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ADDITIONAL

GRAMMAR

BASIC TWO

This material is going to


B2
help you to understand
grammar in Basic Two.
UNIT 1 Buying and Selling

UNIT 2 Healthy Eating

UNIT 3 Getting Help

UNIT 4 Sports

UNIT 5 Enjoy your Meal

UNIT 6 Interesting People

UNIT 7 Family Life

UNIT 8 A Bad Day

B2
UNIT 1

B2

Buying and Selling


Comprando y vendiendo
Past Tense Verb To Be / (Pasado del Verbo To Be)

To form negative and Para formar la negativa y


interrogative form is the same as in la interrogativa es lo mismo que en
the present simple. el presente simple.

Next we will see the affirmative, negative and question forms of the
verb to be in the past:

A continuacin veremos las formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa


del verbo to be en pasado:
Affirmative Sentences

He was my friend when I was twelve years


old.
El era mi amigo cuando yo tena doce
aos.

I was a Math student last year.


Yo era un estudiante de Matemticas el ao pasado.

She was a salesperson / Ella era una vendedora

They were good kids / Ellos eran buenos nios.

He was in the office this morning / l estaba en la


oficina esta maana
Negative Sentences

The short form of Was


not is Wasnt and the
short form of Were not is
Werent. You can say either:

(La Forma corta de was not


es wasnt y la forma corta
de were not es werent.
Puedes decir cualquier:)

We were not at home yesterday,


or We werent at home yesterday.
(Nosotros no estabamos en casa ayer)

I was not at home yesterday,


or I wasnt at home yesterday.
(Yo no estaba en casa ayer)
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
Past of To Be + Subj + ?
Was I?
Was she/He?
Was It?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?
Were they at home yesterday?
(Estaban ellos en casa ayer?)

Was she at the party last night?


(Estaba ella en la fiesta anoche?)
UNIT 2

Healthy Eating
Alimentacin Saludable
Count and Non-count Nouns and Quantifiers
Count Noun (Los nombres o sustantivos contables)
Sustantivo usado para referirse
Noun used to refer to things that
a cosas que pueden ser contadas,
can be counted, They have a sin-
Tienen una forma singular y plural.
gular and a plural form.
Tienen forma plural
Ejemplo: book - books

Se pueden numerar
Ejemplo: five books

Se puede usar el artculo indefinido a/an


Ejemplo: a book

Uncountable Nouns (Sustantivos incontables)


Uncountable nouns are for Sustantivos incontables son los
the things that we cant count que no podemos contar usando
with numbers. They usually nmeros, Usualmente no tienen
dont have a plural form. forma plural.

No tienen forma plural


No se pueden enumerar
Ejemplo: two milks
No se puede usar el artculo indefinido a/an
No se puede decir: a milk
Nombres contables tienen una forma plural:
Ejemplos:

Egg/eggs (huevo/s)

Bicycle/bicycles (bicicleta/s)

Dress/dresses (vestido/s)

Nombres incontables no tienen una forma plural:


Rice (arroz)
Rices

Milk (leche)
Milks

Se puede usar a o an con nombres contables en singular:


Ejemplos:

An apple (una manzana)

A house (una casa)


No podemos usar a o an con nombres incontables:

A milk

Se pueden usar nmeros delante de un contable:

Ejemplos:

Three apples (tres manzanas)

Five houses (cinco casas)

No podemos usar nmeros delante de un incontable:

Two rices
Indefinite quantifiers
(cuantificadores indefinidos)
Some / Any (Algun / cualquier)

Ejemplos:
Para afirmar

I need some books.


Necesito algunos libros.

Para hacer preguntas (generalmente para ofrecer o pedir algo)

She saw some apples on the table.


Ella vi algunas manzanas sobre la mesa.

They asked for some food.


Ellos pidieron algo de comida.

Some money was given to charity.


Algo de dinero fue dado a obras de caridad.

Para hacer preguntas (generalmente para


ofrecer o pedir algo)

Would you like some coffee?


Te gustara algo de caf?
Could you lend me some coins?

Podras prestarme algunas monedas?

Can you bring some more food, please?


Puedes traer algo ms de comida, por favor?

Any - algn (al preguntar)

Do you have any questions?


Tienes alguna pregunta?

Did they make any mistakes?


Cometieron ellos algn error?

Are there any other people left?


Queda alguna otra persona?

Any - ningn (al negar)

I do not have any questions.


No tengo ninguna pregunta.

She did not give any explanation.


Ella no dio ninguna explicacin.

I couldnt find any excuse.


No pude encontrar ninguna excusa
Any - cualquier (al afirmar)
Any answer will be believed.
Cualquier respuesta ser creda.

Any fool can do that.


Cualquier tonto puede hacer eso.

Take any of these bottles.


Toma cualquiera de estas botellas.
UNIT 3

Getting Help
Obteniendo Ayuda
Simple Present (presente Simple)
Simple Present (presente Simple)
The simple present tense in El Presente Simple en Ingls es
English is used to describe an usado para describir una accin
action that is regular, true or que es regular, verdadera o
normal. normal.
Para conjugar el presente simple
To conjugate the present simple usamos el inifinitivo para los
we use the inifinitive for I , sujetos I, you, we y they
you , we and they and for y para las terceras personas he,
he , she and it add an s to she e it, aadimos una s al
end of the verb . final del verbo.

Affirmative Sentences (Frases afirmativas)

Sujeto + verbo principal.


Ejemplos:

I talk. (Yo hablo.)

He eats. (l come.)

They learn.
(Ellos aprenden.)
Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)

Estructura:
Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to do) + auxiliar negativo
(not) + verbo principal.

Ejemplos:
I do not [dont] talk. (Yo no hablo.)
He does not [doesnt] eat. (l no come.)
They do not [dont] learn. (Ellos no aprenden.)

Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)


Estructura:
Verbo auxiliar (to do) + sujeto + verbo principal.

Yes / no questions

Estructura:
Verbo auxiliar + sujeto + verbo (en la forma de infinitivo corto) + el
resto de la frase + ?
Ejemplos:
Does he eat? (Come l?)

Do they learn? (Aprenden ellos?)

Do you talk?
(Hablas t?)
Yes / No questions
Yes or no questions are Preguntas Si o No son las
questions whose expected que se espera una respuesta si
answer is either yes or no. o no.
Ejemplos:

Do you speak English? (Hablas ingls?)


Yes, I do. // No, I dont.

Did you go to the cinema yesterday? (Fuiste al cine ayer?)


Yes, I did. // No, I didnt.

Wh- questions
We use question words to ask Para hacer ciertas tipos de
certain types of questions.We preguntas usamos palabras
often refer to them as Wh words preguntas, a menudo nos
because they include the letters referimos a ellas como palabras
Wh. Wh porque siempre incluyen
las letras Wh.
Estructura:
Palabra interrogativa (wh-) + verbo auxiliar + sujeto
+ verbo (en la forma de infinitivo corto) + el resto de la frase + ?

Ejemplos:
When is your birthday? My birthday is next week.
Cuando es tu cumpleaos? Mi cumpleaos es la siguiente semana.

Where were you born?


I was born in Sydney.
Donde naciste? Yo nac en Sydney.

Lista de las palabras interrogativas ms


habituales con su traduccin

Who? (Quin?) How? (Cmo?)
What? (Qu?) How often? (?Con qu fre-
When? (Cundo?) cuencia?)
Where? (Dnde?) How much?(Cunto?)
Why? (Por qu?)
UNIT 4
Comparatives
SPORTS and Superlatives
Deportes
Comparatives and Superlatives
(Los comparativos y superlativos)
Comparatives of inferiority (Comparativo de Inferioridad)

Estructura:

[Less + than] / [not as .......as]

Ejemplos:
He is less intelligent than you.
El es menos inteligente que t.

He is not as intelligent as you.


El no es tan inteligente como t.

Comparatives of equality (Comparativo de Igualdad)

Estructura:

[As + as]

Ejemplo:
He is as intelligent as you.
l es tan inteligente como t.

comparative of superiority (Comparativo de Superioridad)


The comparative of superiority El comparativo de superioridad
has two different structures tiene dos estructuras diferentes
depending on the length of the dependiendo de la longitud del
adjective. adjetivo.
Short Adjetives Long Adjetives
(Adjetivos Cortos [-er + than]) (Adjetivos Largos [more + than])

Ejemplo: Ejemplo:
He is taller than me . He is more intelligent than me.
El es ms alto que yo. El es ms inteligente que yo.

Superlatives (Superlavitos

In English, the superlative, as En ingls, el superlativo, al igual


occurs with comparative of que ocurre con el comprativo
superiority has two structures de superioridad tiene dos
depending on the length of estructuras dependiendo de la
adjectives. longitud de los adjetivos.

Short Adjetives (Adjetivos Cortos)

Estructura:

[The + -est]

Ejemplo:
He is the tallest boy in the classroom.
El es el chico ms alto de la clase.

Long Adjetives (Adjetivos Largos)

Estructura:

[The most + adjetivo]


Ejemplo:
He is the most intelligent boy in the
classroom.
El es el chico ms inteligente de la clase.
UNIT 5

Enjoy your Meal


Disfruta tus Alimentos
Count Noun and Non-count Nouns
A lot
When used with nouns, a lot goes with the preposition of .
Cuando se usa con sustantivos, a lot va con la preposicin of.

Ejemplo:
I have a lot of work.
(Tengo mucho trabajo.)

There is a lot of noise in here.


(Hay mucho ruido aqu)

But dont use of when there is no noun after a lot.


Pero no uses of cuando no hay un sustantivo despus de a lot.

Ejemplo:
He eats a lot. (l come mucho.)

Do you like pizza? (Te gusta la pizza?)

Yes, I like it a lot. (S, mucho.)

Much and Many


Much is used with uncountable nouns (food, money, etc.) while
Many is used with plural count nouns (books, cars, etc.).

Much se usa con sustantivos incontables (food, money, etc.)


mientras que many se usa con sustantivos contables plurales
(books, cars, etc.).

How much money do you have? (Cunto tienes?)

I dont drink much coffee. (No bebo mucho caf)


I will buy many books tomorrow.
(Comprar muchos libros maana.

Many people think you are funny.


Muchas personas piensan que eres divertido.

There are many chairs in that classroom.


Hay muchas sillas en esa aula.

A Little / A few
The expressions a little and a few mean some. If a noun is in sin-
gular, we use a little, but if its in plural, we use a few.

Las expresiones a little y a few significan algo. Si el sustantivo


es singular usamos a little pero si es plural usamos a few.

Example:
a little money. (singular)
(Un poco de dinero)

a few friends. (plural)


(Unos pocos amigos)

Note: You can count money but then you would name the cu-
rrency and say that you have got 2 dollars (but not 2 money).

Nota: Puedes contar dinero - pero nombrars la moneda y decir


que tienes 2 dlares ( pero no 2 dinero)
A Little / A few or Little / Few
Its a difference if you use a little Hay diferencia si usas a
/ a few or little / few. Without little/a few o little/few. Sin el
the article, the words have a artculo las palabras tienen un
limiting or negative meaning. significado limitado o negativo.

a little = some (un poco)


little = hardly any (casi nada)

Ejemplo:
I have a little money. - I have some money.
(Tengo un poco de dinero)
I have little money. - I have hardly any money.
Tengo poco dinero.

a few = some (unos pocos)


few = hardly any (casi nada)

Ejemplo:
A few friends visited me. - Some friends visited me.
(Unos pocos amigos me visitaron.)
Few friends visited me. - Hardly any friends visited me.
(Pocos amigos me visitaron.)

Without the article, little / few Sin el articulo little/few suena


sound rather formal. Thats why formal. Por eso no los usamos
we dont use them very often in muy a menudo. Una oracin ne-
everyday English. A negative sen- gativa con much/many es ms
tence with much / many is more comn en este caso.
common here.
Example:
I have little money. = I dont have much money.
Few friends visited me. = Not many friends visited me.
UNIT 6

Interesting People
Personas Interesantes
Regular Verbs (Verbos Regulares)
Regular Verbs (Verbos Regulares)
They are generally formed past Son los que en general forman
and past participle by adding the el pasado y el participio pasado
ending -ed aadiendo la terminacin -ed
Ejemplo:
I work / Yo trabajo - I worked / Yo trabaj o trabajaba.
Basic Rules (Reglas Bsicas)
If the infinitive of the verb ends in Si el infinitivo del verbo termina
e, add a d en e, se le aade una d
Ejemplo:
Absolve /
absolved

If the infinitive of the verb ends Si el infinitive del verbo termina


in y preceded by a consonant, en y precedido de consonante,
it changes the y to i and add se cambia la y por i y se le
-ed aade -ed
Ejemplo:
Study /
studied

If the verb infinitive consists of one Si el infinitive del verbo esta forma-
syllable in the form vowel-con- do por una sola silaba con la forma
sonant - vowel, the consonant is vocal-consonante-vocal, se dobla
doubled and ed is added. la consonante y se aade ed.

Ejemplo:
Present Past Past participle Traduccin
Accept Accepted Accepted Aceptar
Ask Asked Asked Preguntar
Call Called Called Llamar
Dry Dried Dried Secar
Enjoy Enjoyed Enjoyed Disfrutar
Cry Cried Cried Llorar
Work Worked Worked Trabajar
Irregular verbs (verbos Irregulares)

They are those that form Son los que forman el pasado
the past and past participle y participio pasado de manera
irregularly. irregular.
Irregular verbs (as the name Los verbos irregulares (como
suggests) do not follow any su nombre indica) no siguen
rules to form the past, so must ninguna norma para formar
be learned memorizing or el pasado, por lo que deben
practicing their use through aprenderse memorizando o
specific exercises. bien practicando su uso a tra-
vs de ejercicios especficos.

Ejemplo:
Tr a duccin
a st p ar ticiple espertarse
P D
Pa st woke n e r,estar
A S
present Awoke Been apostar
Awake W as/were Bet Beber
/ am / are/is et
B e B Drunk Sentir
Bet Drank Felt Sentarse
Drink Felt Sat Hablar
Feel Sat Spoken
Sit Spoke
Speak
UNIT 7

Family Life
Vida Familiar
Question Tags /
(Preguntas Coletillas)
Question Tags (Las preguntas coletillas)
In English is often ends a En ingls es frecuente terminar
sentences with another short las frases con otra frase corta,
sentence , of opposite sign, de signo contrario, la cual tiene
which is intended to seek the la intencin de pedir la opinin
views or seek the approval of o buscar la aprobacin del
the interlocutor : they are called interlocutor: son las llamadas
question tags. preguntas coletillas.

Estas frases equivalen a: verdad?, no es verdad?, no?, no es as?


en serio?

You eat meat, dont you?


(Comes carne, no?)

She doesnt like to dance, does she?


No le gusta bailar, verdad?)

Alex and Sergio are friends, arent they?


(Alex y Sergio son amigos, no?)
Grammatical rules (Reglas gramaticales)
To form this short question Para formar esta pregunta corta
we use the auxiliary of the utilizaremos el auxiliar de la
main clause and its subject, frase principal y su sujeto pero
but opposite. If it doesnt have de signo contrario. Si no tuviera
auxiliary then we would use the auxiliar entonces utilizaramos
auxiliary to do. el auxiliar to do.
If the sentence is affirmative, the Si la oracin es afirmativa, la
question tag is negative and vice pregunta coletilla es negativa
versa. y viceversa.

Afirmative Sentences (Oraciones Afirmativas)


Ejemplo:

Your brother is older than you, isnt he?


(Tu hermano es mayor que t, no es as?)

You can help me, cant you?


Puedes ayudarme, no?

John is getting married, isnt he?


John se casar, verdad?
You worked yesterday, didnt you?
Trabajaste ayer, no?

Sarah likes ice cream, doesnt she?


A Sarah le gusta el helado, no?

Negative Sentences (Oraciones negativas)


Ejemplo:

Youre not from here, are you?


No eres de aqu, no?

Kates not American, is she?


Kate no es americana, verdad?

Peter never liked Susan, did he?


A Peter nunca le gust Susan, verdad?
They didnt go to class yesterday, did
they?
No fueron a la clase ayer, verdad?

You cant dance, can you?


No puedes bailar, no?

Can (Poder)
The verb Can belongs to modal El verbo Can pertenece a los
verbs and is located before the verbos modales y se ubica antes
main verb in infinitive. Means del verbo principal en infinitivo.
power. It is used for ability, Significa poder. Se utiliza para
permission. expresar habilidad, permiso.

Affirmative
Ejemplo:

I can play the trumpet.


Yo puedo/s tocar la trompeta.

We can take a taxi to the airport.


Podemos tomar un taxi hasta el aeropuerto.

Mary can be very stubborn sometimes.


Mary puede ser muy terca a veces.

You can sit here if you like.


Puedes sentarte aqu si quieres.

It can take longer than we thought.


(Esto) Puede tardar ms de lo que pensbamos.
Affirmative Negative

I cant swim.
Nobody can understand that. No puedo nadar.
Nadie puede entender eso.
That cannot be true.
Your decision can change our Eso no puede ser cierto.
lives.
Tu decisin puede cambiarnos la You cant tell me what to do.
vida. No puedes decirme qu hacer.

Interrogative
Can + have

Can Peter speak German? Paul can have gone to Marias.


Puede/sabe Peter hablar alemn? Paul pudo haber ido a lo de Ma-
ra.
Can you help me with my
homework? They cant have left without us.
Me puedes ayudar con mi tarea? Ellos no pueden haberse ido sin
nosotros.

Jane cant have said that.


Jane no puede haber dicho eso.
UNIT 8

A Bad Day
Un Mal Da
Have to /
(Tener que)
Have To (Tener que)
Have to is not a modal verb.
It is simply the main verb.

Have to no es un modal verb.


Es simplemente el verbo principal.

Afirmative Negative
Estructura: Estructura:

Sujeto + have to + verbo en Sujeto + do/does + not + have to


infinitive
+ verbo en infinitivo + ?
Ejemplo:
We have to be there at 5oclock. Ejemplo:
Tenemos que estar alli a las 5. We dont have to be there at 5
oclock.
No tenemos que estar alli a las 5.

Interrogative
Estructura:

Do/does + sujeto + have to + verbo


infinitivo + ?

Ejemplo:
Do we have to be there at 5 oclock.
Tenemos que estar all a las 5?
May / Podra, Quizs, Puede que
The verb may is used to express a certain degree of
probability of an action or certainty.

El verbo may se utiliza para expresar cierto grado de


probabilidad de una accin o grado de certeza.

Afirmative
Estructura:

Sujeto + may + verbo principal en infinitive.

Ejemplo:

I may do it.
Puede que lo haga

She May help me.


Puede que ella me ayude.

We may stay here for the night.


Podramos pasar la noche aqu.

Jack may be telling the truth.


Puede que Jack est diciendo la verdad.
Negative
Estructura:

Sujeto + may + not (maynt) + verbo en infinitive

Ejemplo:

Mrs. Johnson may not remember anything.


Puede que la seora Johnson no recuerde nada.

You may not leave the classroom without permission.


Usted no puede salir del aula sin permiso.

I may not come next week.


Quiz no venga la semana que viene.

Interrogative
Estructura:

May + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo + ?

Ejemplo:

May I go to the bathroom?


Puedo ir al bao?