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CHI-SQUARE TEST

HYPOTHESIS:

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is no association between the Reductions in the


preliminary finishing time two variables.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is an association between the Implementation Of


Organizational Rules, procedures and policies two variables.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING:

It is the same for the Chi-Square test of Independence as it is for other tests
like ANOVA, t-test, etc. If the calculated value of the Chi-Square test is greater
than the table value, we will reject the null hypothesis. If the calculated value is
less, then we will accept the null hypothesis

Degree of freedom is calculated by using the following formula:

DF = (r-1) (c-1)

Where
DF = Degree of freedom
r = number of rows
c = number of columns

CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS:
Chi-square test = (O-E)2/E
Degrees of freedom = V = (r-1) (C-1)
Where O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
R = Number of rows
C = Number of columns
Level of significance = 5%.

Highly Satisfied Neutral Dis Highly Total


Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied
YES 10 4 11 14 12 51
NO 12 8 15 5 9 49
Total 22 12 26 19 21 100

Observed Expected O-E (O-E)2 Sum=(O-E)2/E


frequency frequency
10 11.22 -1.22 1.48 0.13
4 6.12 -2.12 4.49 0.73
11 13.26 -2.26 5.10 0.38
14 9.69 4.31 18.57 1.91
12 10.71 1.29 1.66 0.15
12 10.78 1.22 1.48 0.13
8 5.88 2.12 4.49 0.76
15 12.74 2.26 5.10 0.40
5 9.31 -4.31 18.57 1.99
9 10.29 -12.29 151.04 14.67
TOTAL 21.25
Chi square value= 21.25

DEGREE OF FREEDOM FORMULA

Degrees of freedom = (r-1) (C-1)

V = (2-1)*(5-1)

= 4

RESULT

The next step is to use the chi square table found at the beginning of the lesson
to find the p-value. Because our data has four categories (the four departments
in the company), our degree of freedom is three. Following the row for a degree
of freedom of 4, we want to find the value nearest to the chi square value
of21.25 . The nearest value is 21.25, which corresponds to a p-value of 0.01. It
is common for statisticians to use a p-value of 0.05 to determine if the
hypothesis should be accepted or refused. Since our p-value is less than 0.05.
Therefore, in order to reject the null hypothesis, the final answer to the Chi
Square must be greater or equal to 21.25.
CORRELATION METHOD

PEARSONS CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Correlation coefficients are used in statistics to measure how strong a


relationship is between two variables. There are several types of correlation
coefficient: Pearsons correlation or Pearson correlation is a correlation
coefficient commonly used in linear regression.

PEARSONS CORRELATION COEFFICIENT FORMULA

X= Balance of working process in production

Y= Overall equipment efficiency

SUBJECT X Y

Highly satisfied 18 20

Satisfied 22 16

Neutral 20 24

Dissatisfied 27 22

Highly dissatisfied 13 18
Subject X Y X2 Y2 XY

Highly 18 20 324 400 360


satisfied

Satisfied 22 16 484 256 352

Neutral 20 24 400 576 480

Dissatisfied 27 22 729 484 594

Highly 13 18 169 324 234


dissatisfied

100 100 2106 2040 2020

From our table:

x = 100
y = 100
xy = 2020
x2 = 2106
y2 = 2040
n is the sample size, in our case = 5
The correlation coefficient =
=5(2020) (100 100) / [[[5(2106 (100)2] [5(2040)-(100)2]]]

=10100-10000/[[[1053010000] [10200-10000]

=-100/325.5

= 0.3072

RESULT

The range of the correlation coefficient is from -1 to 1. Our result is 0.3072 or


30.72 %, which means the variables have a moderate positive correlation.
ANOVA TEST

ONE WAY ANOVA TEST

Anova is a statistical test which analyzes variance. It is helpful in making


comparison of two or more means which enables a researcher to draw various
results and predictions about two or more sets of data. Anova test includes one-
way anova, two-way anova or multiple anova depending upon the type and
arrangement of the data. One-way anova has the following test statistics:

Formula

SS total = (x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-(x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-
N

SS total = (x1)2/n1+(x2)2/n2+..(xr)2/nr--(x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-

MS AMONG= SSAMONG /DF AMONG


MS WITHIN= SSWITHIN/DF WITHIN

F= MS AMONG/ MS WITHIN

SSwithin = SStotal - SSamong


dfamong = r-1 dfwithin = N-r
x = individual observation
r = number of groups
N = total number of observations (all groups)
n = number of observations in group

Steps (assuming three groups)

Create six columns: "x1", "x12", "x2", "x22", "x3", and "x32"

1. Put the raw data, according to group, in "x1", "x2", and "x3"
2. Calculate the sum for group 1.
3. Calculate (x)2 for group 1.
4. Calculate the mean for group 1
5. Calculate x2 for group 1.
6. Repeat steps 2-5 for groups 2 and 3
7. Set up SStotal and SSamong formulas and calculate
8. Calculate SSwithin
9. Enter sums of squares into the ANOVA table, and complete the table by
calculating: dfamong, dfwithin, MSamong, and MSwithin, and F
10. Check to see if F is statistically significant on probability table
with appropriate degrees of freedom and p < .05.

X1= Equipment of the Respondent


X2= Supply Chain of the Respondent
X3=Procurement of the Respondent
X1 X12 X2 X22 X3 X32
21 441 24 576 19 361
22 484 17 289 18 324
28 784 24 576 30 900
16 256 13 169 17 289
23 529 22 484 16 256
(x1)= 100 (x1)2=2494 (x2)=100 (x2)2=2094 (x3)=100 (x3)2=2130
(x1)2=100000 (x2)2=100000 (x3)2=10000
M1=16 M2=13 M3=16

SS total = (x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-(x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-
N
= 2494+2094+2130-1002+1002+1002/15
=6718-3333.3
=3384.7
SS AMONG = (x1)2/n1+(x2)2/n2+..(xr)2/nr--(x1)2+x2)2+x3)2-

=10000/5+10000/5+10000/5- 3333.3
=2000+2000+2000-3333.3
=2666.7
SSwithin = SStotal - SSamong
= 3384.7-2666.7
= 718
SOURCE SS DF MS F
AMONG 3384.7 4 846.17 718
WITH IN 2666.7 11 242.4

According to the F sig/probability table with df = (4, 11) F must be at


least to reach p < .05, so F score is statistically significant

INTERPRETATION:

This test can conclude that her hypothesis may be supported. The means
are as she predicted, in that the constant music group has the highest score.
However, the significant F only indicates that at least two means are
significantly different from one another, but she can't know which specific mean
pairs significantly differ until she conducts a post-hoc analysis