.954581 98.703714 124.40829 85.953526 109.84455 94.385665 117.44625 116.19619 110.74206 117.93417
114.33293 99.477767 112.25064 85.486723 108.22367 100.22935 83.285133 67.074788 84.666743 75.275812
80.979339 83.741875 94.123645 84.670726 92.063195 105.15807 103.30506 92.191582 93.936011 93.969971
89.418516 113.32882 107.83731 77.922726 64.879943 93.248275 91.303992 100.9283 109.77569 84.621333
98.203408 103.52793 90.08326 113.82298 116.16014 85.572366 104.1122 83.352956 103.76124 122.45038
95.759729 87.893815 99.380423 95.49775 101.10976 119.068 87.441266 109.78468 116.5943 93.687848
100.03309 98.57511 84.142535 95.986784 116.20476 93.590962 89.784314 91.634641 122.69555 85.455413
109.76423 105.24728 99.185854 91.543207 92.731569 115.92533 124.7095 89.171493 64.948643 99.619908
124.19099 86.022024 109.37033 98.843616 81.970406 109.89405 97.138306 105.0253 121.58181 87.83257
96.179905 83.789085 80.070385 110.37496 109.78051 73.037621 95.32871 109.54976 97.659632 99.784971
106.01529 98.130175 68.596909 102.5903 114.55328 121.86615 103.18963 95.549492 120.17359 104.03054
117.01992 81.987183 101.91625 80.761148 107.90386 81.931185 111.00364 124.86885 109.11172 96.859056
119.86829 107.87841 101.99608 104.29354 95.421127 97.655905 82.142472 93.91414 90.782185 113.19798
65.724679 97.180063 67.415887 108.17348 102.05989 99.759131 95.368175 94.242934 101.27977 91.09735
99.864263 112.80936 86.645575 84.419423 94.122723 100.96444 114.98709 110.24592 100.10183 106.63029
83.014137 90.114233 99.323871 85.472767 99.373302 92.397926 110.10069 102.81078 125.87153 98.925952
120.68282 80.319322 81.041142 109.33035 101.96005 139.78626 114.54998 90.991893 88.560734 114.30228
117.37869 71.767009 89.307257 114.99787 96.9787 97.449815 95.945987 106.49868 114.03231 98.505845
94.843124 123.86463 119.03946 85.952687 89.045131 105.52681 80.370318 103.24764 119.61681 137.81864
110.62067 92.355172 85.179129 99.840228 94.527205 105.11429 122.63771 92.109403 115.03402 91.782577
94.225182 104.81201 90.743646 113.21231 114.12745 111.38969 132.08453 133.4174 101.7947 97.56146
75.157281 97.953173 107.07812 104.23847 107.95175 105.75572 103.12585 81.382269 125.58446 104.53438
62.06431 101.96732 117.72792 109.35168 107.073 89.749484 103.6124 109.76843 101.61755 91.53222
92.798998 98.975851 87.88083 123.68682 99.603755 96.825406 128.07975 109.68386 118.1032 98.666926
95.15382 119.43533 90.638116 107.8275 101.29351 102.00857 119.80931 89.723034 90.740241 96.061049
88.483497 124.13201 65.558286 102.52653 122.4771 89.831588 79.667166 109.34065 101.97098 115.97675
104.012 92.170864 109.07936 137.62234 103.29598 95.798118 93.077511 136.37918 97.541467 95.093466
113.82799 107.0217 112.33644 82.108064 95.276327 95.398338 125.59495 119.79352 92.077211 101.12824
107.78015 108.17536 101.00017 46.486804 103.20935 130.68158 106.72495 100.46911 59.371243 85.493394
83.358698 84.455785 104.16245 119.14631 117.01137 79.502553 122.85688 91.881311 101.04905 99.324238
104.88754 98.528137 81.641809 120.87769 101.36071 99.593438 114.76174 106.19667 93.95134 82.291173
106.38814 90.702173 94.678553 79.515357 94.534012 86.806144 126.80117 86.178222 99.505992 84.379239
76.03868 117.13041 116.4046 70.809165 70.546325 111.28919 116.43671 94.122699 77.221189 128.79023
92.49777 96.412061 78.120057 101.98773 92.081395 85.937784 81.516867 93.042494 95.127438 119.12936
115.36537 93.989669 87.484828 113.35247 114.63008 113.45059 107.72 101.51579 91.079407 95.593627
98.377912 124.40348 117.07347 117.08476 101.63764 94.10884 109.97226 113.49125 105.35034 96.006202
97.420922 113.42396 108.10548 91.433308 105.5215 109.53032 102.98809 138.70536 82.206015 104.02696
105.66204 102.65798 115.61215 95.78764 113.92734 120.14071 74.264387 108.86734 91.866298 118.433
89.048699 110.29445 106.43647 93.837479 90.422509 79.239809 68.447244 115.02942 108.15656 117.17772
130.37902 107.70653 83.704038 99.066321 81.728665 115.19742 90.651955 103.29633 114.72806 103.80969
IQ 12 IQ 13 IQ 14 IQ 15 IQ 16 IQ 17 IQ 18 IQ 19 IQ 20 IQ 21
117.36767 89.673065 91.712698 81.734935 119.85043 100.21191 70.101222 92.073183 94.963742 100.77147
105.21455 135.97691 92.204533 102.48402 97.409121 89.106861 104.86406 89.282439 75.312489 86.37579
108.94609 94.788879 113.47711 101.43995 109.27752 104.9294 89.16247 93.451444 111.59262 97.758871
79.975712 96.825054 80.787333 76.541396 60.400773 96.094679 62.878375 109.54672 94.236078 114.69776
95.17792 71.782708 114.91815 142.04305 107.73852 112.99072 111.79774 100.38956 107.79947 87.648423
105.98687 138.45366 99.227722 100.737 80.783395 102.38046 92.357736 99.73433 102.61764 89.381274
113.04884 100.23635 67.694207 108.19998 111.65606 92.141791 98.058438 98.692137 57.194078 104.05711
121.01399 104.40183 91.457222 114.23191 127.02895 130.97023 94.204767 115.53176 84.272152 104.44762
91.446034 109.34392 89.799271 121.06436 128.24579 72.583135 97.541913 104.90856 105.93742 98.69685
97.409659 80.653024 102.81675 111.12621 97.56737 92.74837 109.96098 95.21389 105.91255 98.380714
94.049817 103.71942 103.33922 74.25893 89.614838 104.56979 91.730359 103.91996 93.081126 103.56552
109.13386 108.30122 90.982507 94.087156 95.936731 78.142406 107.69212 115.75388 75.9111 108.06974
99.661202 76.515795 66.218867 105.39848 99.127643 73.793699 94.964664 99.002329 71.268399 99.176281
102.1922 118.0539 94.046482 85.14161 90.953313 82.620704 76.129459 113.44103 83.979908 107.55027
114.36452 107.41956 94.483088 104.58493 100.73016 63.890041 107.25214 100.68761 116.21757 116.94406
89.053681 91.839869 97.566862 92.275164 99.728298 76.996671 110.56656 136.84816 101.07229 96.52846
106.38372 79.495606 101.79058 107.61452 94.441804 74.656663 87.943599 74.674351 103.61283 92.056525
102.79735 93.616038 88.002137 98.967017 94.588152 101.16121 110.57217 95.314857 100.29208 89.958126
101.05593 94.95349 113.4391 103.65125 115.05986 91.523685 84.592466 105.83195 91.045944 100.54504
110.23786 101.46323 103.51143 96.007394 82.793093 123.13359 120.41356 135.99766 97.662154 105.02396
89.174925 90.323334 88.137247 136.19271 102.00428 97.437827 98.809835 101.23459 88.378567 94.110402
128.81547 96.775674 103.42297 76.664746 87.9796 100.96005 85.708448 100.21833 103.30967 97.966369
75.607169 118.84076 99.059189 128.54075 104.87674 66.797351 105.64637 90.829479 94.439198 68.923849
81.985464 91.224856 112.59133 103.53088 73.848654 92.012005 110.95434 102.59524 92.954942 63.818732
115.39092 117.73216 72.464107 87.758755 103.16339 110.43136 119.07612 120.76801 107.64894 95.373794
101.09468 89.562351 90.935706 99.739027 105.07807 108.72331 104.85867 103.03831 97.02069 110.68725
83.681519 119.91694 92.201948 81.182007 98.154072 105.83826 101.44101 114.49192 114.32266 126.7418
76.655512 94.455804 73.839574 109.47192 70.017993 89.672914 96.604709 76.145253 94.412669 97.383424
111.16278 100.33184 116.75227 90.382917 89.576557 87.220454 98.633065 84.584909 118.15182 99.642672
119.24048 85.960093 112.87304 95.999831 109.90794 118.66035 116.87673 90.378546 129.12346 86.829657
120.9222 73.707637 70.894084 133.5611 101.01355 90.296916 97.005727 95.556429 93.271662 100.33327
78.154693 97.935111 70.946896 81.777644 99.543167 127.07547 71.865619 114.34527 102.63504 71.725759
89.089926 109.05344 124.27912 119.25188 98.83074 112.0604 89.930482 83.550445 95.616446 108.87865
122.70495 74.852327 76.016591 109.07953 111.8714 100.83013 129.27955 102.2164 87.348899 91.329452
57.64778 107.33748 92.295021 74.156878 122.40744 84.495067 126.8755 95.243557 98.061787 104.98614
118.16073 92.910464 127.83869 101.42766 126.30585 108.91382 104.48678 118.06132 103.27143 113.93336
81.749446 108.82366 92.206791 100.17048 104.65441 111.22486 103.72873 116.52994 115.63111 102.53897
94.523633 96.523477 92.725301 100.91337 138.86447 86.635311 86.803506 108.83182 100.23546 99.727211
101.51163 89.503377 115.79963 114.26905 83.719075 102.26169 112.98667 93.795649 87.903375 90.363054
105.3104 115.55571 105.80204 104.84618 143.21945 91.540897 89.712795 99.384484 113.14726 111.91848
102.40909 103.59597 87.305089 106.92054 75.804862 103.14756 90.934228 102.44063 76.372648 97.286665
84.93329 114.13293 114.90292 113.36984 95.449023 114.18238 80.414671 90.034501 91.895012 92.403698
111.55172 161.41876 116.65554 98.251149 125.80748 94.097295 82.333901 75.456695 94.808969 92.384997
100.9429 79.672212 76.472978 96.880032 116.44362 110.49551 106.7261 90.923963 105.07277 107.96936
110.28827 60.104963 90.040399 99.783039 80.954808 71.75662 90.943145 117.97298 119.03797 99.646
102.79464 113.19749 103.4275 117.93038 86.158142 96.377528 118.82356 77.55178 114.45077 110.21763
64.95298 94.400414 101.71077 115.77039 101.97758 108.81104 90.492168 94.694037 84.604997 102.20401
108.41873 91.466035 98.17463 113.61112 127.11514 146.96913 109.56639 99.028495 112.85322 75.464551
79.186436 84.077065 110.4366 101.52381 128.86968 108.89013 79.955142 89.408372 70.722084 116.94974
86.973325 94.649748 94.084221 105.06003 108.09457 104.39123 106.46168 94.618907 74.588657 99.468408
102.90634 81.43653 97.049872 112.56899 98.226363 100.16242 74.618534 106.85873 81.995993 112.80044
97.324535 90.375276 106.96689 119.26298 111.9446 97.629534 107.73922 100.02372 104.99335 79.402481
120.87828 100.92718 103.15684 84.625777 90.283412 116.70633 95.695381 104.28869 101.27092 84.688479
85.33173 102.61726 89.163714 78.276352 84.073873 114.28986 84.827255 93.610676 87.34524 96.824135
117.05074 93.310559 82.35243 87.523179 67.851161 115.56044 93.784031 98.362754 94.626089 111.72773
117.30562 112.39394 60.426277 103.2089 127.06004 111.48525 87.879304 110.31837 96.102646 82.023625
113.32401 117.91193 113.35039 131.86614 99.305501 91.387536 95.281341 117.95885 108.46564 104.5568
88.525545 90.55078 77.438351 100.89485 89.604168 98.868435 72.794683 105.8651 120.33373 111.40126
102.0993 109.60391 121.32187 95.65165 100.09653 95.847031 125.54187 100.26527 119.75991 80.761322
103.47875 121.14163 87.716357 112.66307 70.521276 89.202153 84.966627 74.236967 118.87491 101.47575
89.484708 82.019719 102.395 86.451814 120.89568 87.797404 78.517413 80.825875 98.435609 78.63744
112.48369 88.832547 102.57518 115.77542 96.144091 99.302869 109.65628 82.527018 101.12387 100.96853
77.886417 115.40492 115.0273 114.04934 117.7793 104.24485 101.60586 123.29852 92.199966 97.55036
101.7397 96.962352 116.08723 96.640851 109.05391 91.247376 92.757467 119.08902 90.985216 69.941648
83.85591 88.434553 104.45892 120.28991 93.03239 125.09468 105.52533 100.56738 105.50855 95.230665
105.84319 114.55243 98.909062 99.022953 92.178249 107.06274 104.40871 90.546505 103.59016 91.522756
67.049634 102.49428 128.61295 80.224693 87.313607 94.858148 80.235064 101.64903 87.647239 108.07138
101.08112 105.88976 118.25838 114.68877 115.1915 85.412178 77.91892 112.11649 64.289262 113.20082
108.22365 79.934075 92.948465 101.70854 91.075077 112.78426 109.56542 118.57605 76.783342 103.65727
97.342089 98.325625 131.22287 82.086322 97.459464 77.418255 100.31891 103.25272 100.67149 89.296185
77.368833 92.097025 96.434392 95.397046 103.53254 86.398677 91.894398 111.84869 64.260601 100.82237
88.343949 81.857991 72.265484 90.092508 96.794687 133.66135 83.240454 114.23384 130.39858 106.94462
77.817999 115.29967 132.66765 97.67878 81.394116 116.07342 86.178916 102.86734 104.67063 137.29524
121.50325 110.41251 96.72724 107.98605 118.69624 137.11733 107.85517 89.878386 91.929907 89.332678
75.421813 122.46329 102.49199 97.762902 119.4126 96.836779 122.76536 107.82767 101.57727 81.218458
110.63861 113.53971 88.552953 104.93988 99.541169 94.077075 93.39358 92.622195 126.83852 67.47155
109.22152 104.52819 76.686969 92.021259 99.439146 126.47992 95.183745 123.02628 105.0547 99.123744
126.08233 92.183327 98.723088 115.87845 89.596889 92.067766 86.795059 58.225373 102.0208 98.449296
119.6988 91.454944 79.546271 115.77801 79.657785 111.46198 88.644806 140.40691 72.439701 75.044065
102.04146 94.772217 90.88224 119.29232 99.102643 99.523753 111.40879 72.430733 119.92035 80.140782
85.837364 81.947349 108.21339 90.727703 125.49622 86.785378 98.364608 84.132857 102.20562 114.52102
70.736211 73.125259 123.02974 100.58418 76.194537 100.66703 104.82561 106.42337 90.344598 97.066123
107.26444 93.33155 88.096036 129.5322 63.506557 83.386215 99.2392 82.641234 86.934993 109.23382
107.65998 129.90405 106.08812 92.906115 69.087303 106.86415 92.726912 76.235577 91.108172 109.74086
122.37544 94.742426 81.417915 125.58856 100.04059 118.34307 116.3592 90.503591 104.70815 77.609244
90.309401 116.74266 98.535541 91.056122 64.08491 101.27541 114.43162 113.593 124.14127 125.35733
95.204832 122.45388 108.37608 106.83018 109.78881 89.704786 116.13827 113.49994 71.065024 83.441995
115.56926 119.24872 100.20857 99.409318 93.447589 106.54673 105.84084 90.625569 94.12456 109.86491
77.614146 104.28862 116.68312 90.222233 125.8125 93.860876 89.105342 101.98544 90.784781 126.00058
93.765669 122.96607 86.848694 99.992582 86.543958 77.601372 95.376044 92.167045 117.86492 92.075185
87.629023 97.956987 104.13896 110.10044 105.33112 101.42014 74.60274 91.001087 121.42469 114.03482
80.658033 85.429142 83.759675 99.113569 137.64347 89.584869 87.447016 122.93095 73.081595 129.9083
100.07656 113.72131 121.45417 91.020477 118.83274 90.196397 119.41687 97.67367 89.269641 111.65646
77.207272 102.81782 114.49848 84.953704 93.722908 96.982164 94.581198 132.66884 119.44803 77.326856
79.913566 113.07018 102.09104 120.23006 111.65524 103.44367 84.058019 97.571685 101.51652 90.947837
87.878837 94.747925 112.269 80.304719 90.044359 118.32758 84.601051 78.95348 84.881044 114.72124
114.99575 68.70345 104.40345 84.436918 83.533976 74.563741 91.450946 89.205935 125.46389 103.16542
97.777959 106.82325 102.45251 121.38748 84.465786 111.18401 117.35331 117.3005 105.12312 116.76164
90.756855 91.607897 112.41878 69.405881 99.068713 92.509263 122.17756 89.708241 109.6248 82.200498
102.8336 97.494009 104.20989 91.996102 85.320157 74.595774 80.386918 119.06125 117.59727 104.908
IQ 22 IQ 23 IQ 24 IQ 25 IQ 26 IQ 27 IQ 28 IQ 29 IQ 30 IQ 31
116.11679 94.808026 85.655143 90.680105 91.951243 120.02542 117.47577 122.60168 110.27208 64.061867
94.776072 68.067579 98.857546 117.80506 89.036464 101.2545 100.93656 63.951786 100.43676 88.794531
124.15744 121.69296 99.646955 90.536824 93.209751 110.67315 86.984501 108.75329 88.581208 106.29493
96.000946 113.05635 113.77087 115.07025 118.25161 106.81056 106.61751 102.39904 109.18953 121.27645
107.4979 112.24575 92.202628 120.19767 100.68921 109.163 88.669611 121.77768 110.49722 105.42398
92.297221 82.211888 102.81119 126.84623 87.920037 102.4265 109.01675 102.92893 70.161315 120.94097
109.30065 103.01266 80.574214 97.612232 100.09723 85.147869 120.28197 94.261486 89.2919 80.379465
125.74049 102.71398 92.700479 99.892934 106.1782 104.42186 55.81247 129.47898 95.3327 108.06398
113.61363 92.509114 102.91401 123.67585 84.636084 105.07368 91.260693 94.43779 95.250854 87.110408
103.85143 104.77513 118.35578 87.726915 104.47012 108.85678 124.06756 108.2525 74.660481 117.70071
90.785609 109.85134 82.06951 90.070317 123.25561 107.79873 92.25171 119.94466 100.21221 104.75522
84.079665 102.67261 102.84298 110.89123 92.16808 85.605542 80.774067 113.61339 101.13916 94.994579
108.88084 81.501926 66.662157 121.00029 125.05495 112.83176 89.348181 103.89063 81.756242 83.682658
96.002331 95.467076 93.509275 102.30871 89.738485 98.754034 105.19981 84.032364 104.67613 132.95062
91.117685 107.33156 102.06192 99.882655 101.91737 101.98001 124.1239 99.914237 112.38526 96.727066
114.26841 118.54476 108.5891 114.35802 92.99256 105.20642 90.243112 129.71157 116.99862 87.819846
115.04984 113.93563 99.355085 90.665742 108.46656 100.89571 108.45723 81.096311 86.944845 96.755891
112.43127 96.814974 120.91864 130.76693 86.690094 78.979129 105.13915 100.75103 103.32087 124.79364
79.908739 113.73841 85.99224 91.631205 132.01961 118.85615 92.476483 114.36895 98.241784 76.256664
126.48291 81.80577 113.29711 108.8933 81.253037 117.4233 80.59302 108.64137 83.437505 98.174823
104.23613 81.7353 131.51481 103.32878 138.76768 96.875087 120.05496 108.07756 117.17 123.04259
113.41773 106.12295 89.254807 119.90377 87.099613 71.207537 76.62418 108.33707 100.18314 90.0938
119.06016 104.25212 118.5236 93.697874 102.48665 105.31262 83.006332 96.336819 100.89411 100.92321
90.038233 98.952001 109.11714 95.530438 108.40331 102.70845 111.56053 99.501682 118.53538 92.813928
86.204164 100.07987 84.814243 102.96615 96.813045 98.93062 72.986913 77.79995 90.592188 88.892452
89.840115 75.535015 92.236547 117.94679 104.4956 81.979315 106.52062 105.11888 92.59365 110.11839
112.63606 98.691005 95.874615 125.63289 98.857231 86.531886 103.93134 114.06924 104.60066 129.08122
103.72395 110.80888 106.40939 103.36385 98.014582 107.70967 113.35971 104.9467 106.46191 91.49871
126.06543 97.828425 88.644906 106.73586 89.657054 88.478581 128.55192 76.727166 106.27228 105.08867
96.338326 120.04252 139.46426 98.251552 113.42927 90.555814 97.242422 100.07718 101.95104 80.047741
122.91818 94.977572 81.813858 98.746878 89.994545 76.850192 85.521617 114.11051 87.039757 113.58267
108.32691 66.727945 124.51047 90.0877 106.25829 82.475881 121.29461 94.664855 97.782885 90.935733
108.06121 75.212073 114.68907 95.399948 106.72253 108.14138 105.34019 92.113592 76.632778 119.2443
94.882979 93.870766 101.72873 111.03599 80.388993 117.17219 105.4427 118.5617 101.30137 78.506169
101.36944 121.68901 122.33559 83.367373 109.89668 135.24436 100.46451 96.235763 103.74163 101.96489
100.06391 81.093304 107.46069 97.065666 121.04472 130.60162 110.46531 100.68825 74.426199 96.332678
83.617102 115.14135 89.881086 101.95848 104.53199 108.44924 80.912209 82.592047 79.818281 102.96626
96.897292 55.332394 80.988951 101.75193 88.583322 100.052 81.011619 78.12362 97.123357 93.595697
100.25435 126.44993 98.541568 96.413292 127.02701 91.380245 107.15148 72.751926 93.301839 124.41568
94.223154 90.770796 91.825856 100.40899 113.97658 94.946323 76.601764 104.8777 116.48961 122.43471
126.76292 114.95534 85.449452 74.789997 99.557837 117.98506 76.131058 98.675582 99.518756 96.758133
128.45949 81.34157 109.36286 91.275693 107.61321 79.217013 78.059839 116.56938 111.17148 117.47726
128.36439 103.47844 80.054429 112.22122 118.20887 78.092356 84.340847 100.33355 95.507567 102.78281
82.177559 101.59285 82.389154 100.33705 73.53284 111.43181 106.53878 87.829699 136.1105 108.51699
60.906623 115.13917 92.241279 108.07633 101.58875 114.52797 84.794945 93.238193 103.54927 111.51795
106.22199 82.284905 105.80903 98.094168 92.643422 97.49107 120.71038 85.494779 128.85046 100.58646
95.283475 89.248978 61.399327 92.932409 120.27801 108.36788 136.77734 96.882571 90.12385 92.855437
94.614214 95.679583 95.295944 109.40511 81.64174 109.52593 128.63572 81.268669 90.117429 88.388961
101.91413 108.76915 106.38596 74.545477 86.243135 59.763782 92.822818 96.157173 122.6509 125.66349
100.28696 113.38597 102.43023 92.630118 81.208955 117.93562 92.579277 99.560761 87.902229 88.076166
122.41877 105.96983 78.030268 91.108374 92.377135 83.059458 102.00326 100.96541 84.905951 86.966023
88.490677 99.236818 137.46174 81.21458 92.702538 105.34499 94.857922 99.931307 98.593226 86.015213
93.953526 91.580224 100.81796 96.617633 119.27272 97.950159 88.599354 109.2769 94.457246 87.238736
102.68874 102.00616 94.681838 123.04925 97.092672 82.073116 95.397428 106.84965 106.41623 102.67563
90.329497 98.80024 85.125006 123.1347 103.91845 69.531787 99.196097 115.95568 91.708589 80.839696
122.0603 86.54825 94.856361 98.811245 80.8026 94.552002 93.025827 116.46118 123.3022 114.55848
91.053475 116.6177 106.76986 83.5372 109.01664 112.4761 94.296423 111.32463 83.798842 106.95933
123.96512 70.488585 104.18709 95.628282 108.77897 85.274661 106.4864 117.0927 112.60982 118.1702
102.43838 118.17506 141.43832 82.21252 119.60135 113.6757 109.47763 99.981874 89.266345 126.90533
104.49284 109.74832 91.895355 113.46893 66.427626 92.058356 123.11943 117.3381 116.85756 76.974265
91.931314 96.641583 116.23463 118.11551 87.339501 75.379711 111.21818 103.4477 76.614767 78.649963
133.03587 88.302541 102.41 112.15173 109.45489 98.426822 94.772453 111.27707 93.54916 70.99782
94.890144 83.242569 111.32881 120.88751 97.21329 103.37483 93.958977 86.531545 106.44721 136.3635
94.773591 86.155054 92.251263 117.41126 97.506227 69.700366 106.4804 98.952147 82.806579 98.150962
82.95931 100.15824 108.75316 105.72632 90.25353 116.72847 94.903589 114.20983 118.18535 93.883781
109.52174 107.2196 116.38735 86.224346 86.468745 102.71822 119.1257 58.832893 104.66592 98.714364
107.19164 74.192183 117.19851 128.28181 97.626813 101.60454 91.60566 123.11968 85.428728 101.88911
76.186231 94.994876 86.18423 135.98884 108.82881 93.138457 106.87398 121.0599 98.754759 88.030666
113.18432 102.71127 101.45017 98.882778 84.925694 117.47062 87.26662 100.24748 118.96836 120.25329
105.8074 123.8689 99.144606 99.325098 100.35914 85.573281 116.4296 97.521617 118.03184 93.0886
94.86481 111.43311 105.36674 112.91043 61.317076 95.003667 68.081024 105.36013 90.89042 95.745965
108.32451 97.187508 104.62264 75.665198 115.28153 106.13407 82.293764 103.90506 100.20276 93.039486
104.05932 95.698816 86.853466 97.00754 111.62575 114.579 88.073225 84.217427 88.843219 102.90533
87.317395 110.55381 112.61372 135.43269 127.36215 127.04999 93.219572 115.31417 94.475159 87.635956
70.534428 99.671927 76.540107 124.36689 87.831109 59.339001 97.547889 102.59497 96.293235 97.001899
84.849619 98.373835 113.30162 76.188 89.430432 124.0796 92.173116 85.355302 89.724563 98.181856
106.2265 104.54022 108.34353 81.642827 105.59743 115.79803 127.15817 90.334941 82.281245 110.3762
92.688765 103.73725 120.90645 86.314585 100.84458 97.132203 104.20117 122.03853 75.775621 78.833595
125.19792 84.94973 114.70436 64.190502 116.25768 112.2493 95.97658 117.61874 65.587796 130.24376
86.23741 93.90224 59.166795 117.03255 99.841573 103.18528 78.27129 109.88129 124.52635 87.488391
98.223792 111.85549 85.14868 110.6518 45.222622 100.61194 117.39474 116.77253 99.596672 98.152177
86.380916 87.90125 108.81667 101.31236 107.38955 85.873876 111.82449 89.822454 120.90971 80.7384
75.952191 113.85438 113.49244 79.78587 88.94273 104.5165 135.11181 123.38785 98.989345 76.386675
111.43221 105.45616 86.393708 102.2283 59.418342 105.89065 114.93966 101.41155 103.02682 76.183417
92.616129 95.665334 105.47977 101.23238 88.772254 108.60666 115.21093 112.50639 76.245069 87.637242
77.622281 96.386503 109.98326 99.963407 87.746053 85.81237 94.154761 109.34481 101.75349 105.60879
127.8741 73.737637 92.244928 105.59029 92.406834 94.689823 91.722418 101.67717 97.723893 92.954088
101.69727 95.591535 104.62841 84.836271 109.4219 118.67067 78.244988 108.73029 111.829 98.837415
117.47664 68.004337 103.89762 96.114191 74.752053 90.599957 107.22071 97.688896 92.526196 119.64224
100.27617 94.354195 129.67593 119.51873 104.84476 87.776851 111.50879 95.367435 98.567454 116.49255
120.41395 119.24854 102.44477 119.49471 87.686066 100.44239 106.9064 92.67534 93.183479 94.830551
116.41438 91.301942 75.168839 83.632246 95.681933 104.3103 90.749492 85.185654 128.04296 106.8961
99.497802 106.99539 89.823321 97.866265 91.576289 106.12033 92.009224 97.028671 68.19051 96.088447
89.137192 107.03611 114.46125 98.933024 104.6069 103.48894 100.97201 99.105413 135.41018 90.923323
62.780608 113.60783 85.148446 105.47637 103.18329 78.232869 96.131328 84.332586 107.14942 95.103744
112.9933 103.89322 106.10437 98.841118 84.325145 109.34365 94.356643 100.78874 84.19819 102.0354
123.28638 88.453306 103.44177 80.609333 83.855376 77.904358 100.50104 82.778344 84.53751 88.222118
106.50041 93.276463 91.679554 83.953835 114.82319 99.950782 90.280396 94.569685 98.604569 102.49074
95.782848 106.95919 105.81907 101.37727 107.88301 80.735127 109.5897 105.98705 107.95129 105.45799
118.18541 115.34702 100.00503 107.59498 102.74344 65.229897 110.58164 90.975821 94.770158 83.590741
IQ 32 IQ 33 IQ 34 IQ 35 IQ 36
92.937308 101.89799 90.256083 77.65358 121.60763
100.1137 103.682 104.85606 123.42894 90.859419
110.27683 79.047153 110.16794 89.227506 97.48116
110.06776 85.099545 88.960555 126.5114 121.00089
110.16241 94.947107 92.095844 77.738428 98.547686
90.221772 102.78063 97.631587 104.56809 93.523788
117.48223 69.638667 86.243435 145.50759 121.78699
101.00928 101.98502 129.98516 103.06111 84.231824
105.8719 69.614185 82.671084 88.787572 112.18634
77.075311 115.20168 75.3615 80.163851 91.362015
98.30555 116.06685 89.936459 81.351047 114.54339
109.52443 117.72937 97.938896 87.684873 96.401659
123.90967 100.58985 93.595644 104.84785 112.77834
94.188889 95.134574 90.005844 115.00915 98.646408
95.439933 98.624032 101.09247 115.4409 90.074857
135.96927 96.926671 111.1168 84.914005 128.77904
98.268927 116.57348 97.100868 113.08154 100.43019
96.113606 71.87499 106.96806 92.736251 117.33549
82.001735 92.73368 99.471162 103.17994 99.538205
115.00473 80.820826 89.052555 105.47692 104.2108
74.777353 92.607852 97.608614 93.292623 96.74272
81.781156 107.05306 74.637731 105.52786 100.24005
90.344683 106.73514 94.106419 106.16557 123.60478
76.028837 106.30004 81.664125 67.938317 105.98804
80.223032 93.544575 85.922701 122.60168 92.374337
136.32779 105.71893 105.57433 89.751869 75.375664
89.604121 83.92634 118.8695 87.370862 91.611544
107.09186 86.1621 100.1246 95.489054 81.583067
103.2067 90.446062 119.03911 101.18083 86.428333
127.71163 80.397238 133.8186 110.21366 108.7695
82.465007 82.151048 100.38421 123.97663 121.6628
112.99915 105.1562 101.04356 91.636155 104.09476
106.30497 112.39392 77.773699 104.9881 96.986743
124.72632 110.28506 111.41944 111.27765 104.43698
73.771405 115.37183 107.22898 119.45585 108.01503
101.55106 84.219017 106.95957 75.248718 110.1984
113.20871 96.161884 101.23223 88.558235 92.430675
100.56773 82.685911 107.28111 119.97519 90.230388
81.332421 77.945876 100.28217 105.72412 106.53331
94.693217 114.73403 80.592665 108.69169 125.5388
85.993158 94.450958 81.671662 108.55645 93.245104
118.10639 102.16264 95.940631 90.803069 124.67376
105.31316 117.14505 112.03195 85.215594 100.67915
96.512223 106.84531 93.609594 92.873489 122.46126
109.53585 102.21467 104.70179 113.57538 114.53597
105.78584 107.73591 106.29081 82.134106 111.13036
78.081629 123.52942 93.583554 109.50586 95.076604
105.47076 114.20831 100.41673 87.427117 110.00199
84.626836 101.36808 96.379471 91.192759 107.73466
104.28298 99.356014 93.552625 112.34621 99.950467
124.30532 101.15429 101.73855 126.40948 101.61261
121.05066 126.60556 129.62871 95.127713 105.11062
80.331991 92.103266 83.179328 89.070064 114.34817
105.62299 86.162874 113.49822 94.134733 113.44618
106.69443 88.185528 79.190149 115.6702 91.802889
108.6813 98.021816 70.841921 112.02345 76.409031
108.36559 100.74012 109.3552 95.195473 75.427298
110.91949 113.33175 93.533044 117.01299 107.75533
82.020457 114.69755 91.583006 92.284572 94.305145
119.10607 84.517089 91.050047 90.85105 88.326289
128.74534 102.50561 109.68865 65.008244 96.137386
96.397704 85.408404 103.82074 99.682675 110.15058
86.849123 93.678453 87.168493 93.47379 94.405536
92.204777 110.75362 87.951103 97.620656 104.1094
112.37604 95.549672 114.23937 68.345556 104.32653
102.82796 91.803261 92.832657 95.272333 80.546721
123.59561 105.79656 101.64567 92.086747 99.461071
79.133387 78.827058 114.77806 89.432334 78.588901
73.563247 81.690906 93.239209 93.472991 77.371433
76.165913 85.281957 72.39604 84.185394 121.11098
105.18613 127.28221 112.26954 86.238715 90.370497
115.37661 69.396028 88.958248 70.741874 98.398511
91.944703 80.418297 110.69505 89.229725 93.14545
80.633113 104.62219 94.982987 120.82677 124.35055
81.27496 81.010541 98.301077 90.350494 85.263807
102.04749 95.482969 104.09265 97.943383 112.21963
90.632209 115.03746 109.63447 127.10965 106.22048
89.622386 109.79894 112.40094 117.37995 133.69947
99.224044 87.311307 109.43904 87.285803 97.936888
91.451563 113.56551 91.901702 86.976178 80.092094
93.026807 95.072818 109.0173 125.66271 74.164737
74.169358 106.36052 91.456611 101.39921 91.370582
96.299166 89.860143 134.52881 79.682828 85.247273
102.41837 102.81827 87.515192 90.527169 119.74015
73.621934 75.831503 91.745083 120.17596 125.20547
91.477742 121.03916 112.54713 105.75594 98.635875
83.531565 91.127852 91.623373 112.5548 104.96698
114.54636 64.869745 107.81553 97.080738 103.4658
97.090991 98.538697 85.86372 107.03548 81.555168
84.396479 96.594912 73.702645 101.61663 94.914515
112.21092 106.09393 93.869495 94.077596 91.258644
78.292148 118.4429 97.979114 99.063271 82.11685
80.348072 116.45098 110.79106 87.501612 107.28813
108.23888 117.13103 83.093593 81.920215 101.9417
96.666221 113.28274 109.32835 139.77499 102.45555
72.432048 75.81139 102.03613 91.011669 124.72876
116.21369 116.60625 104.69158 85.389531 95.752673
112.02798 77.363554 112.43447 105.85865 96.169193
111.0917 101.37208 97.702625 117.67402 106.65641
129.99399 93.903453 91.342989 71.080029 112.85414
A B C D E F G H I
1 800 of 1500 people Confidence Interval for Population Proportion
2 sampled prefer Democrat
3 p=Actual fraction prefer Democrat. n 1500
4 phat 0.5333 =800/1500
5 Std Error phat 0.0129 =SQRT((phat)*(1-phat)/n)
6 Lower Limit 0.5081 =SQRT((phat)*(1-phat)/n)
7 Upper Limit 0.5586 =SQRT((phat)*(1-phat)/n)
8 Margin of error 0.0252 =SQRT((phat)*(1-phat)/n)
9
10 95% Confidence interval for p
11

## 12 Lower Limit Upper Limit

13
phat-1.96(phat*(1-phat))/n).5 phat+1.96(phat*(1-phat))/n).5
Blyth Confidence Interval

n 500
alpha 0.05

## Successes Lower Upper

0 0 0.005974 0
1 5.06343E-05 0.007351 =1-(1-0.5*alpha)^(1/n)
499 0.99264939 0.999949 =(0.5*alpha)^(1/n)
500 0.99402645 1 =(alpha)^(1/n)

## Lower Limit Upper Limit

phat-1.96(phat*(1-phat))/n).5 phat+1.96(phat*(1-phat))/n).5
driven to work 500 times
without accident
95% sure chance that I do not have an accident
is between ______ and _______
=1-alpha^(1/n) success=no accident 500 successes
=1-(0.5*alpha)^(1/n) phat =1
=(1-0.5*alpha)^(1/n)
1 .994 to 1 chance of no accident
0 to .006 chance of an accident

success=accident
0 successes

(1-phat))/n).5
A B C D E F G

## Suppose we know the standard deviation of a large population of

1
uncashed checks has a standard deviation of \$100. If we want to
be 95% sure we can estimate the average size of an uncashed
check within \$20, how large a sample is needed?

## 2 n = (1.96/E)2. ESTIMATING POPULATION MEAN

3 If sample size >=.10*Population size need a different formula.

SIGMA \$100.00

ERROR \$20.00

## SAMPLE SIZE 96.04 =(1.96*SIGMA/ERROR)^2

7
of the population mean is accurate within an error amount E.
How large a sample size n is needed? Simply set the half-width of
the 95% Confidence Interval for equal to E.

## Estimating Population Proportion

9
Sample Size for Population Proportion E=.03 1067.111111 Error 0.025
10
Sample Size 1536.64 =1.96^2/(4*(D9)^2)
Suppose we want to estimate a population proportion p and be
11 95% sure our estimate of p (phat) is accurate within a given n=1.962/4E2
amount E. How large a sample size n is needed? For E =2.5% we get the usual election poll sample size of 1500.

## 12 Suppose we want to estimate the fraction of registered voters

preferring the Republican Senatorial candidate in the 2525 Texas
senatorial race. We would like our estimate to have a 95% chance
of being accurate within 3%. How large a sample is needed?

13 .
A B C D E F G H

## Let N=population size. If sample size n>=.1*Population size

2 Multiply width of Confidence interval by Finite samplesize 100
3 Correction Factor popsize 500
4 SQRT((N-n)/(N-1)) sigma 5
5 xbar 40
6
7 Need FCF because sample size is 20% of population.
8 Fortune 500 CEOS 0.8953229621 FCF 0.895323 =SQRT((popsize-samplesize)/(popsize-1))
9 sample size of 100
10 s=5 million 39.1225834972 lowerlimit \$39.12 =xbar-1.96*FC*sigma/SQRT(samplesize)
11 xbar=40 million 40.8774165028 upperlimit \$40.88 =xbar+1.96*FC*sigma/SQRT(samplesize)
12
13 WITHOUT FC FACTOR
14 lower 39.02 =xbar-1.96*sigma/SQRT(samplesize)
15 upper 40.98 =xbar+1.96*sigma/SQRT(samplesize)
A B C D E F G H I
1 Sigma=\$5 million Error 1
2 We want to be 95% sure estimate of mean N 500
3 Fortune 500 CEO sigma 5
4 salaries is accurate within \$1 million samplesizenoFC 96.04 =(1.96*sigma/Error)^2
5 Let N0= sample size from
previous formulas samplesizeFC 80.70046 =samplesizenoFC*N/(samplesizenoFC+N-1)
6 Let N = Population Size 80.70046
7 In general a more accurate sample size formula
8 is For Mean
9 N0*N/(N0+N-1) n = (1.96/E)2.
10 which is <N0 For Proportion
11 because N0>1 n=1.962/4E2