You are on page 1of 33

ISSN : 1978-8398

Indonesia Arbitration Contents


Quarterly Newsletter
Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 From the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Topics :
Governing Board
Arbitration And Maritime Issues In Indonesia
Chairman
M. Husseyn Umar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
M. Husseyn Umar
Maritime Law And Arbitration
Member Frans H. Winarta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Harianto Sunidja
Huala Adolf Arbitrase Dan Hukum Maritim
N. Krisnawenda Mieke Komar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase . . . . . . 19
Huala Adolf
Editorial Board
Editor in Chief
Chaidir Anwar Makarim News & Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Editors
Madjedi Hasan
Mieke Komar
Martin Basiang
Danrivanto Budhijanto
Arief Sempurno

Secretary
Desi Munggarani N.

Distributor
Gunawan

Published by :
BANI Arbitration Center
Wahana Graha Lt. 1 & 2,
Jl. Mampang Prapatan No. 2, Jakarta 12760, Indonesia
Telp. (62-21) 7940542 Fax. 7940543
Home Page : www.bani-arb.org, www.baniarbitration.org
E-mail : bani-arb@indo.net.id

All intellectual property or any other rights


reserved by prevailing law. Limited permission
granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Commercial copying, hiring, lending is prohibited.
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015

In October 2014, while taking the oath the Indonesias seventh president, Mr. Jokowi
Widodo called upon his Indonesia people to work as hard as possible to turn
Indonesia into a maritime nation. The development of maritime and trade sectors
may increase the potential legal and commercial disputes. In a response to this
policy, on 6 April 2015 BANI Arbitration Centre in collaboration with Singapore
Chamber of Maritime Arbitration (SCMA) has conducted an International Seminar on
Maritime Law and Arbitration.
Maritime arbitration is not a recent phenomenon. Its history has been described in
the literature and there is a wealth of materials discussing the proceedings and
procedures of maritime arbitration throughout the world. Like in any business,
disagreements can arise at any stage of the maritime cycle, from new building and
repairs to salvage, pollution, bunker and cargo claims. All these issues are not only
multiple and complex but frequently also are multi-party. Some maritime disputes,
however, are not submitted to the courts for resolution. Instead, the parties may
have opted to submit their disputes for resolution through the process of
arbitration. While it might not always be the least expensive, especially for long
drawn out disputes with many issues to resolve, but for the majority of maritime
disputes arbitration is cheaper than litigation.
Also, arbitration is confidential, especially if the Parties have not opted-in to allow
for appeal. Unlike court judgments, arbitral awards are enforceable across 145
countries in the world (Signatories to the 1958 New York Convention). The
enforcement process can also be initiated simultaneously in multiple jurisdictions
until the award is satisfied. The interim orders are also enforceable in certain
jurisdictions even if the seat of arbitration proceeding is in a third country.
In the current issue, we are pleased to present three articles on arbitration in
maritime disputes prepared by our three BANI Fellow Chartered Arbitrators, namely
Messrs M. Husseyn Umar, Prof. DR. Frans Hendra Winarta and Prof. DR. Mieke Komar.
These articles are complemented by an article paper prepared by Prof. DR. Huala
Adolf, who looks on the Pancasila Philosophy of Law in relation to the settlement of
dispute.
Enjoy reading these articles and we welcome comments and contribution of articles.
Please do not hesitate to contact us at our e-mail address bani-arb@indo.net.id (our
web site: http://www.bani-arb.org).

Jakarta, September 2015


Arbitration And Maritime Issues In Indonesia (M. Husseyn Umar)

M. Husseyn Umar, S.H., FCBArb., FCIArb., is Abstrak


Chairman of BANI Arbitration Center and also
arbitrator at the institution. Pengaturan secara umum mengenai hukum maritim Indonesia
Besides acting as arbitrator in ad hoc and terdapat dalam ketentuan-ketentuan Kitab Undang-Undang
BANI arbitrations, he was also acting as Hukum Dagang (KUHD) yang meliputi : kapal dan muatan,
arbitrator or counsel or expert in international
arbitrations. He has also acted as expert in operator dan perusahaan kapal, pengawakan kapal, perjanjian
the court in various countries. He has
attended either as attendee or speaker
kerja laut, carter kapal, pengangkutan barang dan orang
various conferences/workshops on melalui laut, tanggung jawab pengangkutan, kecelakaan kapal
international arbitration in Indonesia and
abroad.
serta asuransi baik di laut, sungai maupun diperairan
Mr. Umar is listed as arbitrator in the Panel of
pedalaman. Ketentuan - ketentuan hukum perdata pelayaran
Arbitrators/Conciliators at the International yang terdapat dalam KUHD tersebut bersifat lex specialis
Center for Investment Disputes (ICSID),
Washington D.C. and in the Panel of terhadap ketentuan ketentuan hukum perdata yang bersifat
Arbitrators at the Asia-Pacific Regional lex generalis yang terdapat dalam Kitab Undang-Undang
Arbitration Group (APRAG) in Sydney. Mr.
Umar is also Of Counsel in the Law Office Hukum Perdata (KUHPer). Diluar itu terdapat peraturan -
Ali Budiardjo, Nugroho, Reksodiputro (ABNR) peraturan yang bersifat ad hoc yang mengatur hal tertentu dan
in Jakarta. Before practicing law, he was a harus dipatuhi. Perlu pula diketahui bahwa Indonesia tidak
government official at the Ministry of Transport
and Communication in various positions. He meratifikasi konvensi internasional tentang pengangkutan
had been appointed as an Attache for
Transport Communication and Maritime
barang di laut seperti Hague/Visiby Rules. Namun secara
Affairs at the Indonesian Embassy in the sistematis kalangan maritim Indonesia perlu menyesuaikan diri
Hague (the Netherlands). He has also been
appointed as Sectoral Adviser on Shipping, dengan perkembangan dan praktek hukum maritim
Ports, Multi- modal Transport and internasional, termasuk hubungannya dengan arbitrase untuk
International Maritime Legislation at the
Permanent Secretariat of the United Nations penyelesaian sengketa perdagangan maritim. Dengan demikian
Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) in Geneva. He has also been
adalah urgen untuk mengambil langkah-langkah penyesuaian
appointed as President Director of Pelni hukum arbitrase Indonesia dengan ketentuan arbitrase
National Shipping Company and PT PANN
Ships Financing & Leasing Corporation.
internasional dalam hal ini UNCITRAL Model Law.
He also published a few books and articles on Kata kunci : Hukum Maritim Indonesia, Hukum Perdagangan, Lex
maritime law and arbitration.
Spesialis, Lex Generalis,UU. No. 30/1999, UNCITRAL Model Law

1 Presented in 19th International Congress of Maritime Arbitrators, Hong Kong, 11 - 15 May 2015

1
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 01-06

I. Main features of the Indonesian II. Key Issues


maritime law From the legal point of view, the
The main features of the Indonesian provisions on sea transport or carriage
maritime law are embodied in the of goods by sea concern the rights and
provisions of the Commercial Code obligations of the carried on one hand
concerning the following: seaship and the rights and obligations of the
and its cargo; ship operator and shipper/receiver (consignee) on the
shipping company; the master, crew other hand. The relationship between
and persons on board the vessel; sea the carrier and the shipper focuses on
labor agreement; chartering of vessels; the responsibility of the carrier to
carriage of goods and passengers carry the goods to the destination
which includes issues on sea transport point with good care and the liability
contract and liability of carrier; and an of the carrier in the event the goods
accidents at sea which include are lost or damaged.
collisions, ship wrecks and salvages,
Article 468 of the Commercial Code
general average and marine
provides that the carrier is responsible
insurance. The provisions on maritime
from the time he receives the good
law also include provisions concerning
until he delivers it to the receiver.
ships used in rivers and internal waters. Furthermore the carrier is obliged to
The Commercial Code is considered a pay compensation for the damage or
lex specialis visavis the Civil Code as nondelivery of the goods carried
the lex generalis. Principles of the except if he can prove that the damage
general private law embodied in the or nondelivery was caused by a
Civil Code are applicable when the circumstance that could not reasonably
Commercial Code is silent on certain have been avoided by the carrier or his
issues or specifically refer to the servants, by the inherent vice or
provisions in the Civil Code. The hidden defects of the goods or by
contract of carriage is based on the the default of the shipper. Under
principles of contract law in the Civil Article 466 a carrier is presumed to be
Code. responsible for the delivery of the
In addition to the above, there are ad goods, regardless of what portion of
hoc laws or regulations which the the journey the cargo spends on board.
Commercial Code refers to, such as The Code further provides (Article 470)
the regulations concerning registration that the carrier is under no
of ships and rights on ships and the circumstance allowed to limit his
regulations pertaining to the liability for loss or damage arising out
nationality of ships. Note that of negligence, fault or failure in the
Indonesia does not ratify any of the carrying out of his (or his servants)
conventions on carriage of goods at duties or obligations, or due to the lack
sea. of seaor cargoworthiness of the

2
Arbitration And Maritime Issues In Indonesia (M. Husseyn Umar)

vessel. The article also stipulates that refer to the Indonesian law in so far as
the carrier will be liable for the loss of certain matters are not covered under
valuable goods, provided the carrier the rules of the respective bill of lading.
has been well notified of the nature and This would mean that although the
value of such goods before the Hague/Visby Rules are applicable,
acceptance or shipment of the goods. Indonesian law will be applied in so far
The provision concerning package as the bill of lading itself and the
liability limitation, however, is not Hague/Visby Rules are silent
always upheld by carrier which is in concerning certain issues pertaining to
local currency which is regarded as low. the bill of lading.
Shipping companies trading in the It is indeed a fact that there exist little
domestic trade put a somewhat higher significant precedents by Indonesias
rate in their bills of lading. In practice, court in maritime cases. This situation
claims are settled through negotiations. needs to be changed. The Indonesian
Indonesian shipping companies in the court should have more opportunities
overseas trade generally issue to deal with admiralty cases, such as
international bills of lading which cases on limitation of liabilities. The
include package liability limit in Indonesian legal system adopts the
conformity with the Hague Visby Rules. concept that a judge should make his
judgment not only based on law but
III. Choice of Law also on justice and common usages,
The Indonesia private international law (Article 1339 of the Civil Code). This
largely respects party autonomy with would mean that a judge should not
regard to choice of law. The parties apply provisions of law which are
concerned or the contracting parties generally and publicly accepted as
are free to make the choice of law, being out of date.
and it could be the law of a third In the case of Gesuri Lloyd Ltd. vs. C.Y.
country which may have nothing to do Lee (1981), the court awarded damages
with the interest of the parties. In most of HK$ 392.510,15 as assessed by an
shipping agreements, such as in the independent adjuster, which was way
case of bills of lading and charter above the limitation figure that would
parties, the governing law is usually have been applied in that case if the
English law. judge had applied Article 474 of the
International bills of lading issued by Commercial Code.
Indonesian overseas shipping
companies normally include a IV. Jurisdiction and Enforcement
paramount clause referring to the a. Judicial System
Hague/Visby Rules and Jakarta Within a country jurisdiction
(Indonesia) as the forum of jurisdiction. concerns the choice of the court
In addition the bills of lading usually which, both from the geographical

3
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 01-06

and the quality standpoint, is Law No. 30/1999 includes some


considered to be most suitable for general rules on dispute settlement
the settlement of a given dispute. alternatives. The Law defines that a
Internationally, it consist in dispute settlement alternative is a
establishing in which circumstances mechanism for the settlement of
national courts have jurisdiction to disputes or different of views
adjudicate upon a dispute to which through the procedure agreed upon
one or more aliens are parties. It by the parties concerned, namely
affects the judicial system in the the settlement out of the court by
country. Indonesia judiciary consists means of mediation, conciliation,
of three layers of courts, namely the consultation, negotiation or
District Court, the Appeal Court and evaluation by experts. With respect
the Supreme Court. to arbitration, the entire arbitration
b. Arbitration process that starts from the
The settlement mechanism for the appointment of the arbitrator(s)
resolution of a dispute in the event must take no longer then 180 days
that an amicable settlement could to complete. An extension of this
not be reached is a matter of choice length of time may only be made
that needs to be decided by the upon the agreement of both parties
parties in the dispute. Particularly in and the arbitrator(s).
shipping, arbitration has been Law No. 30/1999 prescribes that a
widely used to resolve disputes, as is decision or award shall be made
reflected in the bills of lading, based on the rules of law and for
charter parties, and the MOAs for upon agreement by parties, on the
the sale and purchase of ships. principle of pro aequoetbono. In
Law No. 30/1999 provides rules and practice, however, most arbitrator(s)
procedure on arbitration and apply both principles unless the
alternative dispute resolution. The parties insist to solely apply either
law recognizes the existence of one of those principles. When the
institutional arbitration conducted arbitrator(s) have completed the
by arbitration institutions, besides ad examination and hearings, an
hoc arbitration. One of the award will be issued, which award,
arbitration institutions is BANI is to be read out in the final session
Arbitration Center, which was of the proceedings.
established in 1977 on the initiative An arbitration award can be in form
of the Indonesia Chamber of of an interim/interlocutory award or
Commerce. The panel of arbitrators a final award. An interim or
consists of Indonesian and foreign interlocutory award is issued,
experts in various fields, such as whenever it is necessary; for
trade, industry, construction, mining, instance, an interim decision is
insurance, and shipping, etc. required due to the challenges of

4
Arbitration And Maritime Issues In Indonesia (M. Husseyn Umar)

jurisdiction (exception) submitted by issued based on letters or


one of the disputing parties. Or an documents which turned out to
interim measure may be issued for be fake or declared false.
instance in the case of an
2) After the award has been issued,
attachment of property is requested
decisive documents that the
by one party which is possible under
opposite party has hidden are
Law No. 30/1999.
found
The final award concerns mainly the
3) The award is issued based on
merit of the case. It is final and
results of deceit conducted by
binding upon the parties, meaning
one party at the examination of
that the decision is of the highest
the case
resort, so that no appeal or cassation
can be made against the award. The The application for the annulment
disputing parties are bound and shall be submitted in writing not
obligated to implement the award. later than 30 days as from the date
of the registration of the award at
c. Enforcement of Award
the District Court. Furthermore the
Basically an arbitration award is to
Law determines that in the case the
be implemented or executed
application for annulment is
voluntarily by the parties concerned.
approved by the Chairman of the
The law provides regulation to
District Court, an appeal against
secure the execution of the award,
such decision can be made to the
especially in the event the losing
Supreme Court.
party fails to implement the award
voluntarily. Article 59 of Law No. e. International Arbitration
30/1999 provides that not later than In connection with the international
30 days as from the date when the trade it is important to see as to
award is issued, the original sheet or how international arbitration
authentic copy of the award shall be awards are enforced. Law No.
registered by the arbitrator or his 30/1999 does not adopt UNCITRAL
proxy at the Registrar of the District Model Law. Law No. 30/1999 does
Court. provides rules and procedures for
arbitration conducted in Indonesia.
d. Annulment of Award
With respect to international
An application for the annulment of
arbitration, the Law provides a
an arbitration award can be filed at
special regime with respect to the
the District Court where the award
recognition and enforcement of
is registered. Article 70 of Law No.
international arbitration awards. The
30/1999 provides certain conditions
Law defines that an international
on which basis an annulment
arbitration award is an award which
request can be made: is issued by an arbitration institution
1) The award is suspected to be or an individual arbitrator outside

5
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 01-06

the jurisdiction of the Republic of law belongs to the scope of


Indonesia or an award issued by an trade/economic law;
arbitration institution or an
3) International arbitration award
individual arbitrator which according can only be enforce in Indonesia
to the law of Indonesia is regarded
to the extent that award does not
as an international arbitration award.
contravene the public order;
Under Law No. 30/1999, the Central
4) International arbitration award
Jakarta District Court is authorized to
will be enforced after securing
deal with the recognition and
an enforcement order (exe-
enforcement of international quatur), from the Chairman of the
arbitration awards (Article 65). With
District Court of Central Jakarta;
respect to the recognition and
enforcement of international 5) International arbitration award
arbitration award, Indonesia adheres which concerns the state of the
to the provisions of the above Republic of Indonesia as a party
mentioned New York Convention, in a dispute can only be enforced
which hasbeen ratified by after securing an enforcement
Indonesia in 1981. order from the Supreme Court.
Article 66 of the Law stipulates that Conclusion
international arbitration awards shall The Indonesian maritime law (commercial
only be recognized and enforced if shipping) needs systematical and certain
the awards fulfill the following adjustments with the development of
requirements: international maritime law and practices.
1) International arbitration award Arbitration is mostly used in the settlement
is issued by an arbitrator or of disputes in the business world, including
arbitration panel in a country in shipping business, as an alternative to
which has a bilateral or court litigation. The Indonesias Arbitration
multilateral relation with respect Law (Law No. 30/1999) also includes
to the recognition and provisions on dispute settlement
enforcement of international alternatives, i.e. mediation, conciliation,
arbitration awards with Indonesia; negotiation, consultation and experts
advice. Medarb/hybrid arbitrations are
2) Recognition and enforcement
widely applied in Indonesia. There is an
of the international arbitration
urgent need now in Indonesia to adjust
award is limited to the award
the Indonesian Arbitration Law in line with
which according to Indonesian
the provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law.

6
Maritime Law And Arbitration (Frans H. Winarta)

At present, Dr. Winarta is the Founder &


Managing Partner of Frans Winarta & Abstrak
Partners Law Firm. In his practice, he
handles all aspects of civil, commercial Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia
and criminal litigation. He is also yang dua pertiga dari wilayahnya merupakan wilayah
experienced in international and national
arbitration and alternative dispute perairan. Secara geografis, Indonesia merupakan negara
resolution. He has experience in various maritim yang terdiri atas beribu pulau yang tersebar dari
kinds of disputes ranging from general Sabang hingga Merauke. Indonesia sebagai negara
corporate matters, joint venture,
construction issue, oil and gas issue, kepulauan, seperti disebutkan di dalam Konvensi Hukum
mining issue, cross-border investment Laut Internasional (UNCLOS) 1982, memiliki laut teritorial,
issue, taxation, and many more.
wilayah yuridiksi, dan kawasan dasar laut.
He has been awarded as a Fellow
Certified BANI Arbitrator (FCBArb.), Potensi maritim di laut lepas ini, mau tidak mau terkait
given under the seal of the Indonesian dengan investasi dalam pembangunan seperti
National Board of Arbitration (BANI). He
functions as the Co-Chairman and transportasi laut, perikanan, pertambangan laut, operasi
Founder of the Indonesian Chapter of the lepas pantai, logistik, dan sebagainya. Penyelesaian
Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb).
He is also an Associate of the Chartered
sengketa untuk permasalahan maritim tersebut telah
Institute of Arbitrators (ACIArb.) and Co- diatur di dalam UNCLOS yang mencakup The International
Founder of the Indonesian Chapter of the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), The International
International Chamber of Commerce
(ICC). He is currently serving in as the Court of Justice (ICJ), Majelis Arbitrase sesuai UNCLOS
Chairman of the ICC Indonesia Court of 1982, dan Majelis Arbitrase Khusus sesuai yang diatur di
Arbitration as well as arbitrator in various
international arbitration institutions.
dalam UNCLOS 1982. Perlu menjadi catatan bahwa
UNCLOS 1982 mengatur hak dan kewajiban negara dan
tidak mengatur mengenai aktivitas perdagangan dari
individu atau badan swasta.
Kata kunci : Negara Maritim, UNCLOS, ITLOS,
International Court of Justice

7
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 07-12

Introduction Indonesia cannot be called a maritime


Indonesia is the largest archipelagic state in country, because it does not use its waters
the world where two-thirds of its territory is optimally, especially since Indonesia has not
water. In the era of Sriwijaya Empire and used its waters as one of its strengths. This
Majapahit Empire, Indonesia had powerful is in accordance with the opinion of
sea power resulting in Indonesia being well- Wahyono Suroto Kusumoprojo who stated
known as a maritime country. However, in his book that2:
such reputation is degrading due to many Maritime country is a country that
reasons, i.e. the imbalance of infrastructure is succeeding because it is supported
in Indonesia, resulting in inefficient by the maritime powers, which
utilization of the coastal line and national include social, cultural and
sea area. In addition, Indonesias maritime economic forces that exploit marine
defense is very limited, resulting in nature, and whose entire water is
Indonesia being susceptible to illegal entirely under its power and
fishing. Being aware of this fact, Indonesia control.
these days is concerned with its maritime To be a maritime country that is recognized
development such as sea transport, by other countries, there are several aspects
shipbuilding, shipping, marine, offshore to be considered to develop the maritime
sectors, fishing to build the maritime sector.
sector in a country. These include among
As President Joko Widodo stated, I strive to
others the geographical conditions,
turn Indonesia into a maritime axis of the physical conformation, extent of the
world while boosting the connectivity of the
territory, number of population, character
islands across the archipelago, especially on
of the nation and character of the
maritime infrastructure development, such as Government3.
construction of deep seaports.
In history, Indonesia claimed itself as an Legal and Commercial Issues in the
archipelagic country by declaring the Development of Maritime Sector
Declaration of Djuanda. In 1982, the United
The main legal activity that will certainly
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
happen in relation to the development of
(UNCLOS 1982) was enacted. Upon
the maritime sector is the agreement of sea
ratification by Law No. 17 of 1985 regarding transport, port & harbor, ship building/
the ratification of the UNCLOS 19821, repair, fishery, sea mining, off-shore rig
Indonesia is bound by this international operation, logistics/forwarding, financing &
instrument. insurance between businessmen. Upon
these activities, the potential legal and
Definition of Maritime State commercial issue that may arise is
Even though Indonesia claimed itself as the bureaucracy of the administration. The lack
largest archipelagic country, at this time of facilities for law enforcement and the

1 Law No. 17 of 1985 regarding the ratification of UNCLOS 1982


2 Wahyono S.K., Indonesia Negara Maritim, Mizan Publika: Jakarta, 2009, page 110
3 Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783, Little, Brown and Co., 1890, page 19

8
Maritime Law And Arbitration (Frans H. Winarta)

sovereignty over the maritime zone is the necessary to have an alternative dispute
example of legal issues in bureaucracy of resolution method that can produce an
the administration. As a matter of fact, the award as the solution of the dispute that is
number of Indonesian-controlled ships is fair, effective and acceptable to the
very limited considering the broad area of business actors, and better yet, if the award
Indonesian seas. Moreover, there is an can keep and maintain a long-standing
absence of relevant authority institutions relationship between the business actors.
dealing with maritime affairs, resulting in
To answer the above demands, commercial
the lack of control. arbitration has grown to become one of the
Furthermore, upon the development of the methods of dispute resolution that is in
maritime sector in a country, it will increase demand by business actors. This is because
the investment, either domestic or foreign. the characteristics of arbitration, i.e. the
This event will increase the number of final and binding award, flexibility and
occupations along with employment. There confidentiality, which have become an
will be many domestic and foreign investors appropriate solution to resolve maritime
participating in the port construction disputes in commercial sector. As
business, fishing business, or transportation mentioned before, the settlement of
business. This condition raises a lot of disputes through arbitration is based on an
commercial disputes due to the increase of arbitration agreement4. Without the
transactions between the ship owner and existence of the arbitration agreement, the
charterer, sea expedition, demurrage, parties are unable to resolve the dispute
carrier liability, port construction through arbitration unless, after the onset
agreement, etc. of a dispute, the parties agree to resolve
their dispute through an arbitration body or
Arbitration as Dispute Settlement ad hoc arbitration by a deed of
It is clear that there are several activities compromise.
that can be conducted in the sea within the Based on the description above, it can be
national jurisdiction, states, legal entities concluded that in essence the settlement of
(foreign and domestic) or individual disputes through arbitration is based on the
business actors. These parties may engage parties' freedom to choose the arbitration
in commercial activities. It should be noted rules or institution that will resolve the
that, in any international business dispute, such as International Chamber of
transaction, the business actors will face Commerce (ICC), Singapore International
different backgrounds of each country, such Arbitration Centre (SIAC) or Badan Arbitrase
as differences in legal systems, customs and Nasional Indonesia (BANI). However, it
cultures. Also, it is often in an international should be noted that, in the event that the
business transaction, a dispute cannot be dispute arises out of or in relation to the
avoided, although it is not expected by UNCLOS 1982, it should be settled in
every business actor. Thereby, it is accordance with the procedure provided in

4 Article 9(2) of the Arbitration Law:


In the event that parties are unable to sign the written agreement as contemplated in paragraph (1), such written agreement must be drawn
by a Notary in the form of a notarial deed .

9
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 07-12

the UNCLOS 1982. According to the procedures regulates within the UNCLOS
UNCLOS 1982, the state parties may choose 1982, provided that such procedure entails
any dispute settlement by peaceful means a binding decision. The UNCLOS 1982
through negotiation, mediation or provides 4 (four) optional procedures to be
conciliation5. The following are the chosen when ratifying the UNCLOS 1982,
quotations of the relevant articles: which consist of:
Article 279 of the UNCLOS 1982: a. The International Tribunal for the Law of
States Parties shall settle any dispute the Sea (ITLOS)
between them concerning the The ITLOS shall be composed of a body
interpretation or application of this of 21 independent members. No two
Convention by peaceful means in members of the ITLOS may be nationals
accordance with Article 2, paragraph 3, of the same State and there shall be no
of the Charter of the United Nations fewer than three members from each
and, to this end, shall seek a solution by geographical group as established by the
the means indicated in Article 33, General Assembly of the United Nations,
paragraph 1, of the Charter. such as African, Asia Pacific, Eastern
European Group, Latin American and
Article 33 of the Charter of the United
Caribbean Group and Western European
Nations:
and Other Group7.
The parties to any dispute, the
continuance of which is likely to The ITLOS consists of several chambers,
endanger the maintenance of inter alia: (i) Seabed Disputes Chamber;
international peace and security, shall, (ii) Chamber for Fisheries Dispute; (iii)
first of all, seek a solution by Chamber for Marine Environmental
negotiation, enquiry, mediation, Disputes; (iv) Chamber for Maritime
conciliation, arbitration, judicial Delimitation Disputes; and (v) Chamber
settlement, or other peaceful means of of Summary of Procedure.
their own choice.
b. The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
The UNCLOS 1982 further stipulates that, in
case the state parties cannot reach any The ICJ is the principal judicial organ of
amicable settlement by peaceful means, the the United Nations (UN), where all the
parties are at liberty to choose any dispute members of the UN automatically
settlement procedure other than become members of the ICJ8. The Court
shall consist of fifteen members, no two
1 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 279; Charter of the United Nations (1945), art. 33(1)
6 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 282:
If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed, through a gen-
eral, regional or bilateral agreement or otherwise, that such dispute shall, at the request of any party to the dispute, be submitted to a procedure
that entails a binding decision, that procedure shall apply in lieu of the procedures provided for in this Part, unless the parties to the dispute
otherwise agree.
7 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), Annex VI art. 2:

The Tribunal shall be composed of a body of 21 independent members, elected from among persons enjoying the highest reputation for fair-
ness and integrity and of recognized competence in the field of the law of the sea.
8 Charter of United Nations (1945) art.92:

The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed
Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter.
Charter of United Nations (1945) art.93(1):
All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.

10
Maritime Law And Arbitration (Frans H. Winarta)

of whom may be nationals of the same failure of parties agreement is vested on


state9. the Secretary General of the United
Nations. The Special UNCLOS Arbitral
c. Arbitral tribunal constituted in Tribunal has the jurisdiction to resolve
accordance with UNCLOS 1982 certain matters concerning (1) fisheries,
(UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal) (2) protection and preservation of the
The UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal consists of marine environment, (3) marine scientific
five members. Each party may appoint research, or (4) navigation, including
one member and the other three pollution from vessels and by dumping10.
members are appointed by an However, if the state parties do not choose
agreement between the parties. Then, any of those 4 (four) optional procedures or
the parties may appoint the president of have not reached an agreement on the
the arbitral tribunal from among those procedures, they will be considered to have
three members. The failure of such agreed to choose arbitration as a dispute
appointment results in an appointment settlement11. Those 4 (four) optional
by the President of the ITLOS. procedures have jurisdiction over disputes
d. Special arbitral tribunal constituted in concerning the interpretation or application
accordance with UNCLOS 1982 (Special of UNCLOS 198212, and also concerning the
UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal). interpretation or application of any
international agreement related to the
The Special UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal has purpose of UNCLOS 1982. It must be noted
the same constitution mechanism as the that, in the event that any dispute arises
UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal. However, the related to the seabed, ocean floor and
authority to appoint the member of the subsoil beyond the limit of national
Special UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal due to jurisdiction, the state parties must accept

9 Statute of International Court of Justice, art. 3(1):


The Court shall consist of fifteen members, no two of whom may be nationals of the same state.
10 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 287(1)
When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State shall be free to choose, by means of a written
declaration, one or more of the following means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention:
(a) the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI;
(b) the International Court of Justice;
(c) an arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VII;
(d) a special arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VIII for one.
11 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 287(3);
A State Party, which is a party to a dispute not covered by a declaration in force, shall be deemed to have accepted arbitration in accordance
with Annex VII.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 287(5);
If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same procedure for the settlement of the dispute, it may be submitted only to arbitration in
accordance with Annex VII, unless the parties otherwise agree.
12 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 288(1)
A court or tribunal referred to in article 287 shall have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this
Convention which is submitted to it in accordance with this Part.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art. 288(2)
A court or tribunal referred to in article 287 shall also have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of an
international agreement related to the purposes of this Convention, which is submitted to it in accordance with the agreement.

11
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 07-12

the jurisdiction of the Seabed Disputes the UNCLOS 1982 only deals with rights and
Chamber of the ITLOS13. obligations of State Parties generally and do
not deal with commercial activities
Conclusion conducted by a private entity or an
There are many countries that have ratified individual.
the UNCLOS 1982. This means the UNCLOS Hence, there is a necessity for
1982 has already been regarded as law in harmonization in the commercial sector.
the State Parties where the UNCLOS 1982 This is purported to give legal certainty to
governs the general provisions on the law any foreign party using the Indonesian
of the sea. However, it must be noted that, territory as a passing lane or as a harbor.

13 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), art.288(3)


The Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI, and any other
chamber or arbitral tribunal referred to in Part XI, section 5, shall have jurisdiction in any matter which is submitted to it in accordance
therewith.

Arbitration Law Reform


International Seminar on Indonesia Arbitration Law Nr.30 of 1999 concerning
Arbitration and ADR
Wednesday, 12 August 2015
Hotel Pullman , Jl. M.H. Thamrin 59, Jakarta 10350 Indonesia 08.30 A.M.05.30 P.M.

General session :
Keynote speech by UNCITRAL , Ms. Corinne Montineri

12
Arbitrase Dan Hukum Maritim (Mieke Komar)

Prof. Mieke Komar is a retired judge of


the Indonesian Supreme Court (2003- Abstract
2012) dealing with commercial cases
(Chamber : Commercial Court). She was Arbitration on maritime disputes has developed in various
a former Dean of the Padjajaran
University Law School, Bandung,
countries. Prominent arbitration centers in London, New
Indonesia (1995-2011). York, Hamburg, Singapore, Hongkong, Tokyo and
At present she is still teaching Shanghai are dealing with most of the worlds maritime
international law at the university. She is
a certified Mediator and Arbitrator in the arbitration cases. Indonesia as a maritime nation is
BANI Arbitration Center and founder of compelled to follow their suit, upgrade its maritime laws,
Madyasta Mediation Firm in Jakarta. and read international as well as national arbitration cases
She is active in various seminars and available in various legal sources.
workshops in Indonesia and abroad on
International law issues and Arbitration/ Key Words: Arbitration, Maritime Law, International
Mediation.
Voyage Charterparty, Tokyo Arbitration Award 2005.

Pendahuluan
Pada Seminar Internasional Tentang Maritim dan
Arbitrase yang diselenggarakan BANI pada tanggal 6 April
2015 yang lalu telah didiskusikan berbagai aspek hukum
dalam ranah kelautan perdata dan publik, yang cukup
penting dalam rangka turut membangkitkan dan
mengembangkan Negara Maritim Indonesia1. Makalah
berikut ini membahas beberapa aspek arbitrase dalam
kaitan dengan hukum perdata maritim.
Perlu dicatat bahwa dengan harus dipatuhi syarat
kerahasiaan (confidentiality principle), maka tidak mudah

1 International Seminar on Maritime Law and Arbitration, alternative dispute resolution approach on commercial and international
maritime issues, Pullman hotel , 6th April Jakarta .

13
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 13-18

memperoleh putusan-putusan arbitrase dalam sengketa kontraktual maritim dan


dalam hukum maritim secara lengkap, karenanya tidak melibatkan upaya
terkecuali apabila suatu perkara arbitrase penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase
dipermasalahkan kembali di badan adalah tabrakan antar kapal (casualities)3. Di
peradilan suatu Negara, atau putusan Indonesia, hal yang terakhir ini diatur dalam
arbitrase telah dimuat dalam majalah Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 2008
hukum terkemuka, atau merupakan bahan tentang Pelayaran dan merupakan
studi riset yang kemudian dipublikasikan wewenang Mahkamah Pelayaran yang
misalnya melalui Internet. Aspek berfungsi untuk melaksanakan pemeriksaan
kerahasiaan dari proses penyelesaian lanjutan atas kecelakaan kapal.
perkara Arbitrase juga tidak sama. Misalnya,
di London, Singapura, Hongkong, Klausula Arbitrase
Rotterdam dan Hamburg putusan arbitrase
Secara umum klausula Arbitrase ditemukan
bersifat rahasia atau confidential. Khususnya
dalam Bills of lading (konosemen), baik
di London, sifat perkara dan identitas para dalam form Bill of Lading itu sendiri maupun
pihak hanya dapat diketahui publik pada
dengan dimasukkan charterparty dalam
saat perkara tersebut diterima di
suatu kontrak Bill of Lading4. Berikut ini
Pengadilan/Court of Appeal, sementara di
beberapa hal berkaitan dengan perjanjian
New York putusan arbitrase diumumkan ke
arbitrase yang harus diperhatikan.
publik2. Di Indonesia prinsip kerahasiaan
dalam seluruh proses arbitrase komersial Suatu kontrak yang bersifat internasional,
harus dipegang teguh, namun demikian harus memperhatikan aturan hukum yang
perkara maritim perdata lazim diperkarakan spesifik berlaku di negara-negara para
di Pengadilan Niaga dan jarang diselesaikan Pihak. Misalnya dalam menetapkan sifat
dalam proses arbitrase di BANI. dari sengketa yang bersangkutan. Menurut
Hukum Indonesia, UU No 30 1999 dengan
Sengketa Perdata Maritim tegas menetapkan bahwa arbitrase hanya
dapat diupayakan untuk kasus yang bersifat
Masalahmasalah yang umum termasuk komersial (Pasal 5 dan 66) dan hubungan
dalam sengketa perdata maritim berkaitan hukum antara Indonesia dengan Negara
dengan sewa kapal, ruang dalam kapal, Asing harus dilandasi pada prinsip
juga disebut charterparty, klaim berkaitan resiprositas berdasar suatu kerjasama
dengan muatan atau kargo kapal (cargo), bilateral atau multilateral (Pasal 66). Suatu
jual beli kapal, produksi pembuatan kapal, hal yang teramat penting ialah yurisdiksi
asuransi maritim dan aktivitas para agen dan klausula arbitrase, yaitu apakah badan
dan brokers. Sengketa yang tidak termasuk arbitrase atau arbitrase ad hoc yng
2 International Commercial Arbitration Practice : 21 st Century Perspectives, Horacio A. Grigera Naon, Paul E.Mason , 2011, no 28-1 sd 28-
20
3 ibid
4 baca , Sandra Lielbarde, The incorporation of a Charterparty arbitration clause in the Bill of lading: binding effect of Contract without
consent , Faculty of Law, Spring 2010 , internet .; Binnaz Toopaloglu, The validity of Jurisdiction and Arbitration Clauses against Third
Party holders of Bills of Lading- a comparative study under French, English and EU Law, Kings College London. , dan Incorporation of
arbitration clauses in Bills of Lading: the saga continues , International Congressof Maritime Arbitrators X1X, 2015

14
Arbitrase Dan Hukum Maritim (Mieke Komar)

bersangkutan dapat menetapkan telah atau menyelesaikan sengketa dengan hukum


belum terciptanya suatu perjanjian yang Inggris sebagai hukum yang menguasai
mengikat antara para pihak?. kontrak yang bersangkutan. Dalam hal
demikian, maka Mahkamah Agung akan
Pilihan Hukum dan Pilihan Forum menyatakan N-O atau Niet ontvankelijk
(Choice of Law and Choice of Forum) verklaard tehadap kasus tersebut. Dengan
Para pihak bebas memilih Badan Arbitrase kata lain Para Pihak dipersilahkan untuk
yang akan menyelesaikan suatu sengketa berperkara di London, atau yurisdiksi lain
maritim, apakah itu London Maritime yang dapat menerapkan hukum Inggris,
Arbitration Association (LMAA),yang sangat seperti misalnya Singapura. Adalah sulit
terkenal atau London Court of International bagi hakim Indonesia untuk dapat
Arbitration. Selain di London, Badan memenuhi kwalifikasi penguasaan Common
Arbitrase yang terkemuka adalah New York Law atau Hukum Inggris, sekalipun
Arbitration dan Arbitration Centre di mayoritas aturan hukum maritim di dunia
Hamburg, Amsterdam/ Rotterdam, berasal dari Hukum Inggris.
Singapore, Hongkong, Australia, Tokyo dan Selanjutnya, para pihak harus dengan tegas
Shanghai. memilih anggota Majelis Arbiter. Perlu
Para pihak juga memiliki kebebasan diketahui bahwa setiap Arbitration Centre
memilih hukum yang akan menguasai akan menyediakan daftar nama para arbiter,
kontrak mereka, namun demikian berkaitan namun demikian para pihak lazim diberi
dengan hukum mana yang dipilih untuk kebebebasan memilih arbiter di luar daftar
menyelesaikan sengketa tersebut (Choice of tersebut. Pilihan untuk menetapkan arbiter
Law) harus dimaklumi bahwa setiap tunggal atau sole arbitrator diserahkan
yurisdiksi memiliki aturan hukum perdata pada para pihak. Pada umumnya sebuah
internasional sendiri (private international majelis akan terdiri dari tiga arbiter dengan
law/conflicts of law rules) untuk menerapkan satu arbiter bertindak sebagai ketua.
hukum mana yang dapat menyelesaikan
suatu sengketa antara para pihak. Dalam Contoh Kasus Sengketa Maritim
yurisdiksi yang sudah maju aturan hukum Berikut ini contoh kasus sengketa maritim
acara peradilannya penerapan aturan antara dua perusahaan berasal dari dua
perdata internasional bukan merupakan Negara berkaitan dengan Voyage
halangan, misalnya para arbitrators di New Charterparty. Inti permasalahan berasal dari
York dapat menerapkan hukum Nederland penolakan Consignee untuk menerima
ataupun sebaliknya. muatan (cargo) semen yang telah
Di Indonesia, di Mahkamah Agung penulis mengeras6. Pemohon dalam perkara ini
berasal dari Korea yang bergerak dalam
mendapatkan beberapa kali kesempatan
usaha perkapalan, sementara Termohon
membaca putusan perkara maritim5,
adalah perusahaan dagang berasal dari
dimana kontrak dengan tegas memilih
London sebagai forum untuk Jepang.

5 Penulis adalah mantan hakim agung RI thn 2003-2012 , kamar Hukum Perdata Khusus.
6 WaveLenght, the Bulletin of the Japan Shipping Exchange Inc. no 15, Maret 2006. Singkatan digunakan untuk memenuhi prinsip
kerahasiaandari para pihak.

15
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 13-18

Dalam perkara ini Pemohon adalah pihak Pemohon kemudian mengajukan klaim ke
yang telah mencarter flag bulk carrier M.V. pihak Termohon berdasarkan C/PA untuk
ABC untuk mengangkut semen Termohon beaya pemindahan kargo selama di Long
(in bulk) dari Sri Rachs (Thailand) ke Long Beach dan di Vancouver. Jumlah klaim
Beach Calfornia (Amerika Serikat) back to yang terdiri dari Balance freight and
back basis. Persayaratan dan Kondisi (Terms demurrage yang terjadi di Long Beach dan
and Conditions) Charter party (C/PB) dan kehilangan waktu di Vancouver, seluruhnya
voyage charter party tertanggal Juni 21, berjumlah USD 857,164.50. Klaim yang
2001 (C/PA) mencantumkan ketentuan dimohonkan juga termasuk bunga sejak
perihal Loading, Discharging Costs, FIO November 10, 2001 sampai dengan
dengan free of any risk, liability and expense selesainya pembayaran, sebesar 6% sesuai
whatsoever to the Owners. Para pihak juga dengan Commercial Code Jepang. Klaim ini
sepakat bahwa penyelesaian setiap diperiksa oleh Majelis Arbitrase di Tokyo
sengketa diselesaikan melalui forum sesuai dengan ketentuan kontrak.
arbitrase yang diselenggarakan di Tokyo
Dalam pemeriksaan pihak Pemohon
oleh Tokyo Maritime Arbitration
berpendapat bahwa Charterer menanggung
Commission of the Japan Shipping
beban pembuktian (burden of proof) bahwa
Exchange Inc. (TOMAC) sesuai dengan Rules
kargo berada dalam keadaan baik pada
dari TOMAC serta setiap amandemennya
waktu loading terkait dengan adanya pasal
dengan putusan arbitrase yang bersifat final
tentang FIO (Free In and Out), yaitu suatu
dan binding. terminologi yang umum digunakan dalam
Setelah memuat (loading) 38,500 metric pelayaran internasional dan diartikan
tons of Ordinary Gray Portland Cement in bahwa pihak Pengangkut tidak
bulk, pada tgl Oktober 14, 2001 kapal tsb bertanggung jawab untuk biaya loading
berlayar dari Sri Racha (Thailand) menuju dan unloading barang ke dalam dan keluar
Long Beach USA. Kapal tersebut tiba pada Kapal.
tanggal November 10, 2001 dan ternyata
Putusan Majelis Arbitrase yang dijatuhkan
bahwa kurang lebih 2,500 metric ton cargo
pada tanggal 26 Agustus 2005 di Tokyo,
tersebut telah mengeras. Pihak Consignee
hanya mengabulkan sebagian tuntutan
(PPP Cement), menolak kargo semen yang
Pemohon, yaitu mewajibkan Termohon
mengeras tersebut dengan alasan bahwa
untuk membayar uang sejumlah US D
semen tersebut tidak lagi memenuhi nilai
373,328.43 ditambah bunga 6% per tahun
komersial dan juga dapat menimbulkan
sejak November 7, 2002 sampai dengan
kerusakan pada peralatan unloading karena
tanggal pembayaran, sementara biaya
kargo yang keras tersebut dapat turut
arbitrase dibebankan pada kedua belah
merusak kargo yang baik yang sudah
pihak. Jumlah ganti rugi ini hanya sekitar
disimpan di gudang (warehouse).
45% dari jumlah tuntutan yang berjumlah
Akibatnya pihak Pemohon (Korea)
USD 857,126.50.
memindahkan kargo yang telah ditolak
tersebut dari kapal atas biaya sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa pertimbangan hukum

16
Arbitrase Dan Hukum Maritim (Mieke Komar)

yang dipergunakan oleh Majelis Arbitrase 5) Dari pemeriksaan bukti, ditemukan


dalam membuat putusan. bahwa:
1) Bahwa perkara ini harus diputus a) Pemohon gagal membuktikan
dengan ketentuan umum good faith bahwa kerugian pada kargo di Hold
and trust (itikad baik dan kepercayaan) 1 disebabkan oleh alasan lain kecuali
menurut hukum sipil Jepang. Dalam adanya kontaminasi dari air laut,
hal ini perlu dilakukan pemeriksaan b) Termohon tidak berhasil
bagaimana kerugian kargo muncul, memberikan cukup bukti tentang
siapa yang seharusnya melakukan bagaimana kargo dalam Hold no 2
pengawasan (control) terjadinya dapat terkontaminasi oleh air bersih,
kerusakan atau yang dapat sementara hasil surveyor tidak
menghindari terjadinya kerusakan menyatakan adanya kerusakan baik
kargo. pada Hold no. 2 dan 5.
2) Pemilik kargo tidak bertanggung jawab c) Termohon juga tidak dapat
atas beaya untuk mengeluarkan kargo membuktikan bahwa Kargo berada
dari kapal kecuali bila kargo tersebut dalam keadaan baik (sound) sebelum
bernilai lebih dari biaya di masukkan ke dalam Kapal, maka
pemindahannya. Hal ini didasarkan alasan alasan Termohon patut
pada Pasal 760 Commercial Code
ditolak.
Jepang yang menyatakan:
6) Pihak Pemilik Kapal bertanggung jawab
The carriage contract shall be atas kerugian yang disebabkan pada
automatically terminated in case of Hold no 1, dan wajib membayar biaya
sinking of the ship or CTL of the ship. In removal dan disposal semen keras
such a case, the charterer shall pay the tersebut. Pihak Charterer bertanggung
ocean freight to the owner according to jawab atas biaya Kargo Hold no 2 dan
the rate of the performance of the no 5, dan berdasar perhitungan
contract but the charterers liability shall kembali, Majelis berpendapat bahwa
not exceed the value of the cargo. kerusakan Kargo seluruhnya berjumlah
3) Patokan nilai kargo diatas diterapkan 2300 ton, terdiri dari:
kepada penerima kargo yang
Hold No. 1: 1100 ton
merupakan pemegang Bill of Lading
Hold No. 2: 1000 ton
terakhir, dan bukan pihak pembuat
voyage charter dengan pihak Hold No. 5: 200 ton
pengangkut, pihak pemilik kapal. 7) Jumlah kerugian sebesar USD
4) Pihak Charterer harus membuktikan 746,656.75, dan kerugian harus
bahwa pihak Pemilik Kapal telah ditanggung bersama oleh Pemilik Kapal
melanggar Warranty Clause, yang berisi dan Charterer, masing-masing 50%
jaminan (warranty) bahwa hatch cover (lima puluh persen). Selain itu, Pihak
adalah kedap air (watertight). Pemohon juga berhak mendapatkan

17
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 13-18

bunga sebesar 6% per tahun dihitung Dapat ditambahkan bahwa Putusan


sejak 7 November 2002 sampai dengan Arbitrase diatas tidak mengandung sifat
tanggal pembayaran sesuai dengan mengikat pada pihak lain maupun
Pasal 514 Commercial Code Jepang. mengikat pada kasus kasus yang muncul
kemudian hari (precedent) namun demkian
8) Biaya arbitrase dibebankan kepada para
kasus tersebut bernilai untuk diketahui baik
pihak.
bagi para praktisi, arbitrator dan kalangan
akademis.

Arbitration Law Reform


International Seminar on Indonesia Arbitration Law Nr.30 of 1999 concerning
Arbitration and ADR
Wednesday, 12 August 2015
Hotel Pullman , Jl. M.H. Thamrin 59, Jakarta 10350 Indonesia 08.30 A.M.05.30 P.M.

Session I : Arbitration law, General Provisions


Prof. Huala Adolf (Speaker), Dr. Madjedi hasan (Moderator)
and Mr. Shintaro Uno (Speaker)

Session II : Conduct of the Arbitration


Prof. Locknie Hsu (Speaker), Prof. Chaidir Makarim
(Moderator) and Prof. Dr. Frans H. Winarta (Speaker)

18
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase (Huala Adolf)

Huala Adolf is professor at Faculty of ABSTRAK


Law, Universitas Padjadjaran,
Bandung, Indonesia. He is Chairman
Peoples interest to arbitration is greater than ever. This
of Center for Arbitration and development is giving a encouraging signal to arbitration
Alternative Dispute Resolution and will add peoples confidence to arbitration to settle
(Universitas Padjadjaran). He is also their dispute. This article contends that the attention
an Arbitrator and Fellow (FCBArb) of
BANI Arbitration Center, Jakarta, would be better when the understanding to the theory or
Indonesia and Vice Chair of even the philosophy of arbitration is also added. This
Indonesian Arbitrators Institute article would take a look on the Pancasila philosophy of
(IArbI). He published books and law in relation to the settlement of dispute. This article
articles mainly on arbitration,
international trade law and argues that the concept of the so-called musyawarah or
international contract law. negotiation reflects the Pancasila philosophy of law.
Keywords : Arbitration, Musyawarah, Pancasila
Philosophy of Law

A. Pendahuluan
Tulisan ini menguraikan teori dan filsafat hukum
Pancasila terkait arbitrase. Dalam berbagai literatur,
ada beberapa sarjana mengangkat teori dan filsafat
arbitrase. Mereka, misalnya adalah Prijatna
Abdurrasjid, Emmanuel Gaillard, Jerzy Jakobowski, dll.
Prof Priyatna Abdurrasjid dalam bukunya Arbitrase
dan Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa memaparkan
teorinya mengenai filsafat penyelesaian sengketa ini1.
Beliau mendalilkan dua filsafat dari alternatif
penyelesaian sengketa (yang di dalamnya termasuk
arbitrase). Dua filsafat itu adalah:

1 Priyatna Abdurrasjid, Arbitrase dan Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa, Jakarta: Fikahati, cet 2, 2011, hlm. 305-310.

19
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 19-28

1) Pemberdayaan Individu; dan Sedangkan sarjana lainnya Prof. Jerzy


2) Pemecahan Masalah dengan Jakubowski tertuang dalam tulisannya
Bekerja sama. Reflections on the Philosophy of
Dua unsur filsafat ADR ini penting, International Commercial Arbitration4.
Tulisan Jakubowski ini bukan saja
karena pandangan beliau tidak semata-
sekedar penting untuk dapat lebih
mata melihat putusan arbitrase bukan
sebagai hal utama, namun bagaimana memahami arbitrase, terutama filsafat
arbitrase, tetapi juga karena tulisannya
masalah atau sengketa itu diselesaikan.
Pandangan filsafats ini tercermin dan khas. Tulisan Jakubowski tidak
menggantungkan pada filsafat yang
terbawa di dalam praktek arbitrase di
Indonesia terkait bagaimana sengketa ada tentang arbitrase, tetapi pemikiran
Jakubowski lahir dari hasil pengamatan
itu diselesaikan. Para pihak yang
bersengketa pertama-tama diberi bekal beliau terhadap proses atau praktek
terlebih dahulu mengenai filsafat ini, arbitrase. Dalam tulisannya Jakubowski
menarik intisari atau yang beliau sebut
terutama filsafat yang kedua, kerja
sama atau istilah yang beliau gunakan sebagai refleksi dari bentuk-bentuk
yang umum yang terdapat dalam
adalah kooperatif.
arbitrase komersial internasional dan
Pandangan beliau yang kuat adalah, konsiliasi5.
setiap sengketa baik yang sederhana
atau sulit, dapat diselesaikan dan dapat Dalam tulisan ini penulis akan mencoba
diterima oleh semua pihak dengan mengangkat bagaimana Filsafat
lapang dada. Pencapaian ini dapat Hukum Pancasila dapat memberi
terjadi apabila ada kerja sama atau ada makna kepada arbitrase. Tulisan
sikap kooperatif yang ditunjukkan oleh mencoba melihat bagaimana filsafat
kedua pihak yang bersengketa. Tanpa hukum Pancasila dengan berbagai
filsafat kooperatif ini, sengketa yang pemikiran atau konsepsi yang
paling sederhana apa pun akan terasa dikembangkan oleh para sarjana di
tanah air diterapkan kepada
sulit.
penyelesaian sengketa melalui
Prof Emmanuel Gaillard memperkenal- arbitrase.
kan filsafat transnasional dalam tulisan
beliau berjudul Three Philosophies of Tulisan ini tidak berasumsi bahwa
International Arbitration2. filsafat hukum Pancasila untuk
Filsafat
penyelesaian sengketa melalui
transnasional beliau tampak lebih
arbitrase ini adalah yang terbaik
mencerminkan nilai-nilai filsafat Eropa
dibanding aliran filsafat hukum lain
(Barat)3.

2 Emmanuel Gaillard, Three Philosophies of International Arbitration, Dalam Arthur W. Rovine (ed.), Contemporary Issues in International
Arbitration, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2010, hlm. 305-310.
3 Emmanuel Gaillard, Three Philosophies of International Arbitration, Dalam Arthur W. Rovine (ed.), Contemporary Issues in International
Arbitration, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2010, hlm. 305-310. Uraian lebih lanjut mengenai teori prof. Gaillard ini, lihat tulisan penulis: Huala
Adolf, Dasar-dasar, Teori, Prinsip dan Filosofi Arbitrase, Bandung: Keni Media, 2014.
4 Dalam Jan C. Schultz and Albert J.V. den Berg, The Art of Arbitration, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 1982, hlm. 175-194.
5 Uraian lebih lanjut mengenai teori prof. Jerzy Jakubowski ini, lihat tulisan penulis: Huala Adolf, Dasar-dasar, Teori, Prinsip dan Filosofi
Arbitrase, Bandung: Keni Media, 2014.

20
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase (Huala Adolf)

seperti misalnya konsepsi Gaillard atau dikenal bangsa-bangsa dunia (dalam


Jakubowski. Dalam ilmu hukum yang PBB) yaitu:
kita pahami, terdapat prinsip-prinsip 1) Negosiasi;
hukum umum yang dikenal bangsa- 2) Penyelidikan;
bangsa di dunia (General principles of 3) Mediasi;
law recognised by civilised nations). 4) Konsilasi;
Prinsip hukum ini misalnya prinsip 5) Arbitrase;
itikad baik, prinsip hutang harus 6) Pengadilan;
dibayar, janji harus ditepati, atau 7) Penyelesaian melalui lembaga-
prinsip ganti rugi (kompensasi). lembaga regional; atau
Dalam filsafat hukum tentang 8) Cara-cara damai lainnya yang para
penyelesaian sengketa penulis pihak pilih.
berasumsi bahwa terdapat prinsip-
prinsip hukum umum yang dikenal B. Filsafat Hukum Pancasila
oleh masyarakat bangsa di dunia Di antara kalangan akademisi, mereka
terlepas sistem hukum yang dianut. yang memberi perhatian kepada
Prinsip hukum ini termuat dalam Pasal Pancasila, terutama filsafat hukum
33 ayat (1) Piagam PBB. Pasal penting Pancasila belumlah banyak. Sebagian
ini menyatakan: besar literatur di bidang filsafat hukum
The parties to any dispute, lebih banyak memaparkan filasafat dari
the continuance of which is barat terutama benua Eropa. Memang
likely to endanger the dari daratan benua inilah filsafat
maintenance of international mengalami masa pencerahan luar biasa
peace and security, shall, first ketika rasio dijadikan sarana berpikir
of all, seek a solution by untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan,
negotiation, enquiry, media- makna keadilan, kebenaran, dll.
tion, conciliation, arbitration, Lahirnya perubahan radikal, dari alam
judicial settlement, resort to magis ke alam kekuatan rasio manusia
regional agencies or arrange- di zaman Yunani kuno hingga lahirnya
ments, or other peaceful pikiran-pikiran atau mazhab filsafat
pasca Renasissance, filsafat termasuk
means of their own choice.
filsafat hukum berkembang pesat.
Pasal 33 ayat (1) Piagam ini
mensyaratkan penyelesaian sengketa Membanjirnya literatur barat seolah
secara damai. Prinsip damai tersirat menutup dan menenggelamkan
dalam kata international peace6. Dari pemikiran filsafat di dalam negeri.
Masalahnya adalah, pemikiran filsafat di
bunyi pengaturan Pasal 33 ayat (1) ini
tersurat cara-cara penyelesaian yang dalam negeri kadang kala memiliki nilai

6 Juga termuat dalam Pasal 1 Piagam PBB: To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures
for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to
bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international
disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;.

21
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 19-28

-nilai yang lebih diterima dibandingkan Dalam uraiannya, Arief Sidharta


dengan filsafat barat. Bahkan memaparkan pendekatan terhadap
pemikiran filsafat yang tumbuh dan filsafat hukum Pancasila ke dalam 6
berkembang di dalam negeri (enam) bagian, yaitu7:
tampaknya lebih tepat dan lebih dapat 1) Filsafat Hukum dan Pandangan
diterima. Tepat dan dapat diterima Hidup;
karena filsafat yang berkembang 2) Pancasila sebagai Pandangan Hidup
merupakan perwujudan dari cara Bangsa Indonesia;
pandang yang berakar dan tumbuh 3) Pengertian Hukum Pancasila;
dari masyarakat. Filsafat yang 4) Hakikat Hukum Pancasila;
dimaksud adalah filsafat Pancasila, 5) Tujuan Hukum Pancasila:
dalam hal ini bagian daripadanya yaitu Pengayoman; dan
filsafat hukum Pancasila. 6) Tugas/Fungsi Hukum dalam
Sarjana terkemuka yang mengkaji Pancasila.
filsafat hukum Pancasila secara Singkatnya, filsafat hukum Pancasila
mendalam antara lain adalah Guru tidak lain adalah refleksi pandangan
Besar terkemuka Soediman hidup Pancasila dalam hal hukum.
Kartohadiprodjo dan Arief Sidharta. Dengan pengertian ini, pengertian
Peran Arief Sidharta dalam filsafat hukum Pancasila mengacu
menembangkan filsafat hukum kepada pandangan hidup (bangsa
Pancasila sangat penting dewasa ini
Indonesia) dan dijiwai oleh Pancasila8.
karena beliau konsisten dalam
mengembangkan konsep-konsep Dari 6 (enam) bagian uraian di atas,
pemikiran filsafat hukum Pancasila. bagian yang relevan dengan
Beliau pun tekun membagi konsep ini penyelesaian sengketa (yang dijiwai
dengan berbagai kalangan dalam Pancasila) adalah bagian ke-4, yaitu
pertemuan atau forum akademisi baik hakikat hukum Pancasila. Dalam uraian
yang sifatnya formal atau pun informal. bagian ini Arief Sidharta tidak
Uraian mengenai bagian ini tidak menyebut langsung keterkaitan bagian
memaparkan filsafat hukum Pancasila ini dengan penyelesaian sengketa,
secara panjang lebar buah pikiran tetapi seperti penulis uraikan di bawah,
Soediman yang dikembangkan oleh pengertian bagian ke-4 ini dapat
Arief Sidharta. Uraian hanya menjiwai bagaimana sengketa
menguraikan sebagian kecilnya saja, itu diselesaikan.
pun dibatasi hanya kepada hal atau sub Bagian ke-4 di bawah judul Hakikat
bagian yang terkait dengan sub bagian Hukum Pancasila membahas gagasan
dari sistem hukum, yaitu sub bagian atau cita hukum dalam alam pemikiran
penyelesaian sengketa. menurut Pancasila9. Menurut Arief
7 B. Arief Sidharta, Filsafat Hukum Pancasila, dalam: Rudi M. Rizky dkk., Refleksi Dinamika Hukum: Rangkaian Pemikiran dalam Dekade
Terakhir (Analisis Komparatif tentang Hukum oleh 63 Akademisi dan Praktisi Hukum, Jakarta: Perum Percetakan Negara RI, 2008, hlm. 15
dst.
8 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 16.
9 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 18.

22
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase (Huala Adolf)

Sidharta, ciri-ciri khas dari hukum yang 3) Asas keselarasan mendapat


dijiwai oleh Pancasila atau Hukum penjelasan yang terkait dengan
Pancasila yaitu10: penyelesaian sengketa, dimana Arief
Sidharta menjelaskan dengan
(a) asas kerukunan;
(b) asas kepatutan; dan kalimat berikut13:
(c) asas keselarasan. Asas ini menghendaki terseleng-
garanya harmoni dalam kehidupan
Menurut Arief Sidharta, ketiga asas ini
dapat dicakup dalam satu istilah, yakni bermasyarakat. Berdasarkan asas ini,
sifat kekeluargaan, yang berasas tiga, maka penyelesaian sengketa masalah
-masalah konkret selain harus
yaitu:
didasarkan pada pertimbangan
1) Asas kerukunan yang diartikan kebenaran dan kaidah-kaidah hukum
sebagai11: yang berlaku, juga harus dapat
Ketertiban dan keteraturan yang diakomodasikan pada proses-proses
bersuasana ketenteraman batin, kemasyaratan sebagai keseluruhan
kesenangan bergaul di antara yang utuh dengan mempertimbang-
sesamanya, keramahan dan kan perasaan-perasaan yang
kesejahteraan yang memungkinkan sungguh-sungguh hidup dalam
terselenggaranya interaksi antar- masyarakat. (Cetak miring oleh
manusia yang sejati. penulis).

2) Asas kepatutan sebagai12: Dari uraian mengenai ketiga asas itu,


yaitu asas kerukunan, kepatutan dan
Asas tentang cara menyelenggara- keselarasan sebenarnya terkait
kan hubungan antar-warga langsung dengan penyelesaian
masyarakat yang di dalamnya para sengketa, bukan semata asas ketiga
warga masyarakat diharapkan untuk yaitu asas keselarasan. Bahkan
berperilaku dalam kepantasan yang menurut penulis, asas kerukunan ini
sesuai dengan kenyataan-kenyataan adalah asas yang paling penting di
sosial. Juga dalam melaksanakan dalam penyelesaian sengketa.
hak dan kewajiban yang sah
menurut hukum, para warga Arti penting asas kerukunan terkait
masyarakat diharapkan untuk dengan filsafat penyelesaian sengketa
memperhatikan kepantasan, yakni (secara umum maupun secara langsung
dari para warga masyarakat terkait dengan Pancasila). Filsafat
diharapkan berperilaku sedemikian penyelesaian sengketa tersebut adalah
rupa hingga tidak merendahkan pencegahan sengketa. Dalam kehi-
martabatnya sendiri dan atau orang dupan masyarakat yang menjunjung
lain. tinggi asas ini, masyarakat akan

10 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 20.


11 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 17.
12 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 18.
13 B. Arief Sidharta, Ibid., hlm. 20.

23
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 19-28

berupaya untuk mencegah terjadinya ini mengakui pemberlakuan aturan


sengketa. Dengan asas kerukunan, hukum ini tidak semata-mata berupa
masyarakat atau anggota masyarakat norma hukum positif, tetapi juga
akan menahan diri untuk tidak memperhatikan proses-proses
mencederai atau menyakiti pihak kemasyarakatan. Kalimat terkhir ini
lainnya demi terciptanya kerukunan ini. terutama berwujud kebiasaan-
Namun apabila sengketa tidak dapat kebiasaan yang berlaku dalam
dihindari dan tetap lahir, maka asas masyarakat. Asas ini misalnya tercermin
kerukunan pun dapat berperan di di dalam ketentuan Pasal 1339 KUH
dalamnya. Asas ini dapat mendorong Perdata. Pasal 1339 KUH Perdata ini
para pihak untuk bersama-sama berbunyi:
mencari pemecahan sengketa dengan Suatu perjanjian tidak hanya mengikat
berdasarkan pada keinginan untuk untuk hal-hal yang dengan tegas
menjunjung tinggi asas kerukunan. dinyatakan di dalamnya, tetapi juga
Karena itu, penyelesaian menurut asas untuk segala sesuatu yang menurut sifat
kerukunan ini adalah pencegahan perjanjian, diharuskan oleh kepatutan,
sengketa. Apabila sengketa tidak dapat kebiasaan atau Undang-undang. (Cetak
dielakkan atau dicegah, langkah yang miring oleh penulis).
para pihak tempuh adalah bagiaman
Masalah selanjutnya adalah bagaimana
sengketa diselesaikan secara damai. penerapan filsafat hukum Pancasila ini
Asas kedua kepatutan berperan pula di ke dalam norma-norma hukum (positif)
dalam menyelesaikan sengketa tetapi dan bagaimana pula penerapannya
asas ini biasanya berdampingan terhadap sengketa-sengketa konkrit.
dengan keadilan. Asas ini biasanya Ketiga asas di atas bersifat umum atau
lebih terkait dengan penerapan hukum abstrak.
yang majelis arbitrase terapkan.
Menurut hemat penulis, esensi dari
Penerapan asas ini pun biasanya
ketiga asas yang digolongkan ke dalam
terbatas yaitu sepanjang para pihak
satu sifat yaitu sifat kekeluargaan
menghendakinya. Di dalam hukum
adalah musyawarah untuk mencapai
penyelesaian sengketa melalui
mufakat14. Sifat kekeluargaan berupa
arbitrase, istilah ini terkait dengan mausyawarah adalah cerminan
penerapan hukum-nya yaitu masyarakat Indonesia (dan masyarakat
berdasarkan kepatutan dan keadilan di dunia timur umumnya) yang
yang lazim dikenal dengan istilah ex menekankan penyelesaian sengketa
aequo et bono. non-litigatif.
Asas keselarasan mencerminkan Sifat kekeluargaan dalam
penerapan hukum yang berlaku di menyelesaikan sengketa lebih
dalam menyelesasikan masalah. Asas mencerminkan penyelesaian sengketa
14 Pencerminan dari sila ke-4 Pancasila.

24
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase (Huala Adolf)

melalui negosiasi yang tidak lain adalah yang dikenal di dunia yaitu negosiasi.
musyawarah untuk mencapai mufakat. Uraian berikut juga akan melihat
Dalam Pasal 33 ayat (1) Piagam PBB bagaimana BANI Rules (Peraturan
tersebut di atas memuat cara negosiasi Prosedur BANI) dalam tahap tertentu
sebagai cara yang pertama-tama mencerminkan prinsip mufakat ini di
ditempuh para pihak. Seperti telah dalam aturan prosedur berarbitrasenya.
disebut pula di atas, muatan Pasal 33 1. UU Nomor 30 Tahun 1999
ayat (1) ini adalah prinsip hukum umum a. Pasal 6
dalam penyelesaian sengketa15. Musyawarah dapat tersirat dalam
Pengertian musyawarah sebagai Pasal 6 UU Nomor 30 Tahun 1999
refleksi dari filsafat hukum Pancasila ini. Pasal 6 khusus mengatur
merupakan nilai atau cita hukum yang alternatif penyelesaian sengketa
berasal dari cara-cara penyelesaian (APS). Dalam APS ini termuat
sengketa yang dikenal dalam hukum penyelesaian melalui negosiasi,
adat di berbagai suku di Indonesia. meskipun tidak menggunakan
Prof. Priyatna Abdurrasjid telah istilah musyawarah. Pasal ini
mengumpulkan berbagai terminologi penting karena menekankan atau
yang dikenal dalam masyarakat hukum paling tidak menyebutkan cara
adat Indonesia (dan dunia) yang intinya APS (termasuk negosiasi di
adalah musyawarah (dalam konteks dalamnya) yang para pihak perlu
APS)16. tempuh untuk menyelesaikan
sengketanya.
C. Musyawarah untuk Mufakat dalam Pasal ini pun agak berbeda
UU Arbitrase dan Rules BANI. dengan UU arbitrase di berbagai
Dari aturan norma hukum positif yang negara di dunia termasuk di
termuat dalam pasal-pasal UU Nomor dalam UNCITRAL Model Law on
30 Tahun 1999, asumsi awal tulisan ini International Commercial Arbi-
adalah bahwa norma-norma hukum di tration 1985. UU Nomor 30 Tahun
dalamnya haruslah mencemrinkan atau 1999 berbeda karena UU ini yang
memuat cita hukum Pancasila sebagai sebagian besar pasalnya
sumber dari segala sumber hukum di mengatur arbitrase, memuat 1
Indonesia. Telah diuraikan di atas, cita (satu) pasal khusus mengenai
hukum dalam filsafat hukum Pancasila APS, yaitu Pasal 6. Dalam berbagai
di dalam penyelesaian sengketa adalah UU Arbitrase di dunia bahkan
musyawarah (untuk mencapai mufakat) UNCITRAL Model Law, tidak secara
atau yang dikenal dalam sistem hukum
15 Dalam bidang ilmu hukum internasional, prinsip hukum umum dapatlah disebut pula sebagai Jus Cogens. Blacks Law memberi batasan
Jus Cogens sebagai norma hukum yang bersifat memaksa yang diakui oleh negara-negara di dunia: A mandatory or peremptory norm
of general international law accepted and recognized by the international community as a norm from which no derogation is
permitted. - A peremptory norm can be modified only by a later norm that has the same character. Cf. JUS DISPOSITlVUM. [Cases:
International Law (;:.:c 1.] 2. Civil law. A mandatory rule of law that is not subject to the disposition of the parties, such as an absolute
limitation on the legal capacity of minors below a certain age. Also termed (in sense 2) peremptory norm. (Blacks Law Dicitonary, 9th.ed.,
hlm. 937).
16 Priyatna Abdurrasjid, Arbitrase dan Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa, Jakarta: Fikahati, cet. 2., 2011, hlm. 11. (Misalnya beliau
menyebutkan Pang Pade Payu atau Mangde Sami Polih (Bali), Rembug Desa, dll).

25
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 19-28

eksplisit atau tersurat mencan- menghadap pada hari yang telah


tumkan APS ini. Pasal 6 ayat (1) ditetapkan, arbiter atau majelis
misalnya berbunyi: arbitrase terlebih dahulu
Sengketa atau beda pendapat mengusahakan perdamaian
perdata dapat diselesaikan oleh antara para pihak yang
para pihak melalui alternatif bersengketa. (Cetak miring oleh
penyelesaian sengketa yang penulis).
didasarkan pada itikad baik 2. BANI Rules (Peraturan Prosedur
dengan mengesampingkan pe- BANI)
nyelesaian secara litigasi di
Seperti halnya UU Nomor 30 Tahun
Pengadilan Negeri. 1999 di atas, peraturan prosedur
Pengertian APS dijelaskan dalam BANI memuat pula nilai-nilai filsafat
Pasal 1 angka 10: hukum di dalamnya yaitu
Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa musyawarah ini (untuk mencapai
adalah lembaga penyelesaian perdamaian di antara para pihak).
sengketa atau beda pendapat Dalam Peraturan Prosedur BANI
melalui prosedur yang disepakati termuat di dalam pasal-pasal
para pihak, yakni penyelesaian di berikut:
luar pengadilan dengan cara a. Pasal 1
konsultasi, negosiasi, mediasi, Pasal 1 Peraturan Prosedur BANI
konsiliasi, atau penilaian ahli. tidak secara tegas menyatakan
b. Pasal 45 ayat (1) istilah musyawarah atau damai
Ketentuan lain yang penting ini. Istilah yang digunakan adalah
adalah Pasal 45 ayat (1) UU cara kooperatif dan non-
Nomor 30 Tahun 1999. Pasal ini konfrontatif. Dari kedua istilah ini
menyatakan bahwa majelis tersirat di dalamnya upaya
arbitrase ketika menyidangkan penyelesaian yang bersifat
sengketa harus terlebih dahulu kekeluargaan seperti tercermin
mendorong para pihak untuk dalam filsafat hukum Pancasila
menyelesaikan sengketanya yang diuraikan oleh Prof Arief
secara damai. Pasal ini penting Sidharta di atas. Pasal 1
dan seperti halnya Pasal 6 menyebutkan:
merupakan ketentuan yang khas Apabila para pihak dalam suatu
Indonesia dan tidak termuat di perjanjian atau transaksi bisnis
dalam UU Arbitrase umumnya, secara tertulis sepakat membawa
termasuk di dalam UNCITRAL sengketa yang timbul diantara
Model Law. Pasal 45 ayat (1) UU mereka sehubungan dengan
Nomor 30 Tahun 1999 perjanjian atau transaksi bisnis
menyatakan: yang bersangkutan ke arbitrase di
(1) Dalam hal para pihak datang hadapan Badan Arbitrase

26
Filsafat Hukum Pancasila Dan Arbitrase (Huala Adolf)

Nasional Indonesia (BANI), atau ditempuh. Inilah esensi dari


menggunakan Peraturan filsafat hukum Pancasila.
Prosedur BANI, maka sengketa Musyawarah tidak terbatas
tersebut diselesaikan dibawah semata-mata pada tahap
penyelenggaraan BANI berdasar- negosiasi (seperti termuat dalam
kan Peraturan tersebut, dengan Pasal 30 Piagam PBB) tetapi juga
memperhatikan ketentuan-keten- dalam tahap setelah negosiasi
tuan khusus yang disepakati tidak berhasil dan para pihak
secara tertulis oleh para pihak, menempuh cara penyelesaian
sepanjang tidak bertentangan lain, dalam hal ini arbitrase, upaya
dengan ketentuan undang- perdamaian melalui negosiasi
undang yang bersifat memaksa atau musyawarah masih terbuka,
dan kebijaksanaan BANI. bahkan didorong oleh Majelis
Penyelesaian sengketa secara Arbitrase. Pasal 13 ayat (1) ini
damai melalui Arbitrase di BANI menyatakan:
dilandasi itikad baik para pihak
Setelah terbentuk atau ditunjuk
dengan berlandasan tata cara
berdasarkan ketentuan-keten-
kooperatif dan non-konfrontatif. tuan dalam Bab III diatas, Majelis
b. Pasal 13 ayat (1) Arbitrase akan memeriksa dan
Pasal 13 Peraturan Prosedur BANI memutus sengketa antara para
berada di bawah judul Ketentuan pihak atas nama BANI dan
-ketentuan Umum/Persidangan. karenanya dapat melaksanakan
Hal menarik dari pasal ini adalah segala kewenangan yang
ketentuannya senafas dengan dimiliki BANI sehubungan
Pasal 45 UU Nomor 30 Tahun dengan pemeriksaan dan
1999 di atas. Kelebihan pasal ini pengambilan keputusan-kepu-
adalah penegasan bahwa upaya tusan atas sengketa dimaksud.
damai untuk mencari Sebelum dan selama masa
penyelesaian sengketa ini oleh persidangan Majelis dapat me-
Majelis Arbitrase dapat ngusahakan adanya perdamaian
diupayakan dari awal hingga di antara para pihak. Upaya
sebelum putusan dibacakan perdamaian tersebut tidak
(selama masa persidangan). mempengaruhi batas waktu
Tersirat dalam ketentuan pasal ini pemeriksaan di persidangan
bahwa meskipun penyelesaian yang dimaksud dalam Pasal 4
sengketa melalui arbitrase telah ayat (7). (Cetak miring oleh
berlangsung, tetapi tahap penulis).
negosiasi atau musyawarah untuk c. Pasal 20 ayat (1)
mendapatkan penyelesaian atau Pasal 20 Peraturan Prosedur BANI
perdamaian di antara para pihak berada di bawah judul Upaya
musti atau didorong untuk terus Mencari Penyelesaian Damai.

27
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 3 September 2015 : 19-28

Pasal ini memuat ketentuan bantuan Majelis jika disepakati


upaya yang Majelis Arbitrase oleh para pihak.
harus lakukan dalam hal Pasal-pasal di atas dalam UU Nomor 30
menangani sengketa seperti Tahun 1999 dan Peraturan Prosedur BANI
halnya termuat dalam Pasal 13 memuat nilai atau cita hukum Pancasila.
ayat (1) Peraturan Prosedur BANI Yang tampak dari uraian kedua peraturan
di atas. Pasal 20 ayat (1) Peraturan ini, adalah bahwa upaya damai,
Prosedur BANI menyatakan: musyawarah, tidak mengenal cara atau
Majelis pertama-tama harus mekanisme apa yang para pihak gunakan.
mengupayakan agar para Musyawarah (atau negosiasi) perlu terus
pihak mencari jalan terlepas tahapan-tahapan cara atau
penyelesaian damai, baik atas mekanisme yang para pihak upayakan
upaya para pihak sendiri atau penyelesaian terhadap sengketa mereka,
dengan bantuan mediator atau termasuk dalam tahap penyelesaian
pihak ketiga lainnya yang sengketa melalui arbitrase.
independen atau dengan

Arbitration Law Reform


International Seminar on Indonesia Arbitration Law Nr.30 of 1999 concerning
Arbitration and ADR
Wednesday, 12 August 2015
Hotel Pullman , Jl. M.H. Thamrin 59, Jakarta 10350 Indonesia 08.30 A.M.05.30 P.M.

Session III: Enforcement of Arbitration Award


Dr. H. Gusrizal, SH, M.Hum (Speaker), Prof Zen Umar Purba (Moderator) and Prof. Colin
Ong (Speaker)

28
News and Events

Upcoming Events

1. Maritime Dispute Resolution in the Lion City The Next 50 Years

MARITIME DISPUTE Greatnewsforyou!



RESOLUTION IN THE WeareexcitedtoannounceSCMAConference
2015:MaritimeDisputeResolutionintheLion
LION CITY CityTheNext50Yearshasbeenaccreditedby
SILEfor6CPDPoints!
THENEXT50YEARS
ClickonRegisterNowtoclaimyourCPD
Friday, 23 October 2015 Points.Formoreinformation,visit
MaxwellChambers,Level3 www.scmaconference.sg

Attendance Policy:
Participants who wish to claim CPD Points are reminded that they must comply strictly with the
Attendance Policy set out in the CPD Guidelines. This includes signing in on arrival and signing
out at the conclusion of the activity in the manner required by the organiser, and not being
absent from the entire activity for more than 15 minutes. Participants who do not comply with the
Attendance Policy will not be able to obtain CPD Points for attending the activity. Please refer to
www.sileCPDcentre.sg for more information.

2. KCAB (Korean Commercial Arbitration Board)


Seoul ADR Festival (SAF)
26November2015inSeoul

3. Kluwer Law Conference for In-house Counsels


South Korea:
4th Annual International Arbitration Summit
Event Date : Thursday, 12th November 2015
Time : 8:50am 5:40pm
Venue:MillenniumSeoulHilton

Moreinformationcanbefoundat
http://www.cch.com.hk/ExecutiveEvent_DocumentLibrary/Korea_4thAnnualInternational
ArbitrationSummit_12Nov.pdf

29
INDONESIA ARBITRATION - Vol. 7 No. 2 June 2015 : 33-34

Past Events

1. Arbitration Law Reform


International Seminar on Indonesia Arbitration Law Nr.30 of 1999 concerning
Arbitration and ADR
Wednesday,12August2015
HotelPullman,Jl.M.H.Thamrin59,Jakarta10350Indonesia08.30A.M.05.30P.M.

2. Diploma in Islamic Banking & Finance Arbitration Course


513september2015
Venue:KualaLumpurRegionalCentreforArbitration
BangunanSulaiman,JalanSultanHishamuddin

3. ICC Indonesia
Seminar :Arbitration of Oil and Gas Disputes
Date:Tuesday,1September2015
Time:14.0017.00WIB
Venue:SasonoMulyo1,LeMeridienHotel
Jl.Jend.SudirmanKav.1820Jakarta

4. In Style Hongkong Expo


Date : 17 September 2015
Venue : Jakarta Convention Center
Legal&Arbitration:KeyforInternationalTradeSolvingBusinessDisputeswith
EaseAlternativeDisputesResolutionistheWay

5. SIAC Jakarta Conference 2015
The Rise and Rise of International Arbitration in Indonesia
Date : 17 September 2015
Venue : Raf les Jakarta

30