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11/12/2013, 6:32 PM

Memoria de Calculo de Orejas de Izaje de Tanques: segn DIN 28086

Equipo: Orejas de izaje de trunnion OT2013-2644


Oreja DIN 28086 - 3 - 17100 - 17100
Tamao Oreja 2 Tabla 1: de 1 a 5
Figura 4 Figura Seleccionada de 2 a 5
Material L A-36 Material base de orejas
Material V A-36 Material base de placa de refuerzo
Material B A-36 Material base del tanque
F (Kg) 4000 Carga
g 1.6 Factor de Seguridad
45 Angulo de la eslinga hacia la vertical
60 Angulo entre eslinga y el eje vertical de la oreja
R (mm) 3600 Radio exterior del tanque cercano a los puntos de carga
Se (mm) 20 Espesor actual de el casco
c1 (mm) 1 Reduccion en caso el espesor de casco menor que el diseado
c2 (mm) 1 Reduccion por uso

Table 0: Seleccon de Materiales Base


Material Ku (N/mm2) Numero DIN EN ksi
A-572 Gr.36 235 10037 St 37-2 10025 33000
265
A-36 275 17100 St 44-2 36000
A-572 Gr.50 295 10050 St 50-2 10025 50000

Tabla 1: Dimensiones de Oreja


Tamao 1 2 3 4 5
b (mm) 90 110 160 200 240
d (mm) 38 38 50 62 74
h (mm) 55 60 75 95 115
l (mm) 170 220 320 390 470
r1 (mm) 55 71 105 130 155
r2 (mm) 20 30 40 50 60
s1 (mm) 10 15 15 20 25 Elaborado por: Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
s2 (mm) A ser calculado como se especifica en subclase 5.4 Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth
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Tabla 2: Cantidades, simbolos y unidades
Simbolo Valor Cantidad
n 2 Numero de orejas uniformemente cargadas
a1 (mm) #NAME? Espesor de garganta entre la oreja y la placa de refuerzo
a2 (mm) #NAME? Espesor de garganta entre el casco y la placa de refuerzo
S1 (mm) 15 Espesor de la oreja
S2 (mm) #NAME? Espesor de la plancha de refuerzo
So (mm) #NAME? Espesor del casco con reducciones (So=Se-C1-C2)
KV u (N/mm2) 275 Parametro de esfuerzo de placa de refuerzo
KB u (N/mm2) 275 Parametro de esfuerzo de tanque
A 76 Valor intermedio
f #NAME? Factor de correccion de carga
U #NAME? Valor intermedio
W 1 Factor de incremento de carga
Tabla 3: Maxima carga de trabajo segura de grilletes, F, de acuerdo con DIN 82016 o DIN 82101
tamao de oreja 1 2 3 4 5
tamao de grillete 5 5 10 16 25
FS, en N 50000 50000 100000 160000 250000
Tabla 4: Maxima carga segura de trabajo, FG para diferentes orden de las orejas
Tamao nominal de orejas
Angulo Maxima carga segura de trabajo, en N, a 20C con KL =240N/mm2
1 2 3 4 5
fig. 2 19000 77000 131000 218000 332000
fig. 3 38000 154000 262000 436000 664000
0 to 15 36000 149000 254000 422000 642000
Over 15 up to 30 33000 133000 227000 379000 576000
Over 30 up to 45 27000 108000 185000 310000 470000
Over 45 up to 60 19000 77000 131000 218000 332000
0 to 15 55000 223000 380000 633000 962000
Over 15 up to 30 50000 199000 341000 567000 863000
Over 30 up to 45 40000 163000 278000 464000 704000
Over 45 up to 60 29000 115000 197000 328000 499000
cf. Figura Cant.Orejas Orden de las orejas
2 1 Oreja Simple (cf. figura 2)
3 2 Dos orejas con las cabezas cruzadas (cf. figura 3)
4 2 Dos orejas sin cabezas cruzadas (cf. figura 4)
5 3 Tres orejas (cf. figura 5)
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1 Calculos
2 5.2 Maxima carga de trabajo segura de grilletes
3 (1) FSe = FLe = FGe/(n*cos ) N 28284
4 FGe Carga efectiva N 40000
5 Tamao de grillete 5
6 FS Maxima carga segura de trabajo N 50000
7 (2) FSe<= FS table 3 Cumple
8 5.3 Maxima carga de trabajo segura de orejas
9 (3) FG u = FG*KL u /240
10 (4) FLe= FSe
11 FG u N 77000
12 (5) FGe<= FG u tabla 4 Cumple
13 5.4 Espesor de plancha de refuerzo y espesores de garganta de soldaduras
14 Tabla 5: Factor de incremento de carga
15 <=60 >60
16 W 1 2
17 W 1
18 (6) S2= 0.5*(FLe*W* g /KV u )^(1/2) mm 6.4
19 Se<= S2<=1.5*Se mm #NAME?
20 Espesor de garganta de soldadura a1
21 S1 mm 15.0
22 S2 mm #NAME?
23 (7) a1 >= 0.7*S1min mm #NAME?
24 a1 mm #NAME?
25 Espesor de garganta de soldadura a2
26 (8) a2 >= 0.7*S2min mm #NAME?
27 a2 mm #NAME?
28 5.5 Capacidad de carga del tanque
29 Tabla 6: Valor Intermedio A
30 Tamano de oreja 1 2 3 4 5
31 A 59 76 113 139 167
32 A 76
33 (9) U= A/((R*So)^(1/2)) #NAME?
34 f #NAME?
35 (10) FB= f*So^2*KB u / g N #NAME?
36 (11) FLe<= FB/W #NAME?
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U - factor de correccion de carga


100.00
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
10.00
0.7
f
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 1.1
U 1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8

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Memoria de Calculo de Oreja de Izaje: segn ASME BTH-1

Equipo: Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller


6,000 Carga (Kg)
3.6 Nd (2-2.1 o 2-2.2)
2 Numero de orejas

A36 Material (A36 o A572)


50 Dh [mm] Diametro de agujero
50 be [mm] Ancho de oreja
20 t [mm] Espesor de oreja
75 R [mm] Radio exterior
8 Soldadura Filete [in] Altura de pierna
E71T-1 E7018/E71T-1 Material de aporte
Y Y(si) o N(no) Terminacion redondeada
40 Dp [mm] Diametro de grillete
50 a [mm] Altura de oreja
115 H [mm] Material base a eje

Cumple Esfuerzo de Traccion


Cumple Resistencia al corte a travs del agujero
Cumple Esfuerzo cortante en Soldadura
Cumple Garganta de Filete mnima 3-3.4.3

Nd factor de Diseo (para. 3-1.3)


2-2.1 Categora de Diseo A: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas son predecibles, donde la carga y condiciones ambientales se definen con precisin o no grave.

2.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,


2.40 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

2-2.2 Categora de Diseo B: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas no son predecibles, las condiciones de carga y del medio ambiente son graves, o no se define con
precisin.
3.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,
3.60 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin. Elaborado por: Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth
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1 Oreja con conexin para grillete: ASME BTH-1
2 Descripcion: Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller
3 13,228 W [lb] Peso de la carga
4 3.6 Nd Design factor
5 Material:
6 A36 Material Material A36 A572 A516 E7018/E71T-1
7 36,000 Fy [psi] Limite elastico Fy [psi] 36,000 50,000 16,000 58,000
8 58,000 Fu [psi] Resistencia a la traccion Fu [psi] 58,000 65,000 30,000 70,000
9 29,000,000 E [psi] Modulo de Elesticidad E [psi] 29,000,000 29,000,000 9,800,000
10 Dimensiones:
11 1.97 Dh [in] Diametro de agujero
12 5.91 w [in] Ancho de oreja
13 0.79 t [in] Espesor de oreja
14 2.95 R [in] Radio Exterior de oreja
15 0.31 Leg [in] Altura de filete de soldadura
16 Esfuerzo de Traccion:
17 Ft [psi] = Fy/Nd Esfuerzo de traccion admisible (eq 3-1) psi 10,000
18 A [in^2] = t*(w-Dh) Area en tension in^2 3.10
19 St [psi] = W/A Esfuerzo de traccion psi 4,267
20 CheckSt = St < Ft Cumple
21 Resistencia al Corte a travez del agujero:
22 Av [in^2] = 2*(R-(Dh/2)*cos(radians(45)))*t
23 Area total de dos planos de corte (eq 3-50) in^2 3.554
24 Pv [lb] = 0.7*Fu/(1.2*Nd)*Av Doble plano de resistencia al corte (eq 3-49)
25 lb 33,401
26 CheckPv = W < Pv Cumple
27 Esfuerzo Cortante en la Soldadura:
28 Exx [psi] = Fu si Fu<Exx Resistencia a la traccin de la soldadura del metal de aporte psi 58,000
29 Fv [psi] = 0.6*Exx/(1.2*Nd) Esfuerzo cortante de soldadura admisible(eq 3-53) psi 8,056
30 Aw [in^2] = (2*w+2*t) * (0.707*Leg) rea de la soldadura in^2 2.981
31 Fw [lb] = Fv*Aw Carga de soldadura admisible lb 24,011
32 CheckFw = W < Fw Cumple
33 Garganta de Soldadura minima: 3-3.4.3
34 garganta_3-3 [in] = IF(K14<=0.25,0.125,IF(K14<=0.5,0.188,(IF(K14<=0.75,0.25,(IF(K14<1.5,0.313))))))
35 in 0.188
36 check_garganta = Pierna filete*0.707 >=garganta_3-3 Cumple
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11/12/2013, 6:32 PM

Memoria de Calculo de Oreja de Izaje: segn ASME BTH-1

Equipo: Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller


5,000 Carga (Kg)
3.6 Nd (2-2.1 o 2-2.2)
4 Numero de orejas

A36 Material (A36 o A572)


55 Dh [mm] Diametro de agujero
50 be [mm] Ancho de oreja
20 t [mm] Espesor de oreja
77 R [mm] Radio exterior
6 Soldadura Filete [in] Altura de pierna
E71T-1 E7018/E71T-1 Material de aporte
Y Y(si) o N(no) Terminacion redondeada
40 Dp [mm] Diametro de grillete
50 a [mm] Altura de oreja
115 H [mm] Material base a eje

Cumple Esfuerzo de Traccion


Cumple Resistencia al corte a travs del agujero
Cumple Esfuerzo cortante en Soldadura
Cumple Garganta de Filete mnima 3-3.4.3

Nd factor de Diseo (para. 3-1.3)


2-2.1 Categora de Diseo A: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas son predecibles, donde la carga y condiciones ambientales se definen con precisin o no grave.

2.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,


2.40 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

2-2.2 Categora de Diseo B: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas no son predecibles, las condiciones de carga y del medio ambiente son graves, o no se define con
precisin.
3.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,
3.60 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin. Elaborado por: Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth
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11/12/2013, 6:32 PM
1 Oreja con conexin para grillete: ASME BTH-1
2 Descripcion: Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller
3 11,023 W [lb] Peso de la carga
4 3.6 Nd Design factor
5 Material:
6 A36 Material Material A36 A572 A516 E7018/E71T-1
7 36,000 Fy [psi] Limite elastico Fy [psi] 36,000 50,000 16,000 58,000
8 58,000 Fu [psi] Resistencia a la traccion Fu [psi] 58,000 65,000 30,000 70,000
9 29,000,000 E [psi] Modulo de Elesticidad E [psi] 29,000,000 29,000,000 9,800,000
10 Dimensiones:
11 2.17 Dh [in] Diametro de agujero
12 6.10 w [in] Ancho de oreja
13 0.79 t [in] Espesor de oreja
14 3.03 R [in] Radio Exterior de oreja
15 0.24 Leg [in] Altura de filete de soldadura
16 Esfuerzo de Traccion:
17 Ft [psi] = Fy/Nd Esfuerzo de traccion admisible (eq 3-1) psi 10,000
18 A [in^2] = t*(w-Dh) Area en tension in^2 3.10
19 St [psi] = W/A Esfuerzo de traccion psi 3,556
20 CheckSt = St < Ft Cumple
21 Resistencia al Corte a travez del agujero:
22 Av [in^2] = 2*(R-(Dh/2)*cos(radians(45)))*t
23 Area total de dos planos de corte (eq 3-50) in^2 3.568
24 Pv [lb] = 0.7*Fu/(1.2*Nd)*Av Doble plano de resistencia al corte (eq 3-49)
25 lb 33,536
26 CheckPv = W < Pv Cumple
27 Esfuerzo Cortante en la Soldadura:
28 Exx [psi] = Fu si Fu<Exx Resistencia a la traccin de la soldadura del metal de aporte psi 58,000
29 Fv [psi] = 0.6*Exx/(1.2*Nd) Esfuerzo cortante de soldadura admisible(eq 3-53) psi 8,056
30 Aw [in^2] = (2*w+2*t) * (0.707*Leg) rea de la soldadura in^2 2.301
31 Fw [lb] = Fv*Aw Carga de soldadura admisible lb 18,538
32 CheckFw = W < Fw Cumple
33 Garganta de Soldadura minima: 3-3.4.3
34 garganta_3-3 [in] = IF(K14<=0.25,0.125,IF(K14<=0.5,0.188,(IF(K14<=0.75,0.25,(IF(K14<1.5,0.313))))))
35 in 0.125
36 check_garganta = Pierna filete*0.707 >=garganta_3-3 Cumple
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1 Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation
Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t) = 20 mm
Width of Lug (W) = 200 mm
Radius of Circular Section (R) = 100 mm
Diameter of Hole ( D h ) = 60 mm
Diameter of Pin ( D p ) = 57 mm
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)= 100 mm
Area of Cross Section = 20 x 200 = 4000
Length of Crack ( a ) = 4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (D h / 2 + a) =
o
Temperature (T) = 15 C
Fracture Toughness ( k 1c ) = (60 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
o
K 1c = 63 C

Check For Geometry


We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate = 345 MPa
Effective width of plate = 200 - 60- 2 x4.5 = 131
Tensile Load capacity = 0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

By Fracture Theory
K 1c = F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
Fd = 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d) 3 ]
Where, d= a / (D h / 2 + a)
d= 4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5) = 0.13

Fd = 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]


= 2.61

s = Load (P) = P / 4000 = 0.0003


Area

K 1c = F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
63 = 2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

Load ( P) = 812 kN
Temp = 30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory
Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 30 66 0.032 3.157 1492
1.5 31.5 30 66 0.048 3.059 1257
2 32 30 66 0.063 2.97 1121
2.5 32.5 30 66 0.077 2.89 1031
3 33 30 66 0.091 2.812 967
3.5 33.5 30 66 0.104 2.743 918
4 34 30 66 0.118 2.67 882
5 35 30 66 0.143 2.546 827
5.8 35.8 30 66 0.162 2.457 796
7 37 30 66 0.189 2.337 762
8 38 30 66 0.211 2.246 741
9 39 30 66 0.231 2.167 725
10 40 30 66 0.25 2.096 711

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 15 63 0.032 3.157 1424
1.5 31.5 15 63 0.048 3.059 1200
2 32 15 63 0.063 2.97 1070
2.5 32.5 15 63 0.077 2.89 984
3 33 15 63 0.091 2.812 923
3.5 33.5 15 63 0.104 2.743 876
4 34 15 63 0.118 2.67 842
4.5 34.5 15 63 0.13 2.61 812
6 36 15 63 0.167 2.434 754
7 37 15 63 0.189 2.337 727
8 38 15 63 0.211 2.246 708
9 39 15 63 0.231 2.167 692
10 40 15 63 0.25 2.096 678

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 0 60 0.032 3.157 1356
1.5 31.5 0 60 0.048 3.059 1143
2 32 0 60 0.063 2.97 1019
2.5 32.5 0 60 0.077 2.89 937
3 33 0 60 0.091 2.812 879
3.5 33.5 0 60 0.104 2.743 834
3.7 33.7 0 60 0.11 2.711 821
5 35 0 60 0.143 2.546 752
6 36 0 60 0.167 2.434 718
7 37 0 60 0.189 2.337 693
8 38 0 60 0.211 2.246 674
9 39 0 60 0.231 2.167 659
10 40 0 60 0.25 2.096 646

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -15 57 0.032 3.157 1289
1.5 31.5 -15 57 0.048 3.059 1086
2 32 -15 57 0.063 2.97 968
2.5 32.5 -15 57 0.077 2.89 890
3 33 -15 57 0.091 2.812 835
3.1 33.1 -15 57 0.094 2.796 826
4 34 -15 57 0.118 2.67 762
5 35 -15 57 0.143 2.546 715
6 36 -15 57 0.167 2.434 682
7 37 -15 57 0.189 2.337 658
8 38 -15 57 0.211 2.246 640
9 39 -15 57 0.231 2.167 626
10 40 -15 57 0.25 2.096 614

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -30 54 0.032 3.157 1221
1.5 31.5 -30 54 0.048 3.059 1029
2 32 -30 54 0.063 2.97 918
2.5 32.5 -30 54 0.077 2.89 843
2.6 32.6 -30 54 0.08 2.873 832
3.5 33.5 -30 54 0.104 2.743 751
4 34 -30 54 0.118 2.67 722
5 35 -30 54 0.143 2.546 677
6 36 -30 54 0.167 2.434 646
7 37 -30 54 0.189 2.337 623
8 38 -30 54 0.211 2.246 607
9 39 -30 54 0.231 2.167 593
10 40 -30 54 0.25 2.096 581

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -45 51 0.032 3.157 1153
1.5 31.5 -45 51 0.048 3.059 971
2 32 -45 51 0.063 2.97 867
2.15 32.15 -45 51 0.067 2.947 842
3 33 -45 51 0.091 2.812 747
3.5 33.5 -45 51 0.104 2.743 709
4 34 -45 51 0.118 2.67 682
5 35 -45 51 0.143 2.546 639
6 36 -45 51 0.167 2.434 610
7 37 -45 51 0.189 2.337 589
8 38 -45 51 0.211 2.246 573
9 39 -45 51 0.231 2.167 560
10 40 -45 51 0.25 2.096 549
Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK


LOAD (P)

Crack Length
(a)

mm
100
> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm
100
mm 2
60 mm
Both side of Hole Dia. hole
35 mm 200
mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m) (60 for Steel WT Caterary 4)

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK


< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)


Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
601 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
510 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
458 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
424 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
401 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
383 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
371 132 820 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
354 130 807 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
344 128.4 797 345 Net Section will Fracture
336 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
332 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
330 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
329 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
573 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
487 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
437 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
405 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
383 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
366 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
354 132 820 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
344 131 814 345 Net Section will Fracture
327 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
317 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
315 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
314 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Stress in Effective Load (P)
the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
546 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
463 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
416 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
386 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
364 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
349 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
344 132.6 823 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
312 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
305 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
302 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
300 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
299 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
519 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
440 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
396 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
366 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
346 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
343 133.8 831 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
305 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
296 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
290 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
287 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
285 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
284 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
491 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
417 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
375 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
347 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
343 134.8 837 345 Net Section will Fracture
314 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
304 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
289 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
281 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
275 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
272 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
270 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
269 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
464 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
394 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
354 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
345 135.7 843 345 Net Section will Fracture
310 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
296 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
287 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
273 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
265 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
260 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
257 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
255 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
254 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC
1600

1400

1200

1000
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


800
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
600

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC


1600

1400

1200

1000
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


800
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
600

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC
1600

1400

1200

Load (kN) 1000


Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory
800
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
600

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC


1400

1200

1000
Load (kN)

800 Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

600 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC


1400

1200
1200

1000

Load (kN)
800 Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

600 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC


1400

1200

1000
Load (kN)

800 Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

600 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)
Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)


Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory
1600
1400
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory 1200
1000
Load (kN)

800
600
400
200
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
a (mm)
Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


apacity (kN)

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

10 12 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


1 Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation
Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t) = 20 mm
Width of Lug (W) = 200 mm
Radius of Circular Section (R) = 100 mm
Diameter of Hole ( D h ) = 60 mm
Diameter of Pin ( D p ) = 57 mm
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)= 100 mm
Area of Cross Section = 20 x 200 = 4000
Length of Crack ( a ) = 4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (D h / 2 + a) =
o
Temperature (T) = 15 C
Fracture Toughness ( k 1c ) = (40 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
o
K 1c = 43 C

Check For Geometry


We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- D h /2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate = 345 MPa
Effective width of plate = 200 - 60- 2 x4.5 = 131
Tensile Load capacity = 0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

By Fracture Theory
K 1c = F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
Fd = 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d) 3 ]
Where, d= a / (D h / 2 + a)
d= 4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5) = 0.13

Fd = 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]


= 2.61

s = Load (P) = P / 4000 = 0.0003


Area

K 1c = F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
43 = 2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

Load ( P) = 554 kN
Temp = 30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory
Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 30 46 0.032 3.157 1040
1.5 31.5 30 46 0.048 3.059 876
2 32 30 46 0.063 2.97 782
2.5 32.5 30 46 0.077 2.89 718
3 33 30 46 0.091 2.812 674
3.5 33.5 30 46 0.104 2.743 640
4 34 30 46 0.118 2.67 615
5 35 30 46 0.143 2.546 577
5.8 35.8 30 46 0.162 2.457 555
7 37 30 46 0.189 2.337 531
8 38 30 46 0.211 2.246 517
9 39 30 46 0.231 2.167 505
10 40 30 46 0.25 2.096 495

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 15 43 0.032 3.157 972
1.5 31.5 15 43 0.048 3.059 819
2 32 15 43 0.063 2.97 731
2.5 32.5 15 43 0.077 2.89 672
3 33 15 43 0.091 2.812 630
3.5 33.5 15 43 0.104 2.743 598
4 34 15 43 0.118 2.67 575
4.5 34.5 15 43 0.13 2.61 554
6 36 15 43 0.167 2.434 515
7 37 15 43 0.189 2.337 496
8 38 15 43 0.211 2.246 483
9 39 15 43 0.231 2.167 472
10 40 15 43 0.25 2.096 463

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 0 40 0.032 3.157 904
1.5 31.5 0 40 0.048 3.059 762
2 32 0 40 0.063 2.97 680
2.5 32.5 0 40 0.077 2.89 625
3 33 0 40 0.091 2.812 586
3.5 33.5 0 40 0.104 2.743 556
3.7 33.7 0 40 0.11 2.711 547
5 35 0 40 0.143 2.546 501
6 36 0 40 0.167 2.434 479
7 37 0 40 0.189 2.337 462
8 38 0 40 0.211 2.246 449
9 39 0 40 0.231 2.167 439
10 40 0 40 0.25 2.096 431

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -15 37 0.032 3.157 836
1.5 31.5 -15 37 0.048 3.059 705
2 32 -15 37 0.063 2.97 629
2.5 32.5 -15 37 0.077 2.89 578
3 33 -15 37 0.091 2.812 542
3.1 33.1 -15 37 0.094 2.796 536
4 34 -15 37 0.118 2.67 494
5 35 -15 37 0.143 2.546 464
6 36 -15 37 0.167 2.434 443
7 37 -15 37 0.189 2.337 427
8 38 -15 37 0.211 2.246 416
9 39 -15 37 0.231 2.167 406
10 40 -15 37 0.25 2.096 398

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -30 34 0.032 3.157 769
1.5 31.5 -30 34 0.048 3.059 648
2 32 -30 34 0.063 2.97 578
2.5 32.5 -30 34 0.077 2.89 531
2.6 32.6 -30 34 0.08 2.873 524
3.5 33.5 -30 34 0.104 2.743 473
4 34 -30 34 0.118 2.67 454
5 35 -30 34 0.143 2.546 426
6 36 -30 34 0.167 2.434 407
7 37 -30 34 0.189 2.337 392
8 38 -30 34 0.211 2.246 382
9 39 -30 34 0.231 2.167 373
10 40 -30 34 0.25 2.096 366

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness ( Fracture
(mm) (D h / 2 + a) re (T) o C k 1c ) d = a / (D h / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -45 31 0.032 3.157 701
1.5 31.5 -45 31 0.048 3.059 591
2 32 -45 31 0.063 2.97 527
2.15 32.15 -45 31 0.067 2.947 512
3 33 -45 31 0.091 2.812 454
3.5 33.5 -45 31 0.104 2.743 431
4 34 -45 31 0.118 2.67 414
5 35 -45 31 0.143 2.546 389
6 36 -45 31 0.167 2.434 371
7 37 -45 31 0.189 2.337 358
8 38 -45 31 0.211 2.246 348
9 39 -45 31 0.231 2.167 340
10 40 -45 31 0.25 2.096 334
Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK


LOAD (P)

Crack Length
(a)

mm
100
> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm
100
mm 2
60 mm
Both side of Hole Dia. hole
35 mm 200
mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m) (40 for Steel W 350)

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK


< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)


Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
419 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
355 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
319 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
296 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
279 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
267 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
259 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
246 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
240 128.4 797 345 Net Section will Fracture
234 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
232 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
230 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
229 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
391 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
332 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
298 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
276 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
261 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
250 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
242 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
235 131 814 345 Net Section will Fracture
223 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
219 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
216 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
215 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
214 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Stress in Effective Load (P)
the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
364 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
309 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
278 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
257 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
243 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
232 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
229 132.6 823 345 Net Section will Fracture
214 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
208 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
204 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
201 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
200 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
199 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
337 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
286 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
257 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
238 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
225 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
223 133.8 831 345 Net Section will Fracture
208 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
198 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
192 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
188 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
186 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
185 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
184 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
309 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
263 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
236 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
219 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
216 134.8 837 345 Net Section will Fracture
198 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
191 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
182 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
177 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
173 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
171 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
170 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
169 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Stress in Effective Load (P)


the Net width of (kN) - Yeild Yeild Stress
Section Plate (mm) Theory (s)
282 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
239 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
215 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
210 135.7 843 345 Net Section will Fracture
188 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
180 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
174 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
166 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
161 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
158 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
156 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
155 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
155 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC
1200

1000

800
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


600
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC


1200

1000

800
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


600
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
400

200

0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC
1000
900
800
700
Load (kN) 600 Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory
500
400 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
300
200
100
0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC


900
800
700
600
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


500
400
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
300
200
100
0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC


900
800
800
700
600

Load (kN)
Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory
500
400
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
300
200
100
0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC


900
800
700
600
Load (kN)

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory


500
400
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
300
200
100
0
0 5 10 15
a (mm)
Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)


Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory
1200

1000
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory
800
Load (kN)

600

400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
a (mm)
Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory

Load (P) (kN) - Fracture Theory

Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


apacity (kN)

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

10 12 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild Theory


Tabla 8.4 Especificaciones para pernos mtricos de acero.
Clase
Intervalo de
tamaos
(inclusive)
(mm)
Resistencia
lmite mnima
a la traccin
Sp (MPa)
Resistencia de
fluencia
mnima a la
traccin
Sy (MPa)
Resistencia
ltima mnima
a la traccin
Su (MPa)
Caracterstica
4.6 M5-M36 225 240 400 Medio o bajo carbono
4.8 M1.6-M16 310 340 420 Medio o bajo carbono
5.8 M5-M24 380 420 520 Medio o bajo carbono
8.8 M16-M36 600 660 830 Medio o bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
9.8 M1.6-M16 650 720 900 Medio o bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
10.9 M5-M36 830 940 1040 Martenstico de bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
12.9 M1.6-M36 970 1100 1220 De aleacin, templado y
revenido
Tabla 8.3 Especificaciones SAE para pernos UNS de acero.
Grado
SAE
Intervalo de
tamaos
(inclusive)
(in)
Resistencia
lmite mnima
a la traccin
Sp (ksi)
Resistencia de
fluencia
mnima a la
traccin
Sy (ksi)
Resistencia
ltima mnima
a la traccin
Su (ksi)
Caractersticas
del acero
1 a 1 33 36 60 Medio o bajo carbono
2
a 55 57 74 Medio o bajo carbono 7/8 a 1 33 36 60
4 a 1 65 100 115 Medio carbono estirado en
fro
5
a 1 85 92 120 Medio carbono templado y
1 1/8 a 1 74 81 105 revenido
5.2 a 1 85 92 120 Martenstico de bajo
carbono, templado y revenido
7 a 1 105 115 133 Aleado de medio carbono,
templado y revenido
8 a 1 120 130 150 Aleado de medio carbono,
templado y revenido
8.2 a 1 120 130 150 Martenstico de bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
Tabla 8.2 Dimensiones de roscas mtricas ISO, series de pasos bastos y finos
Dimetro
mayor
(nominal)
d (mm)
ROSCA BASTA ROSCA FINA
Paso
p (mm)
Dimetro
menor
dr (mm)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (mm2
)
Paso
p (mm)
Dimetro
menor
dr (mm)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (mm2
)
3.0 0.50 2.39 5.03
3.5 0.60 2.76 6.78
4.0 0.70 3.14 8.78
5.0 0.80 4.02 14.18
6.0 1.00 4.77 20.12
7.0 1.00 5.77 28.86
8.0 1.25 6.47 36.61 1.00 6.77 39.17
10.0 1.50 8.16 57.99 1.25 8.47 61.20
12.0 1.75 9.85 84.27 1.25 10.47 92.07
14.0 2.00 11.55 115.4 1.50 12.16 124.55
16.0 2.00 13.55 156.7 1.50 14.16 167.25
18.0 2.50 14.93 192.5 1.50 16.16 216.23
20.0 2.50 16.93 244.8 1.50 18.16 271.50
22.0 2.50 18.93 303.4 1.50 20.16 333.50
24.0 3.00 20.32 352.5 2.00 21.55 384.42
27.0 3.00 23.32 459.4 2.00 24.55 495.74
30.0 3.50 25.71 560.6 2.00 27.55 621.20
33.0 3.50 28.71 693.6 2.00 30.55 760.80
36.0 4.00 31.09 816.7 3.00 32.32 864.94
39.0 4.00 34.09 975.8 3.00 35.32 1028.4
Tabla 8.1 Dimensiones de roscas unificadas (UNS), serie de roscas bastas (UNC) y finas (UNF).
Tamao
Dimetro
mayor
(nominal)
d (in)
ROSCA BASTA (UNC) ROSCA FINA (UNF) Ancho
aproximado
entre caras
AT (in)
Nmero de
hilos por
pulgada
Dimetro
menor
dr (in)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (in2
)
Nmero de
hilos por
pulgada
Dimetro
menor
dr (in)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (in2
) Cabeza Tuerc
0 0.0600 - - - 80 0.0438 0.0018
1 0.0730 64 0.0527 0.0026 72 0.0550 0.0028
2 0.0860 56 0.0628 0.0037 64 0.0657 0.0039
3 0.0990 48 0.0719 0.0049 56 0.0758 0.0052
4 0.1120 40 0.0795 0.0060 48 0.0849 0.0066
5 0.1250 40 0.0925 0.0080 44 0.0955 0.0083
6 0.1380 32 0.0974 0.0091 40 0.1055 0.0101
8 0.1640 32 0.1234 0.0140 36 0.1279 0.0147
10 0.1900 24 0.1359 0.0175 32 0.1494 0.0200
12 0.2160 24 0.1619 0.0242 28 0.1696 0.0258
0.2500 20 0.1850 0.0318 28 0.2036 0.0364 7/16 7/16
5/16 0.3125 18 0.2403 0.0524 24 0.2584 0.0581
3/8 0.3750 16 0.2938 0.0775 24 0.3209 0.0878 9/16 9/16
7/16 0.4375 14 0.3447 0.1063 20 0.3725 0.1187 5/8 11/16
0.5000 13 0.4001 0.1419 20 0.4350 0.1600
9/16 0.5625 12 0.4542 0.1819 18 0.4903 0.2030 13/16 7/8
5/8 0.6250 11 0.5069 0.2260 18 0.5528 0.2560 15/16 15/16
0.7500 10 0.6201 0.3345 16 0.6688 0.3730 1 1/8 1 1/8
7/8 0.8750 9 0.7307 0.4617 14 0.7822 0.5095 1 5/16 1 5/16
1 1.0000 8 0.8376 0.6057 12 0.8917 0.6630 1 1
1 1/8 1.1250 7 0.9394 0.7633 12 1.0167 0.8557 1 11/16 1 11/16
1 1.2500 7 1.0644 0.9691 12 1.1417 1.0729 1 7/8 1 7/8
1 3/8 1.3750 6 1.1585 1.1549 12 1.2667 1.3147 2 1/16 2 1/16
1 1.5000 6 1.2835 1.4053 12 1.3917 1.5810 2 2
1 1.7500 5 1.4902 1.8995 2 5/8 2 5/8
2 2.0000 4.5 1.7113 2.4982 3 3
2 2.2500 4.5 1.9613 3.2477 3 3/8 3 3/8
2 2.5000 4 2.1752 3.9988 3 3
2 2.7500 4 2.4252 4.9340 4 1/8 4 1/8
3 3.0000 4 2.6752 5.9674 4 4
3 3.2500 4 2.9252 7.0989 4 7/8
3 3.5000 4 3.1752 8.3286 5
3 3.7500 4 3.4252 9.6565 5 5/8
4 4.0000 4 3.6752 11.083 6