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Mechanical Vibration Acoustics Mechanics

Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror 1.5.20-00

What you can learn about


 Longitudinal waves
 Superposition of waves
 Reflection of longitudinal
waves
 Interference

Principle:
A partial packet of radiation passes
directly from a fixed ultrasonic
transmitter to a fixed ultrasonic re-
ceiver. A further partial packet hits
against a metal screen that is posi-
tioned parallel to the connecting line
between the transmitter and receiv-
er, and is reflected in the direction of
the receiver. The two packets of radi-
ation interfere with each other at
the receiver. When the reflector is
moved parallel to itself, the differ-
ence in the path lengths of the two
packets changes. According to this
difference, either constructive or de-
structive interference occurs.

What you need:


Ultrasonic unit 13900.00 1
Power supply f. ultrasonic unit, 5 VDC, 12 W 13900.99 1
Ultrasonic transmitter on stem 13901.00 1
Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.00 1
Digital multimeter 07134.00 1
Optical profile-bench, l = 60 cm 08283.00 1
Base f. opt. profile-bench, adjust. 08284.00 2
Slide mount f. opt. profile-bench, h = 80 mm 08286.02 2
Slide mount f. opt. profile-bench 08286.00 1
Sliding device, horizontal 08713.00 1
Swinging arm 08256.00 1
Screen metal, 3030 cm 08062.00 1
Measuring tape, 2 m 09936.00 1
Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, red 07361.01 1
Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, blue 07361.04 1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included


The received signal as a function of the reflector distance d.
Interference of ultrasonic waves
by a Lloyd mirror P2152000
Tasks:
1. The sliding device is to be used to
move the reflector screen posi-
tioned parallel to the connecting
line between the transmitter and
receiver parallel to itself in steps
of d = (0.5-1) mm. The reflector
voltage U is to be recorded at each
step.
2. The d values of the various maxi-
ma and minima are to be deter-
mined from the U = U(d) graph
and compared with the theoreti-
cally expected values.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG D - 37070 Gttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 77
LEP
Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror 1.5.20
-00

Related topics Measuring tape, 2 m 09936.00 1


Longitudinal waves, superposition of waves, reflection of lon- Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, red 07361.01 1
gitudinal waves, interference. Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, blue 07361.04 1

Principle Tasks
A partial packet of radiation passes directly from a fixed ultra- 1. The sliding device is to be used to move the reflector
sonic transmitter to a fixed ultrasonic receiver. A further partial screen positioned parallel to the connecting line between
packet hits against a metal screen that is positioned parallel to the transmitter and receiver parallel to itself in steps of d =
the connecting line between the transmitter and receiver, and (0.5-1) mm. The reflector voltage U is to be recorded at
is reflected in the direction of the receiver. The two packets of each step.
radiation interfere with each other at the receiver. When the 2. The d values of the various maxima and minima are to be
reflector is moved parallel to itself, the difference in the path determined from the U = U(d) graph and compared with
lengths of the two packets changes. According to this differ- the theoretically expected values
ence, either constructive or destructive interference occurs.
Set-up and procedure
Set up the experiment as shown in Fig. 1, referring to the dia-
Equipment gram in Fig. 2 for more clarity.
Ultrasonic unit 13900.00 1 Mount the ultrasonic transmitter and the ultrasonic receiver in
Power supply f. ultrasonic unit, 5 VDC, 12 W 13900.99 1 their slide mounts (h = 80 mm). Set them at the same height,
Ultrasonic transmitter on stem 13901.00 1 then orient them on the optical bench so that their middle axes
Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.00 1 are concordant and in alignment with the optical bench. Use
Digital multimeter 07134.00 1 the swinging arm to mount the reflector screen on the sliding
Optical profile-bench, l = 60 cm 08283.00 1 device (horizontal) and ensure that the slide of this is initially
Base f. opt. profile-bench, adjust. 08284.00 2 situated at the start of the scale
Slide mount f. opt. profile-bench, h = 80 mm 08286.02 2 At the start of the experiment the reflector screen must be
Slide mount f. opt. profile-bench 08286.00 1 aligned parallel to the optical bench and at a distance of 2 cm
Sliding device, horizontal 08713.00 1 from the middle axis of the transmitter and receiver. Carry out
Swinging arm 08256.00 1 this adjustment by turning the swinging arm, keeping the
Screen metal, 30x30 cm 08062.00 1 reflector parallel to the optical bench while doing so.

Fig.1: Experimental set-up

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21520-00 1
LEP
1.5.20 Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror
-00

fier in the saturation range. Should such a case occur and the
OVL diode light up, reduce either the transmitter amplitude
or the input amplification. To start with, for control and avoid-
ance of overloading, use the sliding device to bring the screen
to the area of the 1st maximum of the measurement curve.
To now record the measurement curve, use the sliding device
to move the screen away from the middle axis of the system
in steps of d = (0.5 1) mm, measuring the appropriate
receiver voltage U at each step. The results of such a mea-
surement series are shown in Fig. 3.

Theory and evaluation


Fig. 4 shows the paths of the partial packets from the sound
wave emitted by the transmitter which interfere with each
other at the receiver. Part of the wave reaches the receiver
directly, whereas a second part is first reflected by a metal
Fig. 2: Diagram of the experimental set-up screen. According to the difference in the path lengths of the
(t = transmitter, r = receiver, sd = sliding device, sa = two packets either constructive or destructive interference
swinging arm, sc = screen) occurs. With a constant distance between transmitter and
receiver, the difference in the paths lengths (and with this the
interference conditions) is a function of the distance d of the
Finally move the transmitter and receiver so that their front reflector from the middle axis (see Fig. 4).
edges are symmetrical to the sides of the screen and at a dis-
tance of 29.4 cm apart (see Fig. 2). As the active parts of the The following is valid:
ultrasonic elements are approx. 3 cm behind their protective
grids, their effective distance apart is now 30 cm.  2 1y  x2  2 a 21d2  x2 2  x b (1)
Connect the transmitter to the TR1 diode socket of the ultra-
sonic unit and operate it in continuous mode Con. Connect
Constructive interferences (maxima) are given, when corre-
the receiver to the left BNC socket (prior to the amplifier).
sponds to a whole-numbered wavelength of the ultrasonic
Connect the signal received to the analog output of the digital
wave:
multimeter to have it displayed subsequent to amplification
and rectification. To ensure proportionality between the input  nl  2 a 21d2  x2 2  x b
signal and the analog output signal, avoid operating the ampli-
(2)
n2l2
S d  nlx ; n  0, 1, 2, 3, ...
B 4

Destructive interferences (minima) are given, when corre-


sponds to an odd-numbered half-wavelength of the ultrason-
ic wave:
2n  1
 l  2 a 21d2  x2 2  x b
2
(3)

2n  1 2 2 2n  1
S d a b l  lx ; n  0, 1, 2, 3, ...
B 4 2

Fig.4: Diagram for the calculation of the path length difference


Fig.3: The signal received U as a function of the reflector dis- of the two partial packets
tance d. (t = transmitter, r = receiver, sc = screen)

2 21520-00 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen
LEP
Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror 1.5.20
-00

Table 1 lists the d values for the maxima and minima in Fig. 4, The following values were used to calculate d: x = 15.0 cm
and also, for comparison purposes, the d values calculated and l = 0.86 cm.
using equations (2) and (3).. As the transmitter emits at a frequency of f = 40 Hz, it follows
from c = l f (c = 343.4 ms-1 at T = 20C) that the ultrasound
Table 1: d values at the maxima and minima wavelength is: l = 0.858 cm  0.86 cm.
As only the d values of the extremes are determined in this
Maxima Minima experiment and not their absolute intensity, factors such as
n dexp./cm dtheor./cm dexp./cm dtheor./cm absorption by air and the type of wave (plane or spherical)
need not be considered here.
0 0 2.50 2.55
1 3.55 3.62 4.35 4.44
2 5.00 5.15 5.60 5.78
3 6.15 6.35 6.65 6.88
4 7.15 7.38

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21520-00 3
LEP
1.5.20 Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror
-00

4 21520-00 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen