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FOREWORD

Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM), through


the cooperation and
support of various road authorities and engineering institutiorri
in Muluysia, publishes
a series of official documents on STANDARDS, SppctptcATIoNS,
GUIDELINES,
MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road engineering.
The
aim of such publication is to achieve quality and consistency in
road and highway
construction, operation and maintenance.

The cooperating bodies are:-

Public Works Department Malaysia (pWD)


Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA)
Department of Irrigation & Drainage (DID)
The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM)
The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian
Branch)

The production of such documents is carried through several


stages. At the Forum on
Technology and Road Management organized Uy fWOfnEAM
in Novemb er 1997,
Technical committee 6 Drainage was formed with the
- intention to review Arahan
Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE To DRAINAGE
DESIGN oF
ROADS' Members of the committee were drawn from
various government
departments and agencies, and from the private sector
including privltized road
operators, engineering consultants and drainage products manufacturers
and
contactors.

I
Technical Committee 6 was divided into three sub-committees to
review Arahan
Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 and subsequently produced ,GUIDELINES FoR
ROAD
DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the foll,owing vorumes:

Volume 1 - Hydrological Analysis


;
Volume 2 - Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Volume 3 - Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design
Volume 4 - Surface Drainase
Volume 5 - Subsoil Drainale

The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops during


the Fourth and Fifth
Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and 2002 reipectively. The
comments and
suggestions received from the workshop participantr *"r. reviewed
and incorporated
in the finalized documents.

ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA


46-A, Jalan Bola Tampar l3/r4, Section 13, 40100 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: 603-5513 6521 Fax:5513 6523 e_mail: ream@po=jaring.m),
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
2.1 INTRODUCTION ....."..2-I

2.2 GENERAL CRITER.IA.... ......2.1


2.2.I Drainage Survey ....;.. ....2-1
2.2.2 Site Visit ........2-2
...
2.2.2.1Topographical Features .....2-2
Characteristics
2.2.2.2 Catchment Area . . .. . ..2-2
..
2.2.2.3 Channel Characteristics .".....2-2
2.2.2.4Highwaterlnformation.... ......2-2
2.2.2.5 Existing Structures ......-.2-3
2.2.2.6Soiilnvestigation ......2-3
2.2.3 Culvertlocation ....2-3
2.2.3.1A1ignment ........2-3
2.2.3.2 Vertical Profile ....2-5
2.2.3.3 Structural Consideration... ......2-5

2.3 CULVERT TYPE SELECTION .. .,.......2-8


2.3.I Type Selection .. ."...2-8
2.3.2 Site Conditions . .....2-8
Headwater..
23.2.f Low Allowab1e ........2-8
Loading
2 .3 .2.2 Depth of Cover for Traffic ..... ..2-9
Culverts
2.3.2.3 Settlement of "..2-lO
2.3.2.4CulvertJoints ......2-I0

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN


OF CULVERT . ......2-IO
2.4.1 Hydrological Analysis ...2-10
2.4.2 Culverts
Size of ......2-I1
Procedures
2.4.2.1Design .........2-I1
.
2.4.2.2 Minimum Size .....2-lI
2.4.3 Freeboard .... ".2-12
2.4.4 Length of Culvert "...2-12
2.4.5 Skew of Culvert ......2-12
2.4.6 GradientofCulverts ...,......2-13
2.4.1 Scour and Seepage Countermeasures ..2-13
2.4.8 Flow Velocities . ..."2-I4

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 StreamRealignment.... ."..2-4


Frgure2.2 Alignment of Culvert in Embankment Across Ravine. ....2-6
Figure 2.3 Culvert Profile .........2-7
Ftgure 2"4 Scour and Seepage Protection Measures .....2-I5
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LIST OF TABLES
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Recommended Minimum Size of Cutvert


F T^yl"?l
Table 2'2 Maximum Recommended Flow Velocities (m/s) for Various
2-t1

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Conduit Materials
2-16
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LIST OF REFERENCES
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.
2-17
ii^ APPENDIX 1
*j Reprint of Chapter 27 : Curverts, urban stormwater
Management Manual for Malaysia
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VOLUME 2.0 - HYDR.AULIC DESIGN OF CULVER.TS

2.I INTRODUCTION

The primary purpose of culverts is to convey water under a roadway. They may
also be used to restrict flow so that a controlled amount of water is discharged
while the upstream basin of the stream channel is used for detention storage. In
road embankments, which traverse across val1eys, culverts are used to convey
water from a hisher levei to a lower level.

In1et, outiets and joints must be carefully designed so as noi to obstruct smooth
flow of the water. Attention must be paid in detailing of joints to ensure no
leakage occurs because it can endanger the embankment integrity by way of
washout of the soil mass.

The design of culverts involves hydraulic and structural design. This volume wi.ll
only discuss the hydraulic design of culverts. The method used is generally
adopted from the publication "Chapter 27 - CULVERT, Urban Stormwater
Management Manual for Malaysia" published by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran
(JPS), copy of which is reproduced here as Appendix 1.

2.2 GENERAL CRITERIA

2.2.1 Drainage Survey

The design of a culvert begins with the drainage survey. Before the drainage
survey is carried out, the designer should check with JPS or the local authorities
whether past survey plans are available.

If a drainage survey needs to be carried out, it is suggested that the designer first
of all estimate the design discharge. If the estimated design discharge exceeds 30
cumec for a 50 years recurrence interval, the survey should cover a minimum of
200 metres upstream and downstream from the centre line of the proposed or
existing culvert to obtain:

a) sufficient channel cross sections,


b) the streambed profile and existing water levels,
c) the horizontal alignment of the existing sffeam channel,
d) invert levels and crown ievels of any existing culvert, and
11
e) highest flood levels.
The site survey should be carried out to the extent sufficient for the proper
location and design of the culvert.

2.2.2 Site Visit

A site visit by the designer is a must to determine on site information,


such as
topographic features, catchment area, channel characteristic, highwater
information and existing structures should be noted, as it can be useful in
the
hydraulic design.

2.2.2.1 Topographical Features


-t

Features such as residential and commercial buildings, croplands, roadways, the


-i I
lay of the ground and utilities can influence the location of the culvert as it
determines the direction and velocity of the flow. Therefore their elevation and
-l location should be obtained.
I

2.2.2.2 Catchment Area Characteristics


I
The designer should take note of features such as lakes, land usage, type and
I i
density of vegetation and any man-made changes or development such as dams,
because these factors could alter run-off.

Future landuse plans of the catchment should be obtained, if available, to


study
the effects of future landuse changes on run-off and where necessary
i these effects
should be taken into consideration in the culvert desisn.

2.2.2.3 Channel Characteristics

Physical characteristics of the existing stream channel such as, type of soil or rock
in the streambed, the bank condition and amount of drift, and debris should also
be noted as these factors could affect the durability of the culvert material used
and the sizing of the culvert.

2.2.2.4 Highwater Information

Highwater information which may be obtained from observation of the high water
mark, local residents or Jps can be used to check results of flood estimating

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procedures, establish highway grade 1ines, to locate hydraulic controls, and to
check backwater effects arisine from the construction of the new culvert.

2.2.2.5 Existine Structures

Considerable importance should be placed on the hydraulic performance of


existing structures, some distance upstream or downstream from the proposed
culvert site, which can be helpful in the design.

Useful data of existins structures includes:

i) date of construction,
ii) performance during past floods,
iii) scour indicated near the structures,
iv) highwater elevation with datum and dates of occurrence, and
v) structurai conditions of the structure.

2.2.2.6 Soil Investisation

Sub-soil investigation should be carried out to the extent required for the design
of the culvert and soil characteristics should be obtained for design of settlement
and protection against soil erosion.

2.2.3 Culvert Location

Culvert location refers to the horizontai alignment and vertical profile with
respect to both roadway and stream. A proper location is important because, it
affects hydraulics, the adequacy of the opening, maintenance of the culvert and
possible washout of the roadway.

2.2.3.I Alignment

The first consideration of culvert location is to place it in the natural channel to


give the stream a direct entrance and a direct exit. Where this is not possible, a
direct inlet and outlet can be obtained by means of channel diversion, a skewed
culvert alignment or both. Realignment of the natural channel should be designed
properly so as to avoid erosion on the concave side of the channel and siltation on
the inner side of the bend. Where following the original channei would result in a
very long and skewed road crossing, a cheaper and practical option is to construct
a stream realignment, see Figure 2.1 for illustration.
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Sharp bends in existing stream and new stream diversion, where channel erosion
is likely, should be avoided in the location of culvert.. Where this is unavoidable
then the sharp bends should be iined to minimise the adverse effects of erosion.

The second consideration of culvert iocation is to exercise reasonable precautions


to prevent the stream from changing its course near the end of the culvert. The
use of sumps paving or gabions will help protect the banks from eroding and
changing the channel course.

In hilly and mountainous areas washout of embankment fill materials in ravines is


a cornmon occurrence dr,rring construction. To help protect the environment and
minimise embankment material washout, leading to consequential siltation of
downstreain reaches,a culvert in a ravine shoulC be aligned. such that the
upstream end catches the stream flow directly. The culvert barrel should be
aligned such that its foundation is laid on original ground as much as possible'
The outlet end requires a cascading concrete channel or suitable energy
dissipating structure or chute to convey the flow safely to natural downstream
water course beyond the toe of the embankment. The culvert and its end
connections could be constructed prior to earth filling operation of the ravine to
reduce erosion of the embankment, see Figure 2.2 for iilustration.

2.2.3.2 Vertical Profile

Most culvert locations approximate the natural streambed. Modified culvert


slopes other than that of the natural stream are sometimes used to improve
hydraulic performance of the culvert, shorten the culvert or reduce structural
requirements, see Figure 2.3.

The inlet and outlet levels of a culvert should be the same as that of the existing
channel and the profile of the existing channel should not be modified wherever
possible. This could be achieved by the provision of drop sumps spillways and
flow transition sections. Any abrupt change in grades between the culvert and the
existing channel should be avoided to prevent sedimentation and scouring.

2.2.3.3 Structural Consideration

The culvert should be structuraliy adequate to carry all the imposed vertical and
lateral loads and soil pressures. Laying of culverts should be in accordance to
design requirements, site conditions and manufacturer'S specifications.

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(o) nruttCtPATlNG SEDIMENTATION
(b) CHANGE FROM CHANNEL GRADE MAY
CAUSE SEDIMENTATION OR EROSION

PAVING OR OTHER
OPEN SPILLWAY

(c) CULVERT PLACED BILOW PROPIR GRADE


WATERWAY IS REDUCTD

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GASION UATTRESS

(e) HTLLSIDE GRADES. EROSION PR (f)


(f) CANTTLTVER EXTINSTON

NOTE:

I. PROPER CUL\RT GRADE IS ESSENThL FOR THE PROPER FUNTIONING OF THE SIRUCTURE

2. rN FiALF CUl H LF FrtL (d), (f) rHE CUL\GRT SHOULD BE LAlo ON UNIFORM BEDoINC
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XATERIAL FOR THE WHOLE LENGTH, TO UINIMIZE DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT

3, DIFFERENThL STTLEMENT SHOULD 8E CONSIOERED IN THE DESIGN OF THE CULVERT STRUCTURE

FIGURE 2.3 : CULVTRT PROFILt

2-l
tl CULVERT TYPE SELECTION

2.3.1 Type Selection

Types of culverts commonly used


in this country are as follows:

a) precast reinforced concrete pipes


(refer M.S. gg1: part 1, part
3:1991),
2 and.part
b) precast reinforced concrete
box culverts (refer M.s. 1293 : part 1
c) reinforced concrete cast-in-situ box (refer
: r99z),
M.s. 11g5:1gg5), and
d) culvert of other material approved
by relevant authorities.

culvert type selection includes the choice


of materiai, shape, cross section and
the
number of culvert barrels that will
best fit the waterway of the channel
or stream.

The following factors shourd be


considered in any cuivefi type serection:

a) design discharge,
b) site conditions,
c) design life,
d) construction period,
e) construction joints, and
0 blockage due to floating debris from
upstream.

If the design discharge exceeds 60 cumecs


based on a 50 years recurrence
-l interval, consideration should
be given to using a bridge structure
taking into
account the site constraints and
economic factors.

2.3.2 Site Conditions

2.3.2.1 Low Allowable Headwater

Headwater is the water depth at the


inlet of the culvert. Multiple cells culverts
have to be used at places where
-l the headwater should be kept low
to get the water
through quickly without ponding
I
or flooding of the land upstream. In
plain where there is no well-defined
flat flood
local flow path multiple culverts spread
over
the width of the flood plain may
be more effective than a single large
culvert.

2-8
The designer should also take note of the amount of debris in the channel. In
areas where solid waste is a problem, trash screen with bypass should
be provided

a distance upstream of the culvert entrance to prevent clogging of the culvert


barrel.

a) Reinforced Concrete PiPe

When two or more pipes are used, the pipes should be separated by a clear
distance of about 0.3m to 0.9m to allow space for thorough compaction of
backfilling, which is essential to the side support to prevent collapse of the
pipes due to unequal surcharge loading. Backfilling between pipe barrels
shouid be with well-graded sancl. Proper headwalis and wing walls should
be provided to prevent washouts of the sand back fill. Concrete backfill
and haunching may be used in high fill areas where strength is required,
and where the founding soii is soft and weak'

b) Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Multiple cells precast reinforced concrete box culvert should be laid


without a gap between the culverts walls to provide less overall
obstruction to the flow of water.

Precast box culverts are normally manufactured with butt ends. To


prevenr wash-in of fine particles from surrounding soil the butt joints
should be wrapped all round with suitable drainage geotextile.

The usage of multiple cells culverts should be considered with due care:

if clogging by debris is very evident then multiple cells culverts should be


o
avoided, and

o where siltation of cells at the sides of the main cell is very likely then
adoption of multiple ceils culverts should also be avoided.

2.3.2.2 Depth of Cover for Traffic Loading

The minimum cover over the crown of culverts to the road pavement formation
level is normally dictated by traffic load and structural capacity of the culvert.

2-9 i
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-1,
a) Reinforced Concrete pipe

The minimum cover is 0.4m. If the cover is ress


than 0.4m, the pipes
should be concrete encased. pipes of higher strength
can arso be used but
it would cost more. Reinforced concrete pipe below road pavement
sharl
have adequate structural strength to carry traffic
load.

b) Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Precast reinforced concrete box culverts are


designed to withstand direct
traffic loading. The minimum cover however is
0.1m.

R.einforced Concrete Cast-in-Situ Box

It can be designed structurally to withstand direct traffic


loadins.

2.3.2.3 Settlement of Culverts

when culverts are liable to settle due to a high fi1l,


or poor ground condition pipes
should be selected which can withstand the anticipated
unequal settlement.
Reinforced concrete pipe can withstand anticipated
unequal settlement provided
rubber ring spigot and socketjoints are used.

2.3.2.4 Culvert Joints

In cast-in-situ box culverts movement joints should


be provided at appropriate
longitudinal intervals. The movement joints
should be watertisht and detaiied to
prevent wash in of backfill material.

For precast box culverts all joints should be wrapped round


with non-woven
geotextile to prevent wash-in of backfill material.

2.4 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN HYDRAULIC


DESIGN OF CULVERT

2.4.1 Hydrological Analysis

Please refer to Volume 1 Hydrological Analysis


-
I

i
I 2-rc
2.4.2 Size of Culverts

2.4.2.1 Design Procedures

The hydraulic calculations of culverts shall be in accordance to the design


procedures and worked examples as described in Chapter 27 CULYERT of
"IJrban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia".

2.4.2.2 Minimum Size

For the purpose of maintenance, the minimum size of a culvert is related to the
length of the culvert even if the flow to be conveyed is much lesser than the
discharge capacity of the culvert. The recommended rninimum sizes of culverts
are as shown in Table 2.1.

Where there is a high possibility of accumulation of debris in the culvert, some


reserve in cross sectional area is necessary i.e. the pipe size should be larger than
the required hydraulically adequate size. If an embankment with a culvert is
located on soft ground, some reserve area may aiso be necessary to compensate
for a possible loss in cross sectional area due to long term settlement.

Table 2.1: Recommended Minimum Size of Culvert

Length of Culvert (m) Minimum Diameter or lleight of


Culvert (m)

<12 1.0

12-18 t.2
>19 1.5

At private access road crossing of roadside drainage, to reduce depth of


downstream roadside drainage channel, the culvert size for the access road may
not have to be in accordance to those in Table 2.I,blt it should be hydraulically
adequate to convey the roadside drainage runoff and compatible with the roadside
channel and shall not be less than 0.6m diameter.

11
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/.-+._) Freeboard

Freeboard is the vertical distance from the water surface to


the road formation
level. For culverts, the design water surface leve1 should not be above the road
formation level.

For high embankments, when the water level at the inlet


exceeds 1.0m above the
crown of culvert, the designer must check the stability
of the whole embankment
against the fluctuations of pore water pressure.

2.4.4 Length of Culvert

The required length of a culvert depends on:

a) width of the carriageway,


b) height of fill over the culvert,
slope of embankment,
d) slope and skew of the culvert, and
e) type of end finish such as headwall, bevelled end, drop inlet,
transition/tapers or spillway.

The length of culvert needed can be obtained by sketching out the


cross section of
the road embankment along the alignment of the culvert.

I 2.4.5 Skew of Culvert

I a) When the road alignment crosses an existing channel at an


oblique angle,
-l as far as possible, the channel should be diverted so that the
culverr
intersects the road at nearly right angles. It is uneconomical to build
' longer culverts due to its skewness. However, it is not desirable either to
I divert the channel in an abrupt manner to achieve a right angle crossing,
especially, if it is a very rapid flowing stream.
I
b) The headwall of skew culverts should be aligned parallel to the
roadway
centreline. For traffic safety, the headwall should be located a minimum
of 4m, away from the edge of the traffic lane.

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2.4.6 Gradient of Culverts

The gradient of a culvert is dictated by the minimum and maximum allowable


flow velocities in the culvert. The minimum gradient is the flattest allowable to
minimise deposition and accumulation of silts in the culvert, and the maximum
gradient is the steepest allowable to control flow velocities to a level not
exceeding the scouring resistance of the culvert material:

Minimum gradient = 1:600


Maximum gradient = 1:100

Generally gradients of 1:200 to 1:300 are used for ease of laying and minirnurn
velocity requirements.

2.4.1 Scour and Seepage Countermeasures

The inlet and outlet ends of the culvert should be protected against scour,
particularly at the outlet end where design flow velocities have been raised above
previous natural stream velocities.

Countermeasures would include rip-rap placed beyond the outlet end or the
provision of energy dissipating devices such as baffle-apron, drop spillway,
cascading drop, etc.

Seepage in the direction of culvert flow, in the soil mass around the culvert, could
lead to wash-out of fine material, leading to undermining of the cuivert
bedding
and side support and eventual failure of the structure. This problem could
be
minimised by the provision of an impervious bedding and embankment at the
inlet end and concrete anti-seepage collar.

Seepage and wash-in of fine material through the joints of precast culvert units
couid be reduced by wrapping the joints with suitable geotextile drainage fabric.
Suitable water-stop should also be provided in movement joints of cast-in-situ
box culverts.

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some erosion and seepage countermeasures are illustrated in Fisure
2.4.

When the drop in level from the culvert outlet to the receiving natural stream
invert is more than 1 m then considerations should be given to the provision
of
energy dissipators as described in Chapter 29 .,Urban
- Special Structures of
Stormwater Manage Manual for Malaysia',.

2.4.8 Flow Velocities

The flow velocities at the inlet, barrel and outlet of the culvert, are generally
not
the same. The inlet approach velocity, vi, is normally low and would
not cause
scouring problem of the embankment material at the inlet. The culvert barrel
velocity, Vc, should not exceed the scouring velocity of the culvert mateial, and
to minimise silting it should not be less than the self-cleansing velocitv.

The allowable outlet velocity can vary to prevent scouring the soil
type of the
downstream receiving channel. For a rough guide of permissible
velocities of
different conduit materials, Table 2.2 canbe used. If the outlet velocity
is greater
than the permissible velocity, consideration should be siven to:

a) reducing the slope of the culvert,


b) increasing the size of culvert, and
c) protecting the receiving channel by lining or providing an energy
dissipator at the culvert outlet.

In all cases' however, a concrete apron shall be provided at the


inlet and outlet
end to prevent scouring.

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Table 2.22 Maximum Recornrnended FIow velocities (m/s)


For Various Conduit Materials

Precast Concrete Pioes 8.0


Precast Box Culverts
8.0
In Situ Concrete and Hard packed Rock (300mm min) 6.0
Beaching or Boulders (250mm min)
5.0
Stones (150 - l00mm) 3.0 -2.5
Grass Covered Surfaces
1.8
Stiff, Sandy Clav 1.3 - 1.5
Coarse Gravel 1.3 - 1.8
Coarse Sand 0.5 - 0.7
Fine Sand 0.2 - 0.5

To reduce maintenance the flow velocities in culverts shall be as follows:

Minimum Self Cleansing velocity (to prevent siltation)


= 0.7 m/s
Maximum velocity (to limit scouring)
= 3 m/s

-i I

I
I
i
,

2-16
LIST OF REFERENCES

LOCAL PUBLICATIONS
Jabatan Pensairan Dan Saliran (JPS)
1. Hydrological Procedure No. 4
- Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in peninsurar Malaysia (19g7)

2. Hydrological Procedure No. 10


- Stage Discharge Curves (I976)

3. Hydrological Procedure No. 11


- Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular
Malaysia

4. Hydrological Procedure No. 19


- The Determination of Suspended Sedirnent Discharge

5. Hydrological Procedure No. 5


- Rational Method of Flood Estimation for Rural Catchments

6. Hydrological Procedure No. 1


- Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in Peninsular Malaysia (1982)

7. Hydrological Procedure No. 16


- Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in peninsular Malaysia

8. Planning and Design Procedure No. 1


- urban Drainage Design Standards and procedures for peninsular Malaysia

9. Garispaduan Untuk Memproses Permohonan dan Menetapkan Syarat-syarat Bagi


Jambatan dan Lintasan

10. Urban Stormwater Management Manual fbr Malaysia

Jabatan Keria Rava (.TKR)


i 1. Intermediate Guide to Drainage Design of Roads
- Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/91

1?. Terms of Reference for Survey works and Digital Ground Modelling.

2-17
t,-
I
'vi
t

i
!
j
I

:
l
i

US PUBLICATIONS

1. Hydraulic Design Series No. 2


- Highway Hydrology (Sept 1996)
FHWA_SA_96_061

2. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22


- Urban Drainage Design Manual (Nov. 1996)
FHWA_SA_96-078
(us DoT FHA)

3. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14


- Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
(Sept. 1983)
(us Dor FHA)

4. Hydraulic Design Series No. 5


- Hydraulic Design of Highway Cuvlerts (Sept. 19g5)
FHWA-IP_85_15
(us DoT FHA)

2-18
APPENDTX 1

Chapter 27

Culverts

Acknowledgement

The permission granted by Jabatan pengairan dan


Saliran to REAM to
publish the whole of this chapter of Urban Stormwater
Management
Manual for Malaysia is gratefully acknowledged.

REAM
T

isclaimer

ery effort and care has been taken in selecting methods and recommendations that are appropriate to Malaysian
nditions. Notwithstanding these efforts, no warranty or guarantee, express, implied or statutory is made as to the
curacy, reliability, suitability or results of the methods or recommendations.

re use of this Manual reguires professional interprebtion and judgement. Appropriate design procedures and assessment
'lst be applied, to suit the pafticular circumstances under consideration.

re government shall have no liability or responsibility to the user or any other person or entity with respect to any liability,
s or damage caused or alleged to be caused, direcily or indiredy, by the adoption and use of the methods and
:ommendations of this Manual, including but not limited to, any interruption of service, loss of business or anticipatory
cfits, or consequential damages resulting from the use of this Manual.

2000 by JPS Malaysia.

rala Lumpur, Malaysia

I rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
rm the publisher.

'inted in Malaysia

t
-1
i

27 e3LwffiR?s

27't INTR'oDUcrIoN
""""""" ................27-r
27.2 DESTGN CONSTDEMTTONS............
.....................27-1
27.2.t Headwater...
...27-t
27.2.2 Culvert in p|an.........
...................27 -r
27.2.3 profi1e,.........
Verticat
..........27-2
27.2.4 Muttipte Ceils............
..........27_2
27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Cr:hyerts...
..."........27_2
27.2.6 Culverts in Flat Terrain
........27-z
27.2.7 Site Investigation.....,.......
...27-3
27.2.8 Safety..........
...27_4
27.2.9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device
...........27_4
27.2.10 Design Documentation.................
..........27_4
27.3 HYDRAUUCS
................27_5
27.3.t General........
...27_s
27.3.2 Control at In1et........
...........?7_s
27.3.3 Control at Ouflet......
...........27-6
27.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE.
,..27-g
27.5 COtvtpuTER MODELUNG
..................27_t2
27.6 DEBRIS CONTROL
.........27_12
27.6.I General........
...27_12
27.6.2 Freeboard
.......27_t3
27.6'3 Design Precautions
.............27_t3
27.6.4 Relief Culvert
."27_t3
27.6.5 Debris Conkolstructures
....27-13
27.7 CULVERT END TREATMENT.............
.27-t3
27.7.I Introduction.
...27_!3
27.7.2 Typical End Treatments...............
...........27_13
27.8 FLow vELocITY
..........27-t3
27.8.1 Inlet Control.
...27_13
27.8.2 Outlet Controt .................
....z7_L4
27.8.3 Erosion of Conduit
...............27_!4
27.8.4 Scour at In1ets...........
.........27_L4
27.8.5 Scour at Ouilets
.................27_tq
27.8.6 Siltation
..........27-L5

i
:it Urban Stormwater Management Manual
,l
-.-*.dL 27-i
Cutverts

tnl
tlt

lul
-.:1,
27.9
ul
riig

ht

hat
is
27.10 MINIMUM ENERGY CULVERTS... ....... 27-18
APPENDIX 27.A DESIGN FORM, CHARTS AND NOMOGRAPHS .......,.....27-2I 27
APPENDIX 27.8 WORKED EGMPLE ............ 27-35
,t
?7.8.t Pipe Culvert (Inlet Control) ................ ....27-35
27.8.2 Box Culvert (Inlet Control) ................. ....27-36 ^.n'
at
27.A3 Pipe Culvert (Outlet Control) ..................27-37 -3el

27.8.4 Box Culveft (Outlet Control) .........."........ 27-37 cul

27.8.5 Minimum Energy Culvert.......". ............... 27-38 'h

tht
sl
ft
le
qK
hr
- -Je
in(

I ll

av
Cir
1C

-be
let
lh
I

'f

Pr
o!
cl'
m
I It

ts
th

m
ol

u
1/-ll lltfut Stumwater l4anagement Manual
i
- ;f--
-l
.1

CulverE

27.T IruTRCDI.'CTTON attenuate flood peaks downstream"


If deep ponding is
considered, the consequences of
scour at the outlet
and
This chapter provides. guidance on the catastrophic failure of the embankment
hydrauric design of should be
culverts, culvert end treatment, the design investigated. When culverts are installed
protection, debris contror and an introduction
of scour under high
to improved embankments, an appropriate invegrigation
culvert inlets. The procedures for the hydraulic
shourd be
deiign of made to evaluate the risk of a larger iood occurring
culverts are ..Hydraulic or
based on Oeiign of Highway blockage of the culverts by debris.
-
Culverts', Hydraulic Engineering Circular ru-o S (US Federal
Highway Administration, 19g5). 27.2.2 Culvert in plan
The emphasis in this Chapter is on Ideally, a culvert should be placed
the design of culverts in the natural channel
for urban stormwater.drainage. Highway (Figure 27.1.). A culvert in
authorities may this location is usuaily aligned
have different or additional requirements, with flow and little structural excavation
which are not and channel work
discussed herein. are required at the inlet and outlet,
especially for shorter
culverts. In the case, where rocation in
the natural
2V.2 DESIGNCONSIDERATTONS channel would require an inordinately
long culvert, some
stream reafignment may be required (FigieZT.Z).
Such
modification to reduce skew and shorten
27.2.L Headwater iulverts should be
carefully designed, environmental concerns
for stream
velocity, flow depth and factors important
Any culvert that constricts the natural
stream flow will to the stream
ecosystem, and hydraulic concerns for
cause a rise in the upstream water surface.
The total flow
stream bed and
depth in the stream measured from the bank stability make it advisable not to
undertake channel
culvert inlet is termed headwater.
invert of the modifications unless there is no practical
alternative.

Culvert skew should not generaiiy exceed


The available headwater will depend
on the topography of 45 degrees
measured from a line perpendicular
the site and the vertical road profile in
ieiation to that to the roaclway
centreline. if the skew is greater than 45
topography. In flat or undurating country degrees special
or where a high consideration needs to be given to
standard vertical road profile is used the hydraulic efficiency
the
available of the wingwalls.
headwater may be limited by the height
of the surrounding
ground or the elevation at which
the road formation cuts culvert alignments square to the road centrerine
through the hydraulic Arade line. Raised are not
levee banks may recommended where severe or abrupt changes
be necessary to maintain the headwater
depth required as
in channel
alignment are reguired upstream or downiream
indicated in Section 27.2.6. of the
culvert. Small radius bends are subject to erosion
on the
The most economical culveft is one which
utilise all of the lon:ave bank and deposition on the inside of the bend.
Such changes, upstream of the culverts, result
available headwater to pass the design discharge, in poor
since the alignment of the approach flow to the culvert
discharge increases with increasing head. with resuiting
However, it is loss of hydraulic efficiency, subject the
not always possible to utilise all of the available embankment to
headwater, erosion and increase the probability of
because of constraints, which limit deposition in the
the upstream water culvert cell. Abrupt changes in channel alignment
level. Selection of the design headwater
therefore, on consideration of the following
shoutO be based downstream of culverts may also cause erosion or
factors : deposition of material in adjacent properties.
. Limits on bachlrater resulting from the presence of
buildings upstream and/or the inundation
of
agricultural land.
. The outlet velocity and the potential for scour.

Potential damage to adjacent property or


inconvenience to
owners should be of primary concem in
the design of all
culverts. Expensive court cases and resultant
compensation
may result if property owner,s rights are neglected.
In
urban areas, the potential for damage
to adjacent propefi
is greater, because of the number inO
value of properties
that can be affected.

Culvert installation under high embankments


in rural areas
may present the design engineer with an
opportunity to
adopt a high headwater and allow ponding"upstream
to Figure 27.1 Culvert Located in Natural Channel

l Urban Stormwater Management Manual


i 27-t
,-:i---&
Cu/verB

I
I
Channel Change

v
-[

I

(
(
Altemate Cutvert Location
r

Relocated Ctannel J\
A Channel ChanEe

Recommended Not Recomrnended

Figure 27.2 Methods of Culvert Location in the Natural Channel to avoid an Inordinately Long Culvert

2V.2.3 Vertical Profile 27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Culverts


Most longitudinal culvert profiles should approximate the Changed landuse, such as urbanisation upstream from an
natural stream bed. Other profiles may be chosen for existing crossing may increase the magnitude of flooding
either economic or hydraulic reasons. Modified culvert and necessitate increasing the culvert capacity to
slopes, or slopes other than that of the natural stream, can accommodate additional flow without exceeding a given
be used to prevent stream degradation, minimise t-
headwater elevation. Before deciding that the culvert has
sedimentation, improve the hydraulic peformance of the to be replaced by a larger structure, (assuming relief flow
culvert, shoften the culvert, or reduce structural is not feasible), the possibility of improving the inlet of the
requirements, Modified slope can also cause stream existing culvert should be investigated (see Section 27.9
erosion and deposition. Slope alterations should, for details of improved inlet culverts).
therefore, be given special attention to ensure that
detrimental effects do not result from the change. 27.2.6 Culverts in FlatTerrain
Channel changes often result in culverts being shorter and In flat terrain, drainage channels are often ill-defined or
steeper than the natural channel. A modified culvert slope non-existent and culverts should be located and design for
can be used to achieve a flatter gradient to prevent least disruption of the existing flow conditions. In these
channel degradation. Figure 27.3 illustrates possible locations multiple culverts can be considered to have a
culveft profiles. common headwater elevation, although this will not be
precisefy so. Figure27.4 illustrates a design technique
27.2.4 Multiple Cells that can be used to determine the combined capacity of
multiple culverts with different invert levels and capacities.
It is impoftant to select a culvert shape that will best fit the The total discharge at any point of the headwater elevation
watenany of the channel or stream. In narrow deep for culverts 1 and 2, on FigureZ7.4, is the sum of the
channels, a small number of large diameter pipes or box discharges Ql and Q2.
culverts are usually appropriate. In flat areas having no
well defined watenray the flood may be larger in volume, In flat terrain it may be necessary to construct levee
but of shallow depth. A number of separate culverts banks, as shown on Figure 27.5, to achieve the design
spread over the width of the flooded area may be more headwater at the culvert location. This is only possible if
appropriate for these conditions. there is no danger of increased flooding of upstream
properties. Therefore, approval of the local drainage
Special consideration should be given to multiple cell Authority must be obtained prior to construction of any
culveds where the approach flow is of high velocity, such levee bank.
particularly if supercritical. These sites are best suited to a
single cell or special inlet treatment to avoid adverse
hydra u lic j ump effects.

27-2 tJrban Stormwater Management Manual


't
-.--.,=d,.
27.2.7 Site trnvestigatlon
irnportani buildings upstream, such as
houses, commercial
property, roads or railways should
A site investigation must be carried out be recorded, if_tney are
at each proposed likely to be affected by backwater
culvert site. The extent and complexity
of the invesUgation
will depend on the size, importance and
cost of the At, sites where the stage-discharge curve may have to
proposed culvert, site conditions,
the height of the calculated by the srope Area l.rettroc,
be
embankment and the loading that will be imposed as is often the case
on the in urban.or developing areas and for all
foundation material and on the culvert itself. major culverts, the
survey should include a cross_section
of the channel and
floodplain and a water surface profile
Survey information should be sufficient to permit the extending a sufficient
distance upstream and downstream
culvert to be located in plan and profile
and should include longitudinal siream gradient.
to est Otirn tf,e
relevant physical features. In flat
terrain the elevation of

I
Streambed l-ma$on

Deposftion
R epred r-tF...-
Use Chute

Rffi
Where Necessary

Stable Channel Gradient

Degndlng Channel

Figure 27.3 possible Culvert profiles

Perfonnance Curve Perbrmance Curve Cornbind Performance Curve


Culvert 1 Cutuert 2 Cuh/eft 1 plus Culvert 2

Discfiarge Dlsdrarge ToblDisdrarge (er = er + ez )

Figure 27 '4 Stage-Dixharge Curue for Multiple Cutverts with Different


invert Levels

Urfun Sbrmwater lvlanagement


Manual
27-3
Culverts

Levee Bank b Maintain Design Headwater


- Shculd be Extended Far Enough Out
fiom Embankment to Match Nahrnl Surface. Zt

!I
cc
ut
'r)

It

TI
w
n
a(
Figure 27.5 Development of Headwater
di
5t
In scour prone areas, soil characteristics should be considered to prevent entry. However, this may cause lc
assessed to enable stream protection strategies to be blockages and reduce the efficiency of the culvert. d
formulated. The design engineer should also know the _d
nature of the subsoil material underlying the stream bed, 27,2"9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device
unless it is obvious that it is sound bed-rock or other
material, which will not cause foundation problems. As stream flow records for small catchments are very
Detailed foundation investigations should be carried out for scarce, any reliable supplementary data gathered during or
all large culverts, unless it is certain that thev will be after major floods are of considerable value. A convenient
founde on sound bed-rock. way of deriving such data is to measure high water marks
at culverts after major floods and then to estimate the
27.2.8 Safety actual flood flows, which pass through the culvert (see
Section 27.4). The calculated discharge can then be
Traffic safety - An exposed culveft end (projecting from related to the catchment characteristic and used to verifo
the plane of the batters) acts as an unyielding obstruction, or improve existing runoff estimation methods. Careful
which is likely to bring an out of control vehicle to an identification and measurement of high water marks is
abrupt stop, causing considerable damage to the vehicle essential and should be carried out as soon as possible
and high deceleration forces on the occupants. after the flood, before the evidence disappears.

Where a road safety barrier is not provided, culvert ends 27 .2.1O Design Documentation
should be designed so that they will not present an
obstruction to vehicles running off the road. This can be Records of culveft designs should be retained for at least
achieved by covering exposed sides with fill, providing the lives of the culverts. The amount and detail of
headwalls or wingwalls which will not present an documentation should be related to the importance of the
obstruction, or mitrering culveft ends flush with the structure. The following data would normally be retained
embankment surface. for large culverts:

The location of culvert ends placed flush with the


. Field notes and data
embankment slope should be indicated by markers to . Site plan, profiles and cross-sections
reduce hazards to equipment operators and others. High . Soildata
culverts in populated areas should be fenced whenever r Summary of calculations
oossible.
. Design flood frequency

The hazard presented by culverts under private and side- . Headwater depth
road entrances should be minimised by placing them as far . Outlet velocity
as practicable from the roadway and avoiding the use of r Culvert drawings
headwalls.
. Rationale for culvert choice
Child safety - Culverts can also be an attradion for . Photographs of site and developments, if there is a
adventurous and inquisitive children. At locations where possibility of future claims resulUng from the hydraulic
long culverts could a hazard, especially in urban areas, performance of the culvert.
fencing, swing gates or grates at upstream ends should be . Flood data observed during and after construction of
the culvert.

274 utban Stcrmwater Management Manual


j,
-'!

Culverts

2V.3 STYDRAT.Ii_ICS For the two fypes of control, different factors and formulae
are used to calculate the hydraulic capacity of b cutuert.
2V,3.L General Under inlet control, the cross-sectional area of the culvert
cell, the inlet geometry and the amount of headwater or
The flow hydraulics in the culvert is normally either under ponding at the entrance are of primary importance. Ouilet
condition of full flow in closed conduit or part full flow control involves the additional consideration of the
under uniform flow or non-uniform flow. The fundamental elevation of the tailwater in the outlet channel and the
hydraulic principles under these two flow conditions were slope, roughness and length of the culvert cell.
described in Chapter 12.
2V,3.2 Contnol at Inlet
The most irnportant consideration in culvert hydraulics is
whether the flow is subject to inlet or ouflet control. For cul.reds subjeC to inlet control, the important factors
Figures 27.6 and 27.7 show the range of flow types are entrance conditions, including the entrance type,
commonly encountered in culverts. For inlet control two existence and angle of headwalls and wingwalls and the
distinct regimes exist, depending on whether the inlet is projection of the culvert into the headwater pond.
submerged or not submerged. Outlet control occurs in
long culverts, laid on flat grades and with high tailwater For one dimensional flow, the theoretical relation between
depths. In designing culverts, the type of control is discharge and upstream energy can be computed by an
determined by the greater of the headwater depths iterative process or by the use of nomographs.
calculated for both inlet control and outlet control.

A. Projecting End - Unsubmerged Inlet

B. Projecting End - Submerged Inlet

C. Mitred End - Submerged Inlet

Figure 27.6 Flow Profiles for Culvert under Inlet Control

Urban Stomwater Management Manual 77-5


- ..-3
Inlet control can occrJr with the inlet submerged and the rt2
outlet not submerged (Figure 27.6). Sketches of inlet '29 (27.2) !.ll

control flow for both unsubmerged and subrnerged


-Lt
projecting ntrances are shown on Figure 27.6(a) and
where /is the mean velocity in the culvert cell and g is the
27.6(b). Figure 27.6(c) shows a mitred entrance flowing
acceleration due to gravity. The mean velocity is the
submerged with inlet control. Under inlet control, the flow
discharge, Q divided by the cross-sectional area .4 of the
contracts to a supercritical jet immediately downstream
cell.
from the inlet. When the tail water depth exceeds critical
TI
depth f. and the culvert is laid on a steep grade, flow
The entrance loss is expressed as,
remains supercritical in the cell and a hydraulic jump will
form near the outlet. If the culvert is laid on a slope less
than critical, then a hydraulic jump will form within the (27.3)
culveft. '"=f.#
In inlet control the roughness and length of the culvert cell The entrance loss coefficient, K" , depends on the inlet
and the outlet conditions (including depth of tail water) are geometry primarily through the effect it has on contraction
not factors in determining culvert capacity. An increase in of the flow. Values of K. determined from experiment,
the slope of culvert reduces headwater only to a small range from 0.2 for a well rounded entrance, through 0.5
degree and can normally be neglected for conventional for a square edged inlet in a vertical headwall to 0.9 for a
culvefts flowing under inlet control. sharp pipe (e.9. corrugated steel) projecting from an
embankment. Ku coefficients are given on Design Chart
27.3.3 Contro! at Outlet 27.2.

Culverts flowing with outlet control can flow with the Since most engineers are familiar with Manning's n, the
culvert cell full or with the cell part full for all of the culvert following expression is used to calculate the friction loss, H,.
length. With outlet control and both inlet and outlet aiong ihe conduit:
submerged (Figure 27.7(a)) the culvert flows full under
pressure. The culvert can also flow full over part of its
length, then part-full at the ouUet (Figure
27.7). The point
H,=H*,# (27.4)

at which the water surface breaks away from the culvert


crown depends on the tailwater depth and culvert grade where,
and can be determined by using backwater calculaUons. If n = Manning's friction factor
the culverts is laid on a flat gnde, outlet control can occur
with both inlet and outlet not submerged (Figure 27.7) and
t- = length (m) of culvert cell
part full flow throughout the cell is subcritical. Minor V = mean velocity (m/s) of flow in culvert cell
variations of these main types can occur, depending on the g = acceleration due to gravity
relative value of critical slope, normal depth, culvert height
and tailwater depth.
= 9.80 m/sz
R= hydnulic radius (m) = 4Wp
The procedure given in Section 27.4 provides methods or A = area (m2) of flow for full cross-section
the accurate determination of headwater depths for the full We = wetted perimeter (m)
flow condition and for the case of the cell paft-full over
part of the culvert length. The method given for the Substituting in Equation 27.t and simplifying, we get for
condition of the celi part full, over the total length, gives a tullflow:
solution for headwater depth that decreases in accuraqy as
the headwater decreases. u l,. - .zgnztlvz
lz=Lrr""tnru (27.s)

(a) )ZS
Determination of Energy Head (H)

The head, H (Figure 27.7) or energy required to pass a Figure 27.8 shows the terms of Equation 27.5, the energy
given flow through a culveft operating under outlet control line, the hydraulic grade line and the headwater depth,
is made up of three major parts. These three parts are HW. The energy line represents the total energy at any
point along the culvert cell. The hydraulic grade line ls
usually expressed in metres of water and include a velocity
head, Hn an entrance loss, H, and a friction loss, ff,. The defined as the pressure line to which water would rise in
energy head is expressed in equation form as: small veftical pipes attached to the culvert wall along its
length. The difference in between these b/vo
-elevation
H=Hr+H"+H1 (27.1) Y1
lines is the velocity nead
"6'
The velocity head, H" is given by,

27-6 lJtban Stormwater Management l'lanual


Cu/verb

By referring to Figi:re 27.g and using the culvert invert at


th outlet as datum, we get: H=ht+fi"U-hz=H,+H,+H, (27.8)

rt2
tl*ii+LS=hr+H,+H"+H, (27.5) Frorn the development of this energy equation and
zg
ff is the difference between the elevation of
Figure 27.8,
the hydraulic arade line at the outiet and the energy line
Then, at
the inlet. Since the velocity head in the entrance poot is
usually small under ponded conditions, the water sr:rface
tt2
hr**+LS-h2--H,+Hu+H, of the headwater pool elevation can be assumed to equal
2g (?7.7)
the elevation of the energy line.

and, Equation 27.5 can be readily solved for # by


the use of
the fulf flow nomographs in Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5.

(a) Culvert Flowing Full, Sr.lbmerged Oudet

(b) Culvert Flowing tull, Unsubmerged OuUet

- Jv$tllcfrgegne

(d) Culvert Not Floruing Full

FiEure 27.7 Flow Profiles for Culvert under Outlet Control

Urban Stormwater Nanagement Manual


27-7
-,,s
CulverE

for

r-or
- .: -. aqgv-li1. \
- - IYqE@gldr,j_"e -
sat
tol

_)e
cal
UI

-2i
Figure 27.8 Hydraulics of Culvert Flowing Full under Outlet Control of hsfor High Tailwater ih
--eq

(b) Determination of Headwater Depth (HWo) Two tailwater condiUons can occur with culverts operating
9n
JN
under outlet control, (i) tailwater above the top of the
Headwater depth, HW6 can be determined from an opening and (ii) tailwater at or belsw top of opening:
equation for outlet control:
(i) Tailwater above the top of opening - when the
HWs=H+ho-LS t27.s) tailwater, TWinthe outlet channel is above the too of
the culvert ouUet Figure 27.7(a),
where,
H= head (m) determined from Design Charts 27.3 to ho--TW (27.10)
27.5 or from Equation 27.8
h0 - greater of TW and (hc + D)IZ, in which D < D The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation
.9, for this situation, is illustrated on Figure 27.9.
hc - critical depth (m) from the Design Charts in
27

Appendix 27.A
(ii) Tailwater at or below top of opening - when the
D = culvert height (m) tailwater in the outlet channel is at or below the top of
l- = length (m) of culvert the culvert ouUet, as on Figure 27.7(b), 27.7(c) and
S = slope (m/m) of cell 27.7(d), fa is more difficult to determine.

(c) Determination of ho Full flow depth at the outlet, Figure 27.7(b), will occur only
when the flow rate is sufficient to give critical depths equal
The determination of hs is an important factor in or higher than the height of the culveft opening. For all
calculating both the headwater depth and the hydraulic such flows the hydraulic arade line will pass through the
capacity a culveft flowing under outlet control. top of the culveft at the outlet and the head, H can be
added to the level of the top of the culvert opening in
Tailwater depth, TWis the depth from the culveft invert at calculating HWq
the outlet to the water surface in the outlet channel.
Engineering judgement is required in evaluating possible When critical depth is less than the height of the culvert
tailwater depths. Tailwater is often controlled by a opening, the water surface drops as shown on Figures
downstream obstruction or'by water levels in another 27.7(c) and /7.7(d), depending on the flow. For the
stream. A field inspection should be made to check on condition shown on Figure 27.7(c), the culvert must flow
downstream conditions and flood levels. The Slope Area full for of its length. Flow profile computations show that
Method can be used to calculate flow depths, if the hydraulic arade line, if extended as a straight line from
downstream conditions do not provide an obvious control. the point where the water breaks away from the top of the
culvert, will be at a height approximately halfway between
Foftunately, most natural streams are wide compared to critical depth and the top of the culvert, at the culvert
the culveft and the depth of water in the natural channel is outlet. i.e.:
considerably less than critical depth in the culvert section.
In such cases the natural tailwater does not govern. n" =(tg:ro) (27.r1)

This fevel should be used if it is greater than TW.

27-8 Uftan Starmwater Management Manual Ut


Culverts

The head, Hcan be added to this level in calculating f/llla. inadequate, unsafe, or costly structures. The procedures
The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation 27.9 does not address the effect of storage. The design
for this situation is illustrated on Figure 27.10. procedure is summarised on the Culveft Design fbwcha-4
Figure 27.11.
As the discharge decreases the situation approaches that
of Figure27.7(d). For design purposes, this method is 1. Assemble Site Data
satisfactory for calculated headwater depths above 0.75D.
For smaller values of headwater, more accurate result can r Site survey and locality map.
obtained by flow profile calculations or by the use of the
be
capacity charts from Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10
. Embankmentcross-section.
(US Federal Highway Administration, t972). . Roadway profile.

" Photographs, aerial photographs.


27.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE e Detaiis from field visit (sediment, debris and scour
at
existing structure).
The design engineer should be familiar with all the . Design data for nearby structures.
equations in the previous Section before using these . Studies by other authorities near the slte, including
procedures. Following the design method without an small dams, canals, weirs, floodplains, storm drains.
understanding of culvert hydraulics can result in an
" Recorded and observed flood data.

D S--+

Figure 27.9 Determination of hs for High Tailwater

f atl

Dt-

lb = Greater of h. + D and TW
2

Figure 27.10 Determination of hsfor Tailwater Below Top of Opening

Urban Stcrmwater Management Manual


27-9
2. Determine Design Flood Discharge (iii) If the Manning's n value of the culvert under
consideration differs from the Manning n value
Determine ARI of design flood - see Chapter 4. shown on the nomograph, this can be allowed for
Deterrnine design flood discharge, Q - see Chapter 14. by adjusting the cuivert length as follows:

3. Commence Summarising Data on Design Form


L- = L(!L\ (27.12)
\n )
See Design Chari 27.1 in Appendix 27.A.

wnere,
4. Select Trial Culveft
lr = adjusted culvert length
(i) Choose culvert material, shape, size and entrance I = actual culved length
type. ,t = desired Manning n value
(ii) Determine the initial trial size of culvert, either by rl = Manning n value given on the nomograph
arbitrary selection or by assuming a velocity (say
3 m/s) and calculating a culvert area from A = (iv) Calculate HW = H + ho- LS
o/v
As with inlet control, where the approach velocity
5. Determine Inlet Control Headwater Depth, flft- Use is considerable, the approach velocity head can be
inlet Control Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5. ealeufated and deducted from the calculated HWo
to give the actual physical head required.
The nomographs cover various culvet types and inlet
configurations. Each nomographs has an example on it (v) It HWo is less than 0.75Dand the culvet is under
which is self-explanatory. Using the trial culvert size, the ouflet control, then the culvert may be flowing
relevant nomograph can be used to calculate l7W1 given a only part full and using (/t. + D)12 to calculate fa
known O. They can also be used in reverse to calculate e may not be applicable. If required, more accurate
given a known HWi results can be obtained by flow profile calculations
or the use of Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10
It should be noted that where the approach velocity is (as discussed in Section 27.3.3 under (ii) tailwater
considenble, the approach velocity head can be calculated depth at or below top of opening).
and deducted from the calculated HWi to give the actual
physical head required. B. Determine Controlling Headwater, Hl1/,

6. Determine Depth, f4for Outlet control Compare HWland HWsand use the higher:

(i) Calculate both (r. + D)12 and the tailwater, Il,/ It HW > HWo the culvert is under inlet control ?nd HW, =
from known flood levels, downstream controlling HW
levels or from the Slope Area Method. If it is
clear that the downstream tailwater conditlons do lfHWy > HWithe culvert is under outlet control and HW, =
not control, take f4 = ftc + D)/2. 11, can be HWo
calculated from Design Chafts 27.8 or 27.9. If hc
exceeds Dthen take D.as D. 9. Calculate OuUet Velocity, 1,24

(ii) h0 is the larger of TWor (h, + D1/2


The average outlet velocity will be the discharge divided by
7. Determine Outlet Control Headwater Depth at Inlet, the cross-sectional area of flow at the culvert outlet. The
HW cross-sectional area of flow depends, in turn, on the flow
depth at the outlet.
(i) Determine entrance loss coefficient, Ku from
Design Chart27.2. If inlet control is the
controlling headwater, the flow depth
can be approximated by calculating the normal depth, yn,
(ii) Glculate the losses through the culvert, H using for the culvert crogs-section using Manning's Equation.
the outlet control nomographs, Design The flow area, A is calculated using yn and the outlet
Charts 27.10 to 27.tZ (or Equation 27.5 if outside velocity:
the range). As with the inlet control nomographs,
these nomographs cover various cuivert types and v" =n (27.13)
each nomograph has an self-explanatory example
on it.

27-LA tlrban Stormwater Management lutanual Url


Culverts

TRY CULVERT SIZE D

HWo=Ho+H-SoL

HW=HWi
(TNLET CONTROL)
OF CULVERT CELLS; REPEAT
DESIGN STEPS

CONSIDER OPTIONS:
SCOUR PROTECTION
ENERGY DISSIPATOR
IF CHANGE OF CULVERT SIZE.
REPEAT DESIGN STEPS

HEADWATER, FOR IIttET COi{TNOI


'Yl
r/rr. HADWATER FO8 OLfTIET COr.mOt
ADOTT DESIGN AND
RECORD CALCUUTIONS

Figure 27.11 Design Flow Chart

Urban Stormwater Management f"fanual


27 -t1
a
.. 6,d
\'7,
The outlet velocity computed utilising the normal depth, y, 27.5 ESMPI.|TER MODFLLIEVG
will usually be high, because the normal depth is seldom
reached in the relatively short length of average culvert. HEC-2 Water Surface profiles, (Hydrologic Engineering ell r

Centre, US Army Corps of Engineers) is a widely_usej be


if outlet control is the controlling headwater, the flow general purpose program with advanced culvert design ne
depth can be either critical depth f., the tailwater depth features which is available in the public domain. ftre - _hc
TW (if below the top of the culvert), or the full depth D of revised version, September 1991, includes the hydraulic size

the culvert depending on the following relationships: design of culverts using the US Federal Highway
!7,
Administration culvert design methods. A commercial
. Use hc,if hr> TW development, HEC-MS, is also available.
. Use TW,if hc< TW< D wh
,th
. Use D,if D< TW Several computer programs have been developed
specifically for the hydraulic design of culverts, including:
cell
Calculate flow area using appropriate flow depth and then
outlet velocity using Equation 27.13.
" XP-Culvert200O, distributed by Xp Software, Canberra, ni
Australia.
_ps
' Waterflow, Hydraulic Design of Culvefts, Distributed wit
10. Review Results
by Roads and Traffic Authority, lVagga Wagga, NSW
Australia.
,-
Compare alternative design with the site constraints and
assumptions. If any of the following conditions are not AI
Further information on computer modelling is given in
met, repeat steps 4 to 9: ig
Chapter 17.
. The culvert must have adequate cover. _te
. The final length of the culvert should be close to the 2V.6 DEERIS CONTROL
alg
la
approximate length assumed in design.
:li,
. The headwalls and wingwalls must fit the site. 27.6.! General
iuh
. The allowable headwater should not be exceeded. rha
All too often floods have clearly demonstrated how the
. The allowable overtopping flood frequency should not performance of culverts can be affected by an
be exceeded.
accumulation of debris at inlets. This accumulation can
t7
cause failure of the drainage structure, possibly resulting in
The performance of the culvert should also be considered, ltr
overtopping of the roadway by floodwaters, with ensuing
(i) with floods larger than the design flood to ensure such )et
damage to the embankment or to the properties upstream
rarer floods do not pose unacceptable risks to life or ma
and downstream of the culvert. -D(
potential for major damage and (ii) with smaller floods
than the design flood to ensure that there will be no Experience has shown that in non-urban areas, the
,dt

unacceptable problems of maintenance. ttel


following stream characteristics tend to produce the most jnv
serious debris problems:
If outlet velocity is high, scour protection or an energy xil
dissipater (see Section 27.8.5) may be required. o of stream to flash flood, i.e. relatively
Suscptibility --na
impervious watersheds with moderate or steep rat
11. Improved Designs gradients.
n Actively eroding banks bordered by trees or large -)7
Under certain conditions more economic designs may be shrubs
achieved by consideration of the following: . Relatively straight unobstructed stream channels with L7
. The use of an improved inlet for culverts operating no sharo bends. -
under inlet control (see Section 27.9). . Cleared land upstream with fallen trees on the ground"
fn,
:ul
. Allowing ponding to occur upstream to reduce the
ln(
peak discharge, if a large upstream headwater pool In urban areas there is additional potential for debris to
exists. enter waterways and cause blockage. The risk of debris
blockage is very high in all urban areas in Malaysia.
"dj
to
lis
12. Documentation
Precautions to be taken range from providing freeboard,
Cul
Prepare report and file
background information. See and taking design precautions to providing elaborate debns
nc
'Design Documentation' in Section 27.2.10. control structures.

z/-r1 Urban Stormwater Hanagement l,lanuat


Culverts

27.6.2 Freeboard
" To prevent erosion of the fill and adjacent
channel;
Ail culverts with a waterway area of 1.0 m2 or more should
. To prevent undermining of culvert ends;
be designed with a minimum of 300 mm
the design water level. For large culverts
freeboard above " To inhibit the seepage and piping through
the bedding
the designer and backfill;
should consider increasing this freeboard
to allow for the . To ineet traffic safety requirements (see Section
size of debris anticipated, up to a maximum
of 1000 mm. 27.2.8);

27,6.3 Design precautions


. To improve the appearance of large culverts;
. To resist hydraulic uplift forces on corrugated
metal
Where debris accumulation is considered to be problem, pipe culverts; and/or
a
other design precautions should be taken,
such as
. To strengthen the ends of large flexible culverts,
providing a smooth well designed especially those with mitred or skewed
inlet, avoiding multiple ends.
cells and increasing the size of culvert.
if multiple cells are
unavoidable, provision of a sloping cutwarer Cut-offs in the form of a vertical wall,
on the constructed below
upstream pier (wall) ends may help to align the end apron of a culvert, should always
floating debris be provided at
with the culvert entrance. culvert inlets to prevent undermining and piping.
For
corrugated metar pipe curverts, the cut-off wails
arso act to
2V.6,4 Relief Culvert counteract uplift at the culvert inlet.

A relief culvert passing through the embankment at 27.7"2 Typieal End Treatnnenf-s
a
higher level than the main culvert permits water
to by_pass
the latter, if it becomes blocked. The relief
culvert could and wingwalls _ are the most common encl
also be placed at a low level some distance treatment in overseas countries. An apron
away from the is generally
main culvert where it is not likely to be blockeo. incorporated between the wingwals to
tu this rimit scour of the
relief culvert is an additional requirement, the stream becl. They are usually constructed
cost of both from reinforced
culverts should be compared with that of concrete, but can be formed from masonry,
a larger culvert or rock filled
that will be less subject to blockage. gabions and mattresses, or concrete
filled mattresses.

27.6.5 Debris Control Structures Mitred ends - these are generally limited to
corrugated
metal pipe culverts, where the end of the pipe
is cut
These can be cosfly both to construct and maintain. parallel to the slope of the embankment.
The area of
Details of the various types of debris control structures embankment around the ends of the culverts is usually
.TaV
6" found in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 9, paved with concrete or rock.
nDebris Control
Structures,, (US federat Highway
Administration, L97L). The choice of structure Projecting ends - where the ends of the culvert project
type
depends upon size, quantity and type of debris, from the face of the embankment. Although they are
the cost the
involved and the maintenance proposed. However,
for
least costly end treatment, they .r" hydraulically
existing culverts, which are prone to debris clogging, inefficient, do not meet safety requirements and
it are
may be worthwhile to construct a debris control visually objectionable. For these reasons their
structure use in
rather than replace or enlarge the culvert. Malaysia is not recommended.

27.7 CULVERT END TREATMENT 27.8 FLOW VELOCITY

27,7.1 Introduction Culverts usually increase the flow velocity over that in the
natural water course. Except when the culverts flow full,
The term "end treatment,, encompasses the shape of the highest velocity occurs near the ouflet and this is the
the
culvert ends, end structures such as wingwalls, cut_offs point where most erosion damage is likely to occurs.
and anchorages and erosion control measures for the
adjoining fill and channel (see Standard Drawini;s A check on outlet velocity, therefore, must be carried out
SD F_21
to SD F-24). The design of hydraulically improved inleb is as part of the culvert design if the outlet discharqes to an
disdssed separately in Section 27.9. unlined watenaray.

Culvert end treatment may be required to perform one or 27.8.1 Inlet Control
more of the following functions:
For a pipe culvert flowing with inlet control the outlet
r To increase the hydraulic efficiency of the culvert;
velocity can be determined from Figure 25.81 to 25.84 in
r To prevent fill from encroaching on the culvert Chapter 25, Appendix 25.B (k = 0.6) in combination with
opening; charts for part full flow in Chapter 12.

Urban Stormwater lvlanagement l,lanual

l
Figures 25.81 b
25.84 were derived from *te Cdebr@k - bar across the stream, while finer material will be carried
White equation (in Chapter 12) for k = 0.06 to 0.6. This further downstream. Depending on the supply bf lal

approach assumes that the depth of flow at the outlet sediment the scour hole may gradually refill until after the
equals the depth corresponding to uniform flow, but the next major fiood occurs. 1n
sholc length of the average culveft mostly precludes this, :nl
making this approach conservative -rlo
Table 27.1 Ma;imum Recommended Flow Velocities , str
The depth of flow should be checked against critical depth (m/s) for various conduit materials tlJt

as determined from Design Charts 27.8 or 27.9. If the :le


flow is supercritical the effed of a hydraulic jump must be jur
considered. Material Maximum V (m/s) Jis

27.4.2 Outlet Control Precast concrete pipes 8.0 -1?


Precast box culverts 8.0
For outlet control the average outlet velociV will be the ,l

discharge divided by the cross-sectional area of flow at the In situ concrete and hard o.u -,F
outlet. This flow area can be either that corresponding to packed rock (300mm min)
criticai depth, tailwater depth (if below the crown of the
Beaching or boulders 5.0
cuivert) or the full cross section of the culveft barrel. (250mm min)
dv
27.8.3 Eroslon of Conduit Stones (150 - 100mm) 3.0 - 2.5 lc
Grass covered surfaces 1.8
Flow of the water subjects the conduit material to
abrasion, and too fast a velocity for a given wall material SUff, sandy clay 1.3 - 1.5 Cr
will cause erosion to the conduit. Very fast flows can Coarse gravel 1.3 - 1.8
cause cavitation unless the conduit surface is very smooth,
and this results in erosion taking place at a rapid rate. Coarse sand 0.5 - 0.7 u(
However, cavitation damage does not occur in full flowing !L
Ltl
Fine sand 0.2 - 0.5
pipes with velocity less than about 7.5 - 8 m/s and about CU

t2 mls in open conduits.


The provision of wing walls, headwall, cut-off wall and
The maximum velocity b,eyond which erosion will take apron is generally all the protection that is required at
place depends on factors like smoothness of conduit, culvert outlets. The judgement of design engineers,
quantity and nature of debris discharged and frequen{ of working in a particular area is required to determine the
peak velocity. Commonly adopted maximum values based need for any further protection. Investigation of scour and
on experience are listed in Table 27.1.
outlet protection at similar culverts in the vicinity of the
culvert being designed may provide guidance on whether
27.8.4 Sceur at Inlets further protection is required. Periodic site visits and
inspection after major flood events will also confirm
A culvert normally constricts the natural channel, forcing whether the protection is adequate or further protection is
the flow through a reducing opening. As the flow required.
contracts, vortices and areas of high velocity flow impinge
against the upstream slopes of the embankment adjacent
In urban areas, the risk of outlet scour is generally
unacceptable and therefore a choice must be made as to
to the culveft. Scour can also occur upstream of the
which type of scour protection is suitable for the site. The
culveft, as a result of the acceleration of the flow, as it
options available include the following: n
leaves the natural channel and enters the culvert.
. Local protection of the stream bed material, in the -dr
Upstream wing walls, apronsr cut-off walls and case of unlined drains and waterways.
IA
ta

embankment paving assist protecting the embankment and . Flow expansion structure. -o
c)

stream bed at the upstream end of a culvert.


. An energy dissipating structure p
27.a.5 Scour at Outlets
Stream bed protection can be achieved with a concrete
apron, rock riprap, or rock mattresses, or concrete filled ir
If the flow emerging from a cuivert has a sufficiently high
matFesses. It is important that mattresses are anchored
velocity and the channel is erodible, the jet will scour a n

hole in the bed immediately downstream and back eddies


to the cut-off wall or apron at the culvert outlet, to stop
them moving downstream. A geotextile filter is usually
will erode the stream banks to form a circular elongated
provided under the mattresses and may also be required
scour hole. Coarse material scoured from the hole will be
deposited immediately downstream, often forming a low

zl - L.+ llrban Stormwa ter Managemen t Manual


under the rock riprap. Seour protection is discussed in ?7"9 TMPR,SVSF gruLT'EL'LVER.TS
detail in Chapter- 29"

27.9.t General
An important parameter in the selection of an appropriate
energy dissipater is the Froude Number,
f, of the outlet The capacity of a culvert operating under inlet control
flow. Where an outlet has 4< !.7, a simple apron be significanUy increased by providing a more efficient
can
sb'ucture, riprap, or a flow expansion structure will suffice.
inlet, which reduces the flow concentration at the entrance
Where 1.7 < n< 3 a riprap basin or hcrizontal roughness
and increases the flow depth in the cell. In outlet
elements basin is appropriate. Where control,
E > S a hydraulic the entrance losses form oniy a minor part of the total
jump basin wlll be reguired. Energy
dissipaters are head losses and major inlet improvement are not justified.
discussed in detaii ln Chapter 29.

various vpes of inret improvements are discussed


27.8"6 Siltation in this
Section. A nurnber of these are aimed merely at improving
the inlet efficiency by reducing the entrance loss, r(*
If the flow velocity becomes too low siltation occurs.
Flow These focus on headwalls, wingwails and the end
velocity below about 0.5 m/s will cause settlement of the
of fine culvert cell. Other major types of improvement, include
to medium sand particles.
the provision of a fall (or steep slope) In the bed of the
inlet or tapers in the end section of the cell, or
To be seif-cleansing cuive*s must be graded to the combination of these improvernents. The aim of these
average grade of the water course upstream and
rnajor improvements is to increase the velocity head or the
downstream of the culvert, and levels must represent the
effective headwater depth.
average stream levels before the culvert was built.

The material in this Section is based on ..Hydraulic Design


Culvert locaUon in both plan and profile is of particular of improved inlets for Culvertsi
importance to the maintenance of se,jiment_free culveit ttydrauiic Engineering
Circular i,io. 13, (i.iS FerJerai Highway Administration,ISTZ)
cells. Deposition can occur in culverts when the sediment
and the "Hydraulic Design of Culverts,, (Ontario Ministry
trcnsport capacity of flow within the culvert is less than in of
Transportation and Communications, 19g5, which includes
the stream. The following factors may cause deposition
in metric design nomographs). These references may need
culverts:
to be consulted for further inforrnaticn when undertakino
. Culverts often provide a wider flow width at low flows the design of improved inlet culverts.
than natural streams. This results in the flow depth
and sediment transport capacity being reduced. 27.9.2 Bevelled Inlets
. Point bars (deposition) form on the inside of stream
Adding bevels to a conventional culvert design with a
bends and culvert inlet placed at bends in the stream
square-edge at the periphery of the inlet opening increases
will be subjected to deposition in the same manner.
culvefts capacity by 5 to 20 percent. The greatest benefit
This effect is most pronounced in multiple-cell culver8
occllrs with high headwaters.
with the cell on the inside of the curve often becoming
almost totally plugged with sediment deposits.
Bevelled inlets increase the hydraulic efficiency of the
o Abrupt changes to a flatter grade in the culvert or in
culvert (4 = 0.2). Details of typical bevels are shown on
the channel upstrearn of the culvert will induce Figure27.t2. They should be considered for all box
deposition. Gravel and sand deposits are common culvert installations, which operate under inlet controi.
downstream from the break in grade because of the Bevelled inlets can be provided on both pre-cast and cast
reduced transport capacity in the flatter section. in-situ culverts.

Deposition usualiy occurs at flow rates smaller than the The 1.5:1 bevel (33.7 degrees) is more efftcient than the
design flow rate. The deposits may be removed during 1:1 bevel (45 degrees), but the latter is easier to construct
larger floods, depending upon the relative transport and more practical. Bevels should be provided on the top
capacity of flow in the stream and in the culvert, and side edges of the opening.
compaction and composition of the deposits, flow duration,
ponding depth above the culvert and other factors.
27.9.3 Frovision of Depre*sed Inlet
Siltation can also occur upstream of culverts if they are Provision sf a fall or steep slope upstream from the culvert
instailed at incorrect levels, creating pcnding areas. Such inlet may innprove the capacity of a culvert operating under
grading should generally be avsidecj.
inlet control by increasing the veiocity head. The fall may
be achieved by flattening the cell slope. This may tend to
induce sedimentation during low flows, but the deposit will
in most c:ses be washed out during floods.

Urban Stormwater Management Manua!


27-15
,---3,
Culverts

2V.9.4 Tapered Inlets r )?r


PI.AN
t l,v
A tapered inlet is a culvert inlet with a side-taper or a slope sectir
Side BevelAngle f'arle
taper within the end section of the culvert cell. This result
in an enlarged face section and a hydraulically efficient tlp
throat section. A tapered inlet may have a fall, gr?l
incorporated into the inlet structure. The fall is used to
provide more head on the throat section for a given
headwater elevation.
b = 0.(X2 B for 45o (1:1)
b = 0.083 B for 33.7o (1.5:1)
A tapered inlet can sometimes greatly improve the
performance of a culvert operating under inlet control.
This may permit the use of a cell size considerably smaller
than would be required for a conventional culvert. The
greatest savings are achieved with long culverts, but the
Side BorelAngle
possibility of increasing the capacity of an existing
undersized culvefc by adding an improved inlet should not
be overlooked, since it may eliminate the need for a costly
(a) Side Berels replacement structure.
LOT{GITUDINAL SECTION
A disadvantage of a tapered inlet culvert is the high outlet
velocity, which in some cases may necessitate an
expensive outlet structure or downstream channel erosion
Side BevelAngle control works. Cost comparisons between various
irnproved inlet designs and conventional designs should be
made to select that with the least overall cost.

Side Tapered Inlet - Side tapered inlets are illustrated in


Figure27,L4. In some cases, they may increase flow
d = 0.(X2 D for 45' (1:1) capacity by 25 to 40 percent over that of conventional
d = 0.083 D for 33.7o (1.5:1) culverts with a square edge-inlet. The side tapered inlet
has an enlarged face area with a tapered transition to the
constant culvert cell section. The inlet face has the same
height as the cell and its top and bottom are extensions of
the top and bottom of the cell. The intersection of the
sidewall tapers and the cell is defined as the throat section.
(b) Top Eorel Side-tapers may range from 6:1 to 4:1 taper being
recommended as it results in a shorter inlet.
NOTE:

1. Dimensions of Bevels Shall Not be Les than


For a side-tapered inlet, there are two possible control
Shorrn.
2. Dimensions b and d are Basd on the Squarc
sections the face and the throat. H; shown on

Dimensions of the Opening. Figure27.14, is the headwater depth measured from the
3. To Obtain BsrelTerminaUon in One Plan on a
face section invert and l{ is the headwater depth
Rectangular Box, either Increase d b Equal b, measured from the throat section invert. The weir crest is
or Deoease the Top Bevel Angle. a third possible control section when a fall is used.
4. For Multiple Cells Calanlate b from Total CIear
Width or 3D, whidtener is Smaller. Slope Tapered Inlet- The slope tapered inlet, like the side-
tapered inlet, has an enlarged face section with tapered
Figure 27.12 Bevelled Inlet for Box Culvert side walls at the throat section (Figure 27.LS). In addition,
a steep fall is incorporated into inlet between the face and
throat section. This fall concentrates more head on the
The fall may be constructed within the limits of the flared
throat section. At the location where the steeper slope of
wingwalls, as illustrated in Figure 27.13. The drop may
the inlet intersects the flatter slope of the cell, a third
also form an integral part of a slope-tapered inlet.
section, designated the bend section, is formed.

The fall slope should be paved to prevent upstream bed


The slope-tapered inlet is the most complex inlet
degradation and an upstream cut-off wall provided.
improvement. This type of inlet can in some instances
provide a capacity more than 100o/o greater than that of a
conventional culvert with square edges. The increase in

27-76 Urban Stomwater Management Manual Itt


Culverts

capacity depends largely upon the amount of fall available Slope-tapered inlets can be appliedto both box culverts
between the invert at the face and invert at the throat and circular pipe culverts. For the latter application, a
section. Construction difficulties are inherent, but the square or round transition is normally used to connect the
benefits in increased performance can be great. With rectangular slope-tapered inlet to the circular pipe.
proper design, a slope tapered inlet passes more flow at a
given headwater elevation than any other configuration.

Pl-Aftl

NOTE:
Weir Slope to be Paved to
hevent Upstream Degradation
where Necessary.

ELEVATION

Suggested Slope for Fall 2:1 to 3:1

s----->.

Figure 27.13 Fallfor ConventionalCulvert with Flared Wingwalls

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


CulverE

?
PI.AN a

1s'to s07
t{ WeirCrd
a

{- --n
st
s{

Flare Angle
15" b So
(,4) With Fall
(B) Wirhour Fatl

(Wingwalls Not Shown)


n
ST

fr
ELEVATION ELEVATION $
t{-Face section lV.--Faesection -'-el
a\

Throat Section Throat Section

Weir C,rest

q
Figure 27.14 Side-Tapered Improved Inlet c

PI.AN

27.TO MINIMUM EI{ER.GY C!.'LVERTS

In the coastal plains the natural slope of the land is often


little more than a fraction one per thousand, which in
concrete conduits laid on natural grade, grass covered
channels and natural water courses resulb in b-anouil flow
(see Chapter 12).
Taper (4:1 To 5:1)
To reduce the coSs of bridging these waterways the concept
of the 'The Minimum Energy Culverf'was developed. ET.S/ATION

The aim of \he Minimum Energy Culvert" concept is to


concentrate the flow in a narrow, deep cross section
flowing with critical velocity under maximum design flow Face Secdon
thus taking advantage of the minimum specific energy Bend Sction
under critical flow condition (see Chapter 12). This Throat Section
maximises the flow per unit length of waterway crossing.
By keeping the flow outside the supercritical region the
designer avoids the energy loss in a hydraulic jump and
the cost of having to protect against the erosion associated
with the jump.
Figure 27.75 Slope-Tapered Improved Inlets for
Box Culverts

27-18 Urban Stormwater Management Manual


Culverb

The design requires knowledge of:


PLAro
. Design disdrarge
. Average nafural slope of ternin
, Flood levels

. Survey details of floodplain adjacent to culvert

On the basis of this information a plan and longitudinal


section of the culvefi is drawn up. (Figure
27.16). in doing
so the following assumptions are made :

0 The energy line panllels the natural fall


of the EIEI/ATTON
terrain
(iD Energy losses at enty and exit of cufuert are
disregarded

T[re justification
for the ratter assumpton is that rosses at
srmth fansitions are generally small.

In his ontext it is warth nc$ng that $e exit


expansion of Se
sfeam bed needs to progress at a smaller angle
than the
enby angle if the formation of Snding eddies
is to be Figure 27.16 Characteristic Flow Line of Minimum
avrided.
Energy Culvert
Using the equations:
One problem witi minimum-energy culvefts is that they are
Hr, = 1.5d, and located in a dip below the drain or waterway
inveft, creating a
pdential site for ponding and sediment deposition.
The
potential for ponding can sometimes be
Q=Mrr[4 (27"14) minimised by a
small diameter pipe drain or a channel connecting
the
culvert to a suitable point downstream. However
coneponding values of this
b, d, and H, en be bied and approach is not feasible if there are high sediment loads.
ornpared.

't

n
tol

Urban Stormwater Management f"lanual


zl'!>
Cu/verb

A''ENDIX 27.A DESIGT{ FORM, CHARTS Ar{D NOMOGRA**'

Design Form for Culvert Calculation

Entrance Loss Coefficients

Inlet Control Nomograph - Concrete pipe Culvert

Inlet Control Nomograph -Box Culvert

Inlet Control Nornograph - Comrgated Metal pipe (CMp) Culvert

Relative Dixharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius


in part_full pipe
Flow

Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in part_full


Box
Culvert Flow

Critical Depth in a Circular pipe

Critical Depth in a Rectangular (Box) Section

outlet control Nomograph - concrete pipe curvert Frowing Fuil with


n = 0.012

ouuet control Nomograph - concrete Box curvert Frowing Fuil with


n = 0.012

Outlet Conhol Nomograph - Corrugated Metat pipe (CMp) Ftowing


Fullwith n = 0.024

Urfun Stormwater Management Manual


27-27
CulverE

v) )tl
I
F
s
N
z.
t!
T_
; --+l f.- =
o
=
F U
F
F 1l
V1 I
t
I
h
;uJ I
8 __l
tri
z l!
TIJ
I
tl
('
z.
F ArIf,O-r3A
ll

UJ
-|jnrno
p
=
tr lltl Ill /uH
II

v 9NntourNof,
tJ) tl
tl Er
XLJ -t, I

iltl JY
(Jf! \- ll
=E
E- I

;r<

I
t; i
I
=lu
t,h
z.
fi{ {
!ry
r^s
!

\ j
I

P
I

Lr.l
=E as

;! +
\
sa tl
\1 z.
s\- F
N
\t
\ F
l- J al
o- o
d.
1l\
=
o F s']
z.
U
E
pr
I
F {.s
k l!
J
F
o
= o
z. tu 'l-
o
F
F

= \'
o
TL
z. illl ge
J
IJ.J
z.
z.
ss Eg
Eh F
z \\-
oi5 (J
(J E't b
z. E8
lt ll
-)
z, il" (t,
z
J
s
I
ss l.lJ
N
F
9 VI
z.
trl
E
o a z
T
U
Iu
&
2.6
r-9
dFF
* z
tu a-
;L) lt il >= I o)

ut cts :f L)
oaE (q
=
og, =
(t
Design Chart 27.1 Design Form for Culvert Calculations

z7-22 lJrban Stormwater Management lvlanual Ut1


Culvefts

coefficient K" to apply velocity head v,2/2g for determination


of head loss at entrance to a culvert operating under
control. Entrance head loss Hu: K" V2,/2g outlet

TYPE OF BARREL AND INLET

Pipe, Concrete
Ke
Projecting from fill, socket end
0.2
Projecting from fill, square cut end
0.5
Headwallor headwall and wingwalls
Socket end of pipe
0.2
Square-edge
0.5
Rounded (radius = t/LZ D)
0.2
Mitred to conform to fill slope
0.7
End-section conforming to fill slope (standard precast)
0.5
Bevelfed edges, 33.7o or 45. bevels
0.2
Side-tapered or slope-tapered inlets
0.2
Pipe, or Pipe-Arch, Corrugated Steel
Projecting from fitl
0.9
Headwall or headwall and wingwalls, square edge
0.5
MiUed to conform to fill slope
0.7
End-section conforming to fill slope (standard prefab)
u.5
Beveffed edges, 33.7" or 45" bevels
0.2s
Side'tapered or slope-tapered inlets
0.2
Box, Reinforced Concrete
Headwall

Square'edged on 3 edges 0.5


Rounded on 3 edges to radius of I/12 barreldimension,
Or bevelled edges on 3 sides O.2
Wingwalls at 30" to 75" to barrel

Square.edged at crown 0.4


Crown edge rounded to radius of Ut2 baneldimension
Or bevelled top edge O.z
Wingwalls at 10. to 25" to banel

Square'edged at crown 0.5


Wingwalls parallel (extension of sides)
Square'edged at crown 0.7
Side-tapered or slope-tapered intet 0.2
Projecting

Square.edged 0.7*
Bevelled edges, 33.7" or 45. bevels O.jo
* Esiimated

Design Chart27.2 Entrance Loss Coefficients

Urbn Sbrmwater Management Manual


27-23
Culverb

D (m)
$r*tl.l HW
D
4.50 300 (1) (2) (3)
200 F:omple F6
4.00
D=0.80m Q=1.7m3ls r 6

3.50
N 5 rs
r 5
100
80 Inlet Ut' HW(m) 5 l4 4
3.00 D F
60
50 (1) 2.60 2.08 4 t-
F-3
40 (2) 2.18 r.74 3
2.50
30
(3) 2.20 t.76 3

2.00
20

,*o9
-&'
-/
10
^Ey'
9*'j'\]./
8

1.50 5

sl,F"
t.oooa$)/
1.0 1.0

1 Inlet Type 0.9 0.9


0.90' 0.8 (1) Headwallwith
0.6 Square Edge
0.80 (2) Headwallwith 0.8
0.5 0.8
0.4 Sod<et End
0.70 (3) Projectng wilh
0.3
Socket End
0.60 0.2
0.15

0.50

8.H
0.40 0.05
0.04 0.5 0.5
0.03

0.02
0.30

Design Chart 27.3 Inlet Control Nomograph - Concrete Pipe Culvert

27-24 Urban Stormwater Management lvlanuar


Un
Cu/verts

D (m)
4.00 S f*Vr per mebe span)

3.50
r7O2.00 x 0.80m
Example HW
h60 Box e = 8.0m3/s D
rso n (1) ( 2) (3)
4.0m3/s per m
f <o ffi= f g 10
9

F" ry il$ t:
In'|et I
7
6

F" til i'E i:,ffi,'+' 5

E *,.s r,
4
F,
,'#)" F
Fy^
lZuu>" ^F' I
3

1.50

/ 1,7'
zI
F,, Angleofl .
$
:f
I

I
I

x _d f'H'JlE""'i\_gF
el_a
5l l__ El.
t
I

'/,/-
I E i-'.0 i
o
s
1.00

o.st'
")'
:t- ,FLo.ni 1.0

FF*g
.9 1.0
(u
0.9 0.9
0.80
F[.'
FFi,i
I
0.8
0.8
0.70
-ho'o g
E
["
l-ou
I
t
o.7
0.7
0.60
t-0.3 r| |
Erl

rlt
[ 0.,
0.6
0.5
0.50 l- 0., t
0.5
0.5

0.40

F[.$9
[-o.oe I[04 I| 0.4 0.4
Fo.os I I
L 0.35
0.30
Lo.o+ B = span per cell L o.s 0.35

WingwallFlare HWD Scale

E1'
30" - 75" 1
90o (headwall) 2
0o (parallel) 3

Design Chart 27.4 Inlet Control Nomograph - Box Culvert

Urban Stormwater Management Man ual


z/-tJ
Culverts

D (m) $t"lr1 HW
300 D
4.61 4.50
4.30 200 (2) (3)
4.00

3:88 100 Fxample


3.30 80
D=0.90m Q= 1.8m3/s
3.0s 3.00 60 n
50
2.74 40
2
2.70 Inlet !W Hw(m)
30 D
g 2.43
2.28
2.40 (1) 1.73 1.s8
u',
2.L2 2.20 20 (2) 2.03 1.83
i
1.97 2.00
(3) 2.10 1.8e
I tn
l.ol 1.80 *.$o- -
I
I
1.65
8 t9'>
i_ 1.50 6 1l' '/
1.50 1.50 5 -
1.40 \ ^$$'-
z->-/
'*- -

1.0

1 0.9
0.8
0.6
0.5 Inlet Edges
0.4 (1)Headwall
0.3 (2)MiEed
(3)Prcjecting

Design Chart 27.5 Inlet Control Nomograph * Conugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Culvert

Utt
27-26 Urban Stormwater Management t lanuar
Culverb

0.9

0.8

o 0.7
>
F
0'6
-<
a/q
I /-

# o's
v/vr
E 0.4
F/& ,( Q = Part - full Disdrarge
Q = Full Flow Discfrarge
,( v = Part - full Velocity
vr = Full Flor Velocity

/v
1I .7
Y
I

Y
I
R = Part - tull Flow Hydraulic Radius
Pv= Full How l-ldraullc Radius

0.1 I
I
'/
I
,1
Q/Qr vive VRr
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 t.2
Relative Discharge Q/QF , Relauve Velocity v/v, , Relative Hydraulic Radius R/R,

Design Chaft 27.6 Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in Part-full pipe Flow.

Uban Stormwater Management Manual


27-27
Culverts

vlD
1.0

0.9
NOTE:

Q/Q, = 1 ConesPonds to Full Flow


0.8 with Top Slab Fully Wetted
UQ, t 1 Disregards All Effects
of Top Slab
0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

Part - Full Flow


0.3 Box Culverts

0.2

k_E___t
0.1

n
UQr vtvr
0.1 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 L.2 1,3 L.4 1.5

Q/Qr and vTvo

Design Chaft.27.7 Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in Part-full Box Culvert Flow.

27-?8 IJrban Stormwater Management Manual


*"-!:--+:t:"4

Culverts

1.0

E
E
I

a u.5
oc) 6 1.2o O,n rt
E
(J 0.30
0
0.0 0.5 1.5
3.0
Disctrarge
$ f*?.1

2.4

2.0
E
u
s
c
E. l.s
E
c
u 1.0

0.6

4.0

E
-,
t 3.0
I
t
CL

E
to
E 2.0
L
u

1.2
10 20 30 40 s0 60 70 80
Discharse
ft f*rlO
(h.lD)
rn
\J/
CriticalDepth
Circular Pipe

Design Chart 27.8 Critical Depth in a Circular pioe

Ufuan Stormwater Management Manual


27-29
Culverts

(m)
-20

$ tr'lrl
-15 g 1000
l-800

10 FM
9 Fsoo
I 200
7 150

6 100
80
5 60
50
'4 40
2
30
20
3 11.5 m3ls 1.5
rs Q/N = rtl
hs = 1.50
10
n=2'00fi
v-
I
6 1.0
5 0.9
4
!
0.8
J
0.7
2
0.6
1.5
0.5

0.6 0.4
0.5
0.4
0.3

0.2
0.15
0.2
0.1
0.08
0.06 0.r5
0.05

:-T
h. = 0.q67(r,rQsl*

fttD) p-
| l. l;
s---+,
CriticalDepth
Rectangular Section

Design Chart 27.9 Critical Depth in a Rectangular (Box) Section

27-30 Uhan Stormwater Management Manual


Culverts

I
N
(m3 /s)

:80
:70
-60
:s0
-40
-30

-20
0.2

0.3
10
9
8
u'-'o 0.4
7
t-u.t ," 0.5
6
5
"^
" 0.6

4 0.8

{tfr 1

6" 9o
0.70
Q"
t
4
0.9
0.8 0.60
0.7 'o
c
0.6 J

0.5 0.50
0.4

0.3 0.,10

0.2 rG Winswall Anole FEdoE-ffiifr-


0.2 - Socket enO lerolectingE neaawaiij-
- Bevelled Inlet (33.70 or 45o)
0.5 - gqu-ap (Cut). EId (Proj. or Headwalt)
- HabricaEd End Section

Oudet Control
Conrete Pipe Culvert
Flowing Full
n = 0.012

Design Chart 27.10 Outlet Control Nomograph - Concrete Pipe Culvert Flowing Full with n = 0.012

l*ban Stormwater Management Manual


27-31
Cu/verts

ftt m3/s)
-200

A (mz)'
-100 40_1
:90 J
: 30t
:60
so I
2ol
.40
: l
151
:30 rgf
.:20 ttl
E]
. t1
oi
: sJ
4l
,10
-8o
'--\-
-Ul/:-
_l<
'
r
3-j
{(7rzl
\]
I
I }rk"
:4 $-
l-l
,t
'.2
t+'
:
0.8
0.7-l
]
: 0.61 .-
,;1 o'sl =t_iq
0.O
l
-0.8 0.3 -l
-o.u
- 0.21
l

=o'4
: 0.1 -I
j IG WnswallAnqle & Edqe Finistl
o.z 0.2 - 0o or 90o Bodled Edge
; - 30o to 75o Banelled Edge
: 0.5 - 90" Squre Edge
T
: - 10o to 25o Square Edge
B D
: O.t 0.7 - Projectirg Square Edge
_t

NOTE:

@ A = Ocs-sectionalArea per Cell


If BID = 0.5 to
Glculate
87.5
H
2.0
from

Design Chart 27.11 Outlet Control Nomograph - Concrete Box Culvert Flowing Full with n = 0.012

27-32 Urban Stormwater Management Manual


Culverts

(rn3/s

:s0 D (m)
:40
4.00
:to
.zo

:10 0.3
.8
0.4
.6
.5 0.5
'4 0.5
A$ 6,
3 0.8
as Lso %
,\,p ?
I
2
-a$
s' ll Lro
1 fln
a t--9Pu-
F=1 0.90
- -K"){P Vso
+- J99 1o
0.8
o.eol-*
0.70
SIl.r H=2.29 m
0.6
0.5 0.60 3

0.4 o
c r50
4
0.3 or
c 5
cL
f 6
F

WingwallAngle & Edge Finish


-!e-
0.2 - Side-tapered or Slope-.tapered
0.25 - Bevelled Edge
0.5 - or Wingwails, Square Edge
- leajygtt
Prefabricabd End Section
o.7 -
Iitred Paraltetb Fiil Stope
- Projecting
0.9

OuUet Control
Corugated Steel Pipe
Flowing Full
n=0.024

Design Chart 27.12 Outiet Control Nomograph - Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMp) Flowing Full with n=0.024

Urban Stormwater [vlanagement Manua/


27-33
Culvefts

APPEi{DIX 27.8 WOR,KED EXAMPI-E Step 3 : Check for Oufiet Control


Height of tailwater above invert:
27.8.1 Pipe Cutvert (Intet Control)
TW = 49.80 - 49.00 = 0.g0 < proposed pipe diameter of
1.05m
Given the following data, carcurate a suitabre curvert size
and check the ouflet velocity Diagram in Figure 27.7(c) depicts actual conditions,
to see if erosion will be a flowing
problem. full for part of the tength.
Now enter Design chart 27.g to determine
criticar deprth
Step 1 : Data
4= 0.83m
d, + D _ 0.83+1.05
Flow = ?= 5.00 m3/s
2 0.94 > TW = 0.g0
Culvert lengfr = l. = 90m
Natural watenrrray invert levels : as ouflined in Section 27.3.3 enter Design
Chart 27.10 with
Inlet: R.1.50.00m I=90m
OuUet: R.1.49.00m D= 1.05m
Aaepbble upstream flood level: R.1.52.50 Ke= 0.2 (socket end of pipe upsiream)
Desinble road pavement level : R.L. 52.00
Minimurn height of pavement above head water
: 0.30 Then use A-/N = 2.50 m3/s and obtain f/r= 1.15m
Btimated downstream tailwater level : R.L. 49.g0 Fall of culvert invert, L, = 50.00 - 49.00 = 1.00 hence:
Maximum headwater height, HW, is the lesser Dl*
of: HW =(
dc
: s-rs = 0.94+1.15-1.00 = 1.09m
i) Maximum practicalculvertheight: t2l'
52.00 - 0.30 -
50.00 = 1.70m, and
ii) Acceptable u/s flood level HW(inlet control) = 1.70m greater than
Hl1/ (outletcontrol) = 1.09m
52.50-50.00=2.50m
Therefore inlet control governs.
Therefore maximum HW= t.70m
Step4:FlowVelocity
Step 2 : Assume Inlet Control
For 1050mm diameter pipes:
E*imate required waterway area assumin g V = 2.0 mls -n2
A="1
4
=0.87 and s= 1/90 = 0.0111
Estimated area A = UV = 2.5 m2
From Colebrook-White's Chart for k
= 0.6mm (Figure 25.84
D Try 1550mm pipe, D = 1.65m in Chapter 25, Appendix 25.B):
Enter Design Chart 27.3 with e = 5.00m3/s.
Qr= 3.1msls
HffD= t.09 Vr= 3.6 m/s
HW = t.80 > 1.70m maximum. Not acceptable Because the culvert does not flow full it is necessary
to use
the part-full flow relationships ptotted in Design Chart 27.6.
ii) Try 1800mm pipe, D = 1.8m UQr= 2.5/3.t = 0.81 and from Design Chart27.6,
Obb,in Hl/r//D = 0.93 V/Vr= L.0 and r= 1.0 x 3.G = 3.G m/s
HW= L.67m
y/D=0.75and y= 0.75x 1.05
But maximum culvert height available is only 1.70m
= 0.79 < d. = 0.83
iii) Try twin lines, 2/1050mm Unless the drain, which receives the culvert discharge,
flows at supercritical flow a hydraulic jump will form at the
D = 1.05m g/N = 2.5m3/s
culvert outlet.
Qbhin HIU/D = 1.62
HW= L.70m Step 5 : Surrnnaly
Use 2/1050mm diameter pipes
Use 2/1050 mm diameter concrete pipes with socket end
facing upstream.

Uban Stamwater Management l4anual


27-35
Pipes will flow with inlet control with a headwater height of Therefore inlet control governs.
I

1.70m and headwater R.L. = 51.70m. ,l


Outlet velocity = 3.6 m/s and the possibility of scour or the Step4:FlowVelocity I

formation of a hydraulic jump at the outlet must be I

checked.
Hydraulic radius R =
ffit'ffi*; I

27,8.2 Bor Culvert (Inlet Control)


R=--?:ltr- =o.36m
2(1.8 + 1.2)
-i,
Step 1 : Equivalent D= 4x 0.36 = 1.44m and s= 1/90 = 0.011
Using the same data as provided for the previous pipe From Colebrook-White's Chart for k I
= 0.6mm (Figure 25.84
culvert, calculate a suitable box culvert size and check for in , Appendix 25.8) we get:
the effects of the ouUet velocity.
Vr= 4.4mls
s

Step 2 : Assume Inlet Control Qr= 2.!6 x 4.4 = 9.5 m3/s


I

Estirnate required waterway area assuming V = 2,0 mls Eecause the culvert does noi fiow full it is necessary to use
the paft-fullflow relationships plotted in Design Chart27.7.
Estimated areaA= W= 2.5m2 I -s'o=0.526.
Q, 9.5 I
Try 1800 (wide) x 1200 (high) box culvert.
I
and from Design Chart 27.7 for B/D= L.5
Enter Design Chaft27.4 with Q= 5.00 m3/s.
n V I
-Y- - 1
NB
1q
1,te ; = t.O2 and y = L.02 x 4.4 = 4.5 m/s
-l

Draw line and obtain HffD = I.30 I


v 0.53 and y = 0.53 x 1.2 = 0.64 <d. = 0.92m
HW = t.30 x 1.2 = 1.56 < 1.70m, which is acceptable =
D -1
Hence the same remark about hydraulic jump applies as
C
Step 3 : Check for Outlet Control
made for pipes (see example 1: step 4). r
TW=0.8 < 1.2m
i
Enter Design Chart 27.9 with Step 5: Summary
dr= 0'92m -t
Use 1800 x 1200mm concrete box culvert with souare (
d.+D
-:- 0.92+1.20
= 1.06, which exceeds the
edges.
22 Culvert will flow with inlet control with a headwater height
tailwater depth of 0.80m of 1.5m and headwater R.L. = 51.5m

As outlined in section 27.3.3 enter Design Chart 27.11 with Outlet velocity = 4.5 m/s and the possibility of erosion or a
hydraulic jump must be checked.
l=90m
A=t.2x1.8=2.16m2
ku = 0'5 27.8.3 Pipe Culveft (Outlet Control) f
Draw line with Q = 5.0m3/s then draw the other line to I
Given the following data calculate a suitable pipe size and
obtain H= 0.45m
check the outlet velocity for the possibility of erosion. -i
Fall of culvet invert, l, = 50.00 - 49.00 = 1.00m hence: c

rJ +D Step 1 : Data
HW=-c'-+H-L I
2"-s Flow P= 0.5 m3/s
-2
Culvertlength, l=120m I
=1.06 + 0.45 - 1.00 = 0.51m (
Natural waterway invert levels : inlet R.L. = 100.0m
HW(inlet control) = 1.56m which is greater than
: outlet R.L. = 99.0m
HW(outlet control) = 0.51m Acceptable upstream flood level : R.L. = 103.0m

27-36 Urban Stormwater Management f,lanual


Cutverts

pavement level : R.L. 102.5m


Desirable road
= Now check for ouflet control. Re_enter
Minimum height of road above headwater Design Chart 27.10
level : 0.5m with D = 0.525m and obtain H L.Sm
= hencJ:
Rquired freeboard : Nil
HW= L.5 + 1.5 _ 1.0 = 2.0m
Estimated downstream tailwater level : R.L. 100.5m
= This headwater depth is acceptable.
Maximum headwater height, HW, isthe
lesser of:
iii) Maximum practical culveft height: and since 2.0m > 0.95m = HW(inletcontrol) ouflet
control
governs.
102.5- 0.5 * 100.0 = 2.0m, and
iv) Acceptable u/s flood level With HW and TW both well above the
crown of the pipe
and a slope of 1A/e0
103.0-100.00=3.0m _moderate = 0.0083 the pipe witl
flow full hence:
Therefore Maximum HW= 2.Om
v= UA
Step 2 : Assurne Intet Control ,.=;oE
4x0.5
= z'3m / s
"
Estimate required waterway area assumin g V = Z.O m/s
This velocity must be checked against
erosion danger at
Estimated area A = AV = 0.25 m2 outlet (Tabte 27.1).

Try450mmpipe,D=0.45m
Step 4 : Summary
Enter Design Chart 27.3 with e/N = 0.5 m3/s Use a single line of 525mm diameter
concrete pipes with
socket end upstream.
Draw line and obtain for Inlet Type 2:
HWD= 2.8 The pipe wiil flow full under outlet control
and with a HW
HW= 2.8 x 0.45 = 1.26m for inlet control height of 1.3m giving a HW R.L. of 101.3m
and an ouflet
velocity of 2.3m/s.
This depth is tess than the limit of 2.0m.

Step 3 : Check for Outtet Controt


27,8.4 Box Culvert (OuUet Control)
Height of tailwater above inveft:
W= 100.5 - 99.0 = 1.50 > 0.45m Step 1 : Using the same data as provided for the previous
pipe culvert calculate a suitable box culvert
Diagram in Figure 27.7(a) depicts flow condition, size ancl check
i.e. pipe is for the effects of the outlet velocity.
flowing full with a submerged outlet. Now enter
Design
Chart 27.10 with:
Step 2 :Assume Inlet Control
D= 450mm
I = 120m Using the previous estimate of required area,
try 600mm x
300mm box culvert.
ke = 0.2 (socket end of pipe upstream)
Enter Design Chart27.4 with
Then use ? = 0.5 m37s to draw line and obtarn e= 0.5 m3/s
UNB = 0.5/0.6 = 0.83 m37s7m
H = 3.4m Draw fine and obtain HW/D = 4.3
Fall of culvert invert, 1., = f OO.O - 99.0 = 1.00 hence: Hl,1/= 4.3 x 0.30 = 1.29m < 2.0m
HW= TW+ H- Lr= 1.5 + 3.4 - 1,0 = 3.9m
Note that because 3.9m > HWfor inlet control (1.26m), the Step 3 : Check for Outlet Control
culvert is under ouflet control.
TW = 1.50m (see example 3) > 0.30m hence diagram in
However the design is unacceptable because HWr., Figure27.7(a) depicts flow condition, i.e. culvert is flowing
=
2.0m. fullwith a submerged outlet.
Return to step 2 using 525mm pipe diameter in Design
Chart 27.3 and obtain HW/D A=0.6x0.3=0.18m2
= L.6Z
HW= 1.62 x 0.525 = 0.g5m for inlet control

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


27-37
Cu/verts

Calculate H from Design Chart 27.11, noting that B/D =2.0 27.8.5 Mlninrum Energy Culveft
so the chart is applicable.
Given a required design flow of 25 m3/s and referring to
H= lAm Figure 27.16 with chosen widths b as set out in the
following table, calculate suitable levels for the bottom
H- l, profile of the flared culvert entry at the given sections to
then HW= TW+ =1.5 + 1.4 - 1.0 = 1.9m
achieve critical flow through the culveft. Choose an
Note that 1.9m > 1.29m, the headwater depth for inlet appropriate box culveft size for the culvert.
control, so outlet control appties.
The widths b are chosen with regard to the survey data,
However the design is not acceptable because of the risk of and then q and d, can be calculated for each section as
clogging of the 300mm deep culvert due to debris. shown in the table below.

Try 500mm x 375mm box culvert.

A = 0.225m2
Section 1-1 2-2 3-3
Repeating the above steps gives:
width b t4 9 4
HLI/D = 2.7 and HW = t.1lm for inlet control, and
q= Q/b 1.79 2.78 6.25
H= 0.95m and HW= 1.45m for outlet control.
dr=1'[m u.ov 0.92 1.59
This is acceptable because 1.45 < HW = 2.0
^",
And the culvert flows with outlet control since: trial depth D 1.10 1.30 1.58

1.45m > 0.9m = HW(inlet control) v= Qr/A


1A? 2.t4 3.96

As the culvert flows full, v2/29 0.13 0.23 0.80

,,- rt/A- Q'5


v=tJ/A=m=2.2m/s Hr= D+ v2/2g t.23 1.53 2.38

Step 4 : Summary
The depth of flow is required to be critical in the culvert
Use a single 600 x 375 concrete box culveft with square and unchanged subcritical at the start of the flared entry.
edges. Intermediate depths are interpolated.

The culvert will flow with outlet control with a HW height of For chosen values of d, H, can be calculated and the
1.45m giving a HW R.L. of 101.45 and an outlet velocity of bottom level of the culvert and approach is located 4
2.2mls. metre below the energy line in each section.

From the table it will be noted that a box culvert flow area
of 4m.x 1.58m is required hence a 4.0m wide x 1.8m high
culvert with a flow area of 7.2m2 will be suitable. This
culvert must then be checked for the risk of debris blockage
and sediment deposition in the depressed section.

27-38 lJrban,stormwater Management Manual


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 6 - DRAINA.GE


Main Committee Member.s

Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Chairman

Ahmad Fuad Emby Deputy Chairman

Wan Suraya Mustaffa Secretary

Normala Hassan Alternate Secretary

Teh Ming Hu Committee member

Lim Kim Oum Committee member

Alias Hashim Committee member

Low Kom Sing Committee member

Nor Asiah Othman Committee member

Johan Les Hare Abdullah Editor

Lim Kim Oum Chairman

Normala Hassan Secretary

Yeap Chin Seong Committee member

Chin Kok Hee Cornmittee member

K. Nanthakumar Committee member

Chia Chong Wing Committee member

Ng Kim Hooi Committee member


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Volume 2 is a review of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15197 - INTERMEDIATE
GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS, the chapter was authored originally
by Mustafa Shamsudin of Public Works Department Malaysia.

Volume 2 now provides guidelines to the practical design of culverts, with a few
worked examples provided in Appendix 1, which is reprinted from Jabatan Pengairan
dan Saliran publication - Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
(MASMA 2000).

Thanks are due to:

- Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Stormwater


' Management Manual for Malaysia - Chapter 27 , CuIveft.

- REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the


guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Volume 2.

- Members of the Technical Committee 6 - Drainage and Sub-Committee for


Hydraulic Design of Cuiverts for their untiring efforts to ensure timely
completion of Volume 2.