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To cite this article: Amir Masoud Bozorgi, Vahid Fereshtehpoor, Mohammad Monfared & Navid Namjoo (2015) Controller
Design Using Ant Colony Algorithm for a Noninverting BuckBoost Chopper Based on a Detailed Average Model, Electric Power
Components and Systems, 43:2, 177188, DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2014.975385
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Electric Power Components and Systems, 43(2):177188, 2015
Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CONTENTS
AbstractIn this article, the noninverting buckboost converter
1. Introduction and its operation modes are scrutinized. The closedloop stability of
2. Linearized Average StateSpace Model the converter in buck and boost modes is analyzed, and the neces
sity of using an appropriated controller is demonstrated. Then the
3. Converter Transfer Function Analysis application of an adapted ant colony optimization to design a feed
4. Ant Colony Controller Design back controller is proposed, and a controller based on its existing
5. Detailed Average Model of the NonInverting BuckBoost model is tuned. Simulation and experimental results obtained from
the ant colony optimization designed controller are then compared
Chopper
with a controller designed with the classic method. Although the
6. Conclusion simulation and experimental results prove the efficiency of the pro
References posed control approach, a significant difference between controller
behavior in practice and simulation is obvious. Finding these differ
ences, more detailed models, including all parasitic elements, in the
buck and boost modes are derived. Applying the proposed model
in controller design illustrates that the desired performance of the
converter can be guaranteed with a simple proportionalintegral (PI)
controller. The suggested ant colonybased controller is again tuned
based on the more detailed model, which improves the performance
of the converter system even more. Furthermore, good agreement
between analytical and experimental outputs validates the accuracy
of the modeling and simulation.
1. INTRODUCTION
The widespread use of DC/DC power converters (DC chop
pers) in many applications, and the considerable attention to
improve their performance, turn them into an important sub
ject in power electronics. In many applications where DC/DC
converters are employed, a wide operating range for input and
Keywords: noninverting buckboost chopper, smallsignal model, type III, output voltages should be provided. This requires both step
proportionalintegral, ant colony, statespace model, detailed average model
up and stepdown operation modes, depending on the ampli
Received 8 August 2013; accepted 27 September 2014
Address correspondence to Mr. Vahid Fereshtehpoor, Department of tude of input and output voltages [15]. The noninverting
Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research buckboost chopper [6, 7], shown in Figure 1, can meet these
Branch, No. 1.79, Abomoslem Alley, Ahmadabad 1 St., Mashhad, Khorasan
Razavi, Tehran, Iran. Email: v.fereshtehpoor@gmail.com
requirements as it can be used as a buck, buckboost, or boost
Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online converter. Furthermore, the simple structure, low stress on
at www.tandfonline.com/uemp. switches, and positive polarity of output voltage distinguish it
177
178 Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43 (2015), No. 2
Mode S1 S2
Buck Switching Off
Boost On Switching
Buckboost Switching Switching
(2)
where R, C, and L are the load, capacitance, and inductance
values of the circuit, respectively. D1 and D2 are duty cycles of FIGURE 2. Bode diagrams of noninverting buckboost chop
S 1 and S 2 in the steady state, respectively. Furthermore, IL is per: (a) buck mode (b) boost mode.
the inductor current, and Vin is the input voltage at the steady
state. The quantities with a are small AC variations around
the steadystate operating point. Figure 2 shows that the stability margins are favorable
in the buck mode, but due to the negative phase and gain
margins, the system is completely unstable in the boost mode.
3. CONVERTER TRANSFER FUNCTION ANALYSIS Hence, the controller is designed based on the boost transfer
function. Carefully considering the transfer function, it can
3.1. Frequency Domain Analysis
be found that a righthalfplane zero (RHPZ) is present, the
One of the conventional methods to analyze the stability of location of which depends on the inductance value and also
a system is the frequency response analysis using the Bode varies with inductance current and input voltage variations.
diagram [23]. For the noninverting buckboost converter, ac The existence of an RHPZ in the transfer function of a system,
cording to the control method, if the ratio of the output voltage according to the negative phase imposed to the system, leads
reference to the input voltage is lower than unity, the converter to some limitation in choosing a wide bandwidth for the linear
is in the buck mode, and when this ratio is higher than unity, the controller. The physical effect of this RHPZ was investigated
converter is in the boost mode of operation. Figure 2 depicts in [11], as the fast rate of variation in duty cycle leads to un
the Bode diagrams of the control (duty cycle) to the output dershoot in output voltage. This problem causes oscillation in
for these two modes based on Eqs. (1) and (2) for the system output voltage.
parameters specified in Table 2. The overall scheme of the converter circuit with the control
system is shown in Figure 1. The measured output voltage is
Vin 9V compared with the reference voltage, and the difference is fed
Vo 7, 10, and 13 V into the controller. The PWM generator uses the controller
fs 50 kHz output signal to determine the state of the switches.
L 50 H Figure 3 depicts how switching pulses are generated from
Ro 2.5 and 1.67 the controller output signal. The buck and boost switch states
C 1.8 mF
are determined by comparing two triangle carrier waveforms
with the controller output. In this figure, VH1 and VL1 are
TABLE 2. Simulation and experimental parameters maximum and minimum voltages of the carrier waveform in
180 Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43 (2015), No. 2
the buck region, and VH2 and VL2 are the same quantities in s= , (5)
t otherwise
the boost region. G1 and G2 are generated pulses for S 1 and
S 2 , respectively. where
u(k) is a list of next possible cities,
3.2. Controller Selection and Design . ru is the existing pheromone between the rth and uth city,
The most serious problems with the openloop converter sys ru is the inverse distance between two cities,
tem are (1) an inadequate phase margin that may lead to in q is a random variable uniformly distributed over [0,1],
stability and (2) a zero type of system (due to the zero slip of q0 is an arbitrary parameter in interval [0, 1], and
magnitude diagram in low frequencies) resulting in a nonzero and are the weighting factors of ru and ru , respectively.
steadystate error. Thus, the controller should solve these prob
If the constraint is true (q q0 ), the city that maximizes
lems. The proportionalintegral (PI) and type III are two con
the above argument is chosen; otherwise, the tth city that be
ventional linear controllers used for DC/DC converters [24].
longs to the candidate cities will be evaluated based on the
Equations (3) and (4) show the transfer functions of PI and
probabilistic rule defined by Eq. (6), in which l is a member of
type III controllers, respectively.
u(k):
Ki
C1(s) = K p + , (3) [r t ] [r t ]
s Prkt =
. (6)
lu(k) [rl ] [rl ]
K3s2 + K2s + K1
C2(s) = . (4) After calculation of the above probability function for each
s(K 6 s 2 + K 5 s + K 4 )
candidate city, the next city is selected by the Roulette wheel
rule. As Eq. (6) shows, the transition rule is a tradeoff between
The pole at origin of these controllers provides a high gain
pheromone density and visibility of ants (the length between
at low frequencies and eliminates the steadystate error. In
two cities).
addition, the existence of zero in the transfer functions can im
When all ants finish their tours, pheromone is updated on
prove the phase margin. According to the selected controller
all edges as follows:
parameters, the performance of the closedloop system will be
determined. Various methods are available to determine the op
m
r s = r s + rks , (7)
timum controller parameters, and among them, the ant colony
k=1
algorithm is one of the advanced and most recent techniques
that have gained attention due to the benefits it offers. in which is the evaporation coefficient of the pheromone trail
( < 1) and
Q
4. ANT COLONY CONTROLLER DESIGN if (r ,s) tour done by ant k
r s = L k
k
, (8)
0 otherwise
4.1. Ant Colony Algorithm
The ant colony algorithm is an evolutionary metaheuristic where Q is an arbitrary value, and Lk is the tour length passed
method used for a wide class of optimization problems, first by the kth ant.
Bozorgi et al.: Controller Design Using Ant Colony Algorithm for a Noninverting BuckBoost Chopper Based on a Detailed Average Model 181
in which tr and ts are rise time and settling time of the step re
FIGURE 4. Graphical representation of ant colony algorithm sponse of the closedloop system, respectively; also OS and US
for controller parameters tuning. denote the overshoot and undershoot of the step response, re
spectively. Considering the type of compensated system, which
4.2. Application of Ant Colony to Tune the Controller is for both PI and type III controllers, the steadystate error
Parameters is zero, and as a result, it is eliminated from the objective
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To adopt the ant colony algorithm to tune the controller pa function.
rameters, the following steps should be followed. Using the techniques commonly referred to as transforma
tion methods, one can eliminate the constraints by augmenting
Step 1: Create n caves and li cities inside the ith cave (i = 2, . . ., them into the original objective function [26, 27]. Removing
n); (n 1) is the number of parameters to be optimized by the the above constraints, the objective function becomes
algorithm, and li values must cover the range of variations
P1
of the ith parameter with the specified resolution (Figure 4). O S P2 U S P2 ts
f = k1 + k2 + k3 )
Step 2: Generate m ants and put them in cave 1 (cave 1 is the 0.05 0.05 0.05
P1
start point and includes only one city). tr
+ k4 ) . (15)
Step 3: Each ant chooses only one city among the cities in the 0.01
cave based on the rule in Eq. (6). Also, because distance is
In the above equation k 1 to k4 and exponents P1 and P2 are
meaningless in designing a controller, can be defined as
weighting factors obtained through preliminary sample runs

Pi (s)Popti  of the optimization algorithm and are listed in Table 3. Also,
r s = Ae Popti
, (9)
the number of ants and other algorithm parameters (, , ,
where Pi (s) is the value of the sth city of the ith cave, and Q, q0 ) are typical values in ant colony algorithms [25].
Popti is the optimum value of it, which is obtained from the To compare the performance of ant colony optimization
best ant in recent iteration or from a classic method. Also, (ACO) with other heuristic algorithms, and to show the proper
A is an arbitrary parameter. rate of convergence, PSO and genetic algorithm (GA) are cho
Step 4: Repeat Step 3 for all parameters (caves). sen. The objective function is as Eq. (15), and the initial pa
Step 5: After the tour was completed, the pheromone is updated rameters of the algorithms are summarized in Tables 4 and 5.
by Eqs. (7) and (8), with the difference that Lk is the value As Figure 5 reveals, the adapted ACO can reach better results
of the objective function. in the same iterations in comparison with the two other meth
Step 6: If the convergence criteria are not met, return to Step ods. Based on this, other simulation and experimental tests are
1; otherwise, the algorithm is finished. performed only with ACO.
To obtain a desired performance in the time domain, the 4.3. Discussion of Simulation and Experimental Results
following constraint should be met:
The PI and type III controllers are tuned by the ant colony
f = tr + ts + O.S + U.S (10) algorithm subject to minimizing Eq. (15) for the transfer func
subject to
Number of population 50
tr < 0.01(sec), (11) Iterations 200
ts < 0.05(sec), (12) Pc , Pm , and e 0.9, 0.05, and 5
O.S < 5%, (13)
U.S < 5%, (14) TABLE 4. Initial information of GA
182 Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43 (2015), No. 2
TABLE 7. Type III controller tuned by ant colony and classic methods
FIGURE 6. Output voltage simulation for simplified model in FIGURE 7. Experimental setup for noninverting buckboost
the presence of: (a) PI controllers and (b) type III controllers. chopper.
184 Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43 (2015), No. 2
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R S1 = R S2 = R S ,
(22)
R D1 = R D2 = R D .
where
A12 = A1 A2
B12 = B1 B2
. (33)
C12 = C1 C2
D12 = D1 D2
Therefore, the output voltage variations can be expressed
as FIGURE 10. Bode diagrams of simplified and detailed model:
(a) buck mode and (b) boost mode.
vo = [C P (S I A P )1 (A12 X + B12 U ) + (C12 X
+ D12 U )]d + (C P (S I A P )1 B P + D P )u. (34)
Carrying out the same operation for the buck mode, the
Assuming that d is the only control parameter, and after transfer function would be
some tedious manipulations, the complete transfer function of
the converter in the boost mode can be derived as vo a2 s + a1
G(s) = =
vo a3 s + a2 s + a1
2 d b3 s 2 + b2 s + b1
G(s) = =
d b3 s 2 + b2 s + b1
a3 = Vin CL R C D
a2 = CRC Vin (2R D + R L + Ro ),
a2 = Vin L
a1 = Vin (2R D + R L + Ro ),
a1 = Vin (Ro D 2 R L ) b3 = CL(RC + Ro + R L + R D (2 D) + R S D),
b3 = CL(Ro D 2 + R D + R L ) b2 = C(R D (R D D + (2D D 2 )Ro ) + R L (R L + Ro + 4R D )
b2 = CR C Ro (3DD + 1) +Ro (R S D + (D D)RC )) + L ,
+ CR o D (R D D 2 + R S + R L D ) + LD 2 b1 = 2(2 D)R D + 2R L + Ro .
(38)
b1 = 2R D (3D D + 1) 4R L D + 2R L + Ro D 4 , (35)
and
where D = 1 D and
Vo + (2R D + R L )I L
(Vo Vin + R S + R D + R L )I L D= . (39)
D= , (36) Vin + (R D R S )I L
(R S I L Vo R D I L )
in which IL can be substituted from Eq. (30);
To compare the difference between the abovederived and
Vin simplified models, the Bode diagrams of the converter trans
IL = 2
d (Ro C RC Ro ) + d((R D 2Ro + Rs ) fer function for the considered parameters are compared in
+ C RC Ro ) + (R D + R L + Ro + Rs ). (37) Figure 10. It is obvious that the damping and stability mar
To simplify the final transfer function, lowerorder terms gins of the system in the presence of parasitic elements have
were neglected with a good approximation. improved.
186 Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43 (2015), No. 2
RL 100 m
RC 5 m
RS1 = RS2 7.8 m
RD1 = RD2 80 m
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[27] MehriziSani, A., and Filizadeh, S., An optimized space vec Mohammad Monfared received his B.Sc. in electrical engi
tor modulation sequence for improved harmonic performance, neering from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2004
IEEE Trans. Indust. Electron., Vol. 56, pp. 28942903, 2009. and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. (both with honors) in electrical en
gineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran,
Iran, in 2006 and 2010, respectively. He is currently an assis
BIOGRAPHIES
tant professor at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. His
Amir Masoud Bozorgi received his B.S. and M.Sc. in electri research interests include power electronics, motor drives, re
cal engineering from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mash newable energy systems, energy conversion, and control and
had, Iran, in 2010 and 2013, respectively. His current research applications.
interests include modeling and control of power electronics
converters, photovoltaic energy systems, and artificial intelli Navid Namjoo was born in 1988 and received his B.Sc. in
gence applied to power electronics. electrical engineering from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,
Mashhad, Iran. He obtained his M.Sc. in electrical engineering
Vahid Fereshtehpoor received his M.Sc. in electrical engi from Shahrood University of Technology in 2013. At present,
neering from the Science & Research Branch of Islamic Azad he is working at Sun and Air Research Institute as a profes
Downloaded by [Brown University Library] at 22:10 01 January 2015
University, Tehran, Iran, in 2012. His current research interests sional electrical system designer in the field of wind turbines.
include modeling and control of power electronics converters His research interests include power electronics, renewable
and renewable energy systems. energy, and control of ongrid converters.