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MOISTURE, CLOUDS,

AND PRECIPITATION
There is really no such thing as bad weather,
only different kinds of good weather.
John Ruskin
Discussion 2.4
Heat Index and the Init Factor
According to PAGASA, the heat index is
the measure of the contribution that
high humidity makes with abnormally
high temperatures in reducing the body's
ability to cool itself.
Heat Index and the Init Factor
The heat index is the temperature the
body feels, compared to the actual air
temperature. The difference is caused by
the humidity level interacting with the
actual air temperature.
Is the amount of water
Humidity vapor in the air.
Humidity
Is the amount
of water vapor
in the air.
Humidity
Absolute humidity
is the mass of water
vapor in a given
volume of air.
Humidity
Relative humidity is
the ratio of the amount
of water vapor in a
given volume of air =

100
divided by the
maximum amount of
water vapor that can be
held by that air at a
given temperature .
Humidity
Relative humidity is
the ratio of the amount
of water vapor in a
given volume of air
divided by the
maximum amount of
water vapor that can be
held by that air at a
given temperature .
Dew Point
the atmospheric
temperature (varying
according to pressure
and humidity) below
which water droplets
begin to condense
and dew can form.
Dew Point
the atmospheric
temperature at
which relative
humidity is 100%
and the air becomes
saturated.
Supersaturation
A condition of the
air where the
relative humidity
reaches beyond
100%
Supercooling
A condition where
water droplets in
the air do not
freeze even if the
air cools below the
freezing point.
Three Atmospheric that are cool.
Air cools when it
loses heat by
radiation.
Three Atmospheric that are cool.
Air cools
when it
loses heat
when it
rises.
Three Atmospheric that are cool.
Air cools
when it
comes into
contact with
a cooler
surface.
Three Atmospheric that are cool.
Air cools
when it
comes into
contact with
a cooler
surface.
Types of Clouds
Cirrus
High
Altitudes
Composed of
ice crystals
Types of Clouds
Stratus
Horizontally
Layered
May bring
rain
Types of Clouds
Cumulus
Fluffy with
flat bottoms
Fair weather
Types of Precipitation
Rain
South
Korean
artist.
Types of Precipitation
Rain
Falling water
Rain forms
as a process.
Types of Precipitation
Hail
Very large ice
globules
Types of Precipitation
Fog
Clouds that
form near the
ground.
Types of Precipitation
Haze
often occurs
when dust and
smoke
particles
accumulate in
relatively dry
air.
Types of Precipitation
Smog
Clouds that
form near the
ground+smoke
Types of Precipitation
Smaze
Clouds that
form near the
ground+
haze
WIND AND WIND
SYSTEMS
Discussion 2.5
Air Masses
Characterized by moisture
content and temperature.
A large body of air where
temperature and moisture
content are constant
throughout.
Air Masses
Cold Air Mass
Warm Air Mass
Fronts
Air masses do not usually mix
due to the different densities
of the masses.
Area where two masses
meet.
Types of Fronts
Cold
Warm
Occluded
Stationary
Wind Systems in the Philippines
Monsoons
Trade Winds
Wind Systems in the Philippines
The prevailing wind systems in the Philippines are as
follows:
Northeast (NE) monsoon - from November to
February
Southwest (SW) monsoon - from July to September
Trade winds - winds in the tropics. They generally
come from the east. The trade winds prevail during the
rest of the year whenever NE monsoons are weak.
Air Pressure and Weather
Characterized by moisture
content and temperature.
A large body of air where
temperature and moisture
content are constant
throughout.
Storms
A violent disturbance in the
atmosphere.
Rainstorms and Snowstorms
Result of two different fronts
collide.
Nimbustratus clouds develop.
Rainstorms and Snowstorms
If wind is 56 kph and
temperature is -7 C, it is
called a blizzard.
Thunderstorms
Heavy rainstorms accompanied
by thunder and lightning.
Dangerous because of violent
downdrafts, strong wind shear
and lightning.
Cyclones and Anticyclones
tropical cyclone is a rotating, organized
system of clouds and thunderstorms that
originates over tropical or subtropical
waters and has a closed low-level
circulation.
Tropical cyclones rotate counterclockwise
in the Northern Hemisphere.
Cyclones and Anticyclones
Cold dry air spiraling outward
is an anti cyclone.
Hurricanes, Typhoons, Cyclones
The only
difference between
a hurricane, a
cyclone, and a
typhoon is
the location where
the storm occurs
Hurricanes, Typhoons, Cyclones
Hurricane is used in
the Atlantic,
Caribbean Sea,
central and
northeast Pacific.
Hurricanes, Typhoons, Cyclones
They are typhoons
in the northwest
Pacific.
Hurricanes, Typhoons, Cyclones
In the Bay of Bengal and the Arabia Sea,
they are called cyclones.
Tropical cyclone is used in the southwest
Indian Ocean;
in the southwestern Pacific and
southeastern India Ocean they are severe
tropical cyclones.
PAGASA's Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale
Category Sustained winds
119 knots
Super Typhoon
220 km/h
64119 knots
Typhoon
118220 km/h
Severe 4863 knots
Tropical Storm 89117 km/h
3447 knots
Tropical Storm
6288 km/h
Tropical Depress 33 knots
ion 61 km/h
Signal #1
winds of 3060 km/h (20-37 mph) are expected to occur within 36 hours
Signal #2
winds of 61120 km/h (3873 mph) are expected to occur within 24 hours
Signal #3
winds of 121170 km/h, (74105 mph) are expected to occur within 18 hours.
Signal #4
winds of 171220 km/h, (106137 mph) are expected to occur within 12
hours.
Signal #5
winds of at least 220 km/h, (137 mph) are expected to occur within 12 hours.
Tornadoes and Waterspouts
Tornadoes
Whirlwinds
or ipo-ipo
Waterspouts
CLIMATE
Climate is what we expect.
Weather is what we get.
Mark Twain
Discussion 2.6
Climate
Is the name of the general
condition of the atmosphere
for a long period of time.
Climate
Global Winds
Doldrums
Horse Latitudes
Trade Winds
Prevailing Westerlies
Climate
Dictated by two things:
Temperature
Precipitation
Remember
Temperature is affected by:
Latitude
Elevation (geography and
topography)
Presence of Ocean currents
Elevation
The height of an area above
sea level.
Presence of Ocean Currents
Surface Currents
A horizontal movement of
ocean water that is caused by
wind and that occurs near the
ocean surface
Remember
Precipitation is affected by
Prevailing winds
Mountain Ranges
Intertropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ)
The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ,
is a belt of low pressure which circles the Earth
generally near the equator where the trade
winds of the Northern and Southern
Hemispheres come together. It is characterized
by convective activity which generates often
vigorous thunderstorms over large areas. It is
most active over continental land masses by
day and relatively less active over the oceans.
Intertropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ)
Intertropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ)
Climate Zones
Polar
Temperate
Tropical
Polar Climates
Coldest average
temperatures.
High Latitude or Arctic Zones
Biomes
Tundra
Taiga
Temperate Zones
Snow is common in the
winter
Average temperature is 5-
20C
Biomes
Temperate Forests
Temperate Grasslands
Chaparrals
Temperate Deserts
Tropical Zones
High temperature and
humidity
Average temperature greater
or equal to 18C
Biomes
Tropical Rain Forests
Tropical Savannahs
Tropical Deserts
Koeppen Climate Classification
Humid Tropical
Arid
Humid Mesothermal
Humid Microthermal
Polar
Highlands
Marine and Continental Climates
Areas with a marine climate
have:
Warm summers and mild
winters
More precipitation
Marine and Continental Climates
Areas with a Continental
climate have:
Drier with hot summers and
cold winters.
Most of the worlds deserts have
continental climates.
Microclimate
Climate of a small area
Alpine
Cities
Urban Climate
Urban heat island effect
Warmer temperatues in a city
compared to the surrounding
countryside caused by factors in
the urban environment itself.
Urban Climate
Stone and concrete buildings
and asphalt roadways absorb
solar radiation and emit it as
infrared heat.
Urban Climate
Little surface water exists and
little evaporative cooling
occurs.
Urban Climate
Warmed by the heat released
when fuels are burned.
Urban Climate
Tall buildings block winds.
Urban Climate
Pollutants absorb long wave
radiation and produce a local
green house effect.
Natural Causes in the
Changes of Climate
Slow Drifting of the continents.
Changes in the suns energy
output.
Variations of the position of the
Earth relative to the sun.
Ice Ages
Major Glaciation
Interglacial periods
Milankovitch Theory/Cycles
Milutin Milankovitch
Changes in the tilt of the earth
Obliquity
Precession
Milankovitch Theory/Cycles
Milutin Milankovitch
Changes in the Earths orbit
Eccentricity
Drifting Continents
May have caused the
extinction of the dinosaurs
and other species.
Variations in Radiant Energy
Good in theory but scientists
have not found proof.
Biomes
Temperate Forests
Temperate Grasslands
Chaparrals
Temperate Deserts
External Factors
Volcanic Eruptions
Asteroid Impact
The Suns Cycle
CLIMATE
CHANGE
Scientific evidence for warming
of the climate system is unequivocal.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- Discussion 3.7
Activity
Go to
http://climate.nasa.gov/evide
nce/
And make a table of the data
you find there.
The Story So Far
Where to look for Evidences of
Climate Change
Glacial Ice Deposits
Biological Marine Sediments
Inorganic Marine Sediments
Terrestial Geomorphology
Terrestial Biology
Natural Causes in the
Changes of Climate
Slow Drifting of the continents.
Changes in the suns energy
output.
Variations of the position of the
Earth relative to the sun.
Ice Ages
Major Glaciation
Interglacial periods
Milankovitch Theory/Cycles
Milutin Milankovitch
Changes in the tilt of the earth
Obliquity
Precession
Milankovitch Theory/Cycles
Milutin Milankovitch
Changes in the Earths orbit
Eccentricity
Drifting Continents
May have caused the
extinction of the dinosaurs
and other species.
Variations in Radiant Energy
Good in theory but scientists
have not found proof.
Biomes
Temperate Forests
Temperate Grasslands
Chaparrals
Temperate Deserts
External Factors
Volcanic Eruptions
Asteroid Impact
The Suns Cycle
The Kyoto Treaty on Global
Warming
Kyoto Protocol is based on
the United Nations
Framework Convention on
Climate Change.
11 December 1997
The Kyoto Treaty on Global
Warming
Kyoto Protocol is based on
the United Nations
Framework Convention on
Climate Change.
11 December 1997
Activity in Three Paragraphs
Describe your area such as your
village or community.
What would happen to your area if:
A large cloud blocked the sun preventing
the suns rays from reaching it.
Rain is a year-round occurrence. It never
stops.
Culminating Activity
Go to
https://www.koshland-science-
museum.org/teacher-
resources/webquests/climate-
change\
Download the needed items for the individual
worksheets. Perform the whole activity.