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ICS 79.040; 91.080.

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SANS 10163-1:2003
ISBN 0-626-14169-9 Edition 2.3

Any reference to SABS 0163-1 is deemed


to be a reference to this standard
(Government Notice No. 1373 of 8 November 2002)

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

The structural use of timber

Part 1: Limit-states design

Published by Standards South Africa


1 dr lategan road groenkloof ! private bag x191 pretoria 0001
tel: 012 428 7911 fax: 012 344 1568 international code + 27 12
www.stansa.co.za
Standards South Africa 2003
SANS 10163-1:2003
Edition 2.3

Table of changes
Change No. Date Scope
Amdt 1 1997 Amended to rectify confusing symbols and errors and to correct
the numbering of tables.
Amdt 2 2001 Amended to incorporate references to new and amended SANS
standards and to include a more detailed subclause on the
lateral bracing of members in structures.
Amdt 3 2003 Amended to correct the formulae in 13.2.2 and 13.5.7 and to
correct references to SANS standards.

Abstract
Gives guidance on the design, fabrication and erection of timber structures (and structural timber
components in structures framed in other materials) where the design is based on limit states.
Applicable, with some exceptions, to structural timber in buildings and other stationary structures.

Keywords
beams, buildings, columns, construction, limit-states design, loading, structures, structural systems,
structural timber, timber, trusses (frames), wood.

Acknowledgement
The South African Bureau of Standards wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance derived
from the following:

South African Lumber Millers' Association

The Timber Engineering Advisory Committee of The Institute of Timber Construction

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee STANSA TC 5120.61,
Construction standards, in accordance with procedures of Standards South Africa, in compliance
with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement.

This edition cancels and replaces edition 2.2 (SABS 0163-1:2001).

A vertical line in the margin shows where the text has been modified by amendment No. 3.

Annexes A to H, J to N and P to R are for information only.

The 1994 edition of SABS 0163-1 was a completely new code of practice and not a revision of
SABS 0163-1:1980. The original SABS 0163-1:1980, The design of timber structures Part 1:
Structural design and evaluation, has been revised and renamed, and published as SABS 0163-2,
The structural use of timber Part 2: Allowable stress design.
SANS 10163-1:2003
Edition 2.3

Contents
Page

Abstract

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Foreword

1 Scope and application .......................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................... 8

3 Definitions and symbols ....................................................................................................... 9


3.1 Definitions ................................................................................................................ 9
3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................... 12

4 Drawings .............................................................................................................................. 15
4.1 Application ................................................................................................................ 15
4.2 Design drawings ....................................................................................................... 15
4.3 Fabrication drawings and erection diagrams ........................................................... 16
4.3.1 Connection design details ......................................................................... 16
4.3.2 Shop details ............................................................................................... 16
4.3.3 Erection diagrams ...................................................................................... 16
4.3.4 Erection procedures .................................................................................. 16
4.3.5 Site work details Modifications ............................................................... 16

5 Materials Standards and identification .............................................................................. 17


5.1 Standards ................................................................................................................. 17
5.2 Identification ............................................................................................................. 17
5.2.1 Methods ..................................................................................................... 17
5.2.2 Unidentified structural timber ..................................................................... 17
5.2.3 Determination of characteristic strengths .................................................. 17
5.2.4 Affidavit ...................................................................................................... 18

6 Design requirements ............................................................................................................ 18


6.1 General .................................................................................................................... 18
6.1.1 Limit states ................................................................................................. 18
6.1.2 Structural integrity ...................................................................................... 18
6.1.3 Alternative methods ................................................................................... 18
6.2 Requirements under serviceability loads ................................................................. 19
6.2.1 Deflections ................................................................................................. 19
6.2.2 Camber ...................................................................................................... 19
6.2.3 Dynamic effects ......................................................................................... 19
6.2.4 Resistance of steel components to fatigue ................................................ 19
6.2.5 Permanent deformation ............................................................................. 19
6.2.6 Calculation of design deflection ................................................................. 20
6.3 Requirements under ultimate loads ......................................................................... 20
6.3.1 Strength ..................................................................................................... 20
6.3.2 Overturning, uplift and stress reversal ....................................................... 20
6.4 Expansion and contraction ....................................................................................... 20
6.5 Corrosion protection of steel components ............................................................... 20
6.6 Protection against fire .............................................................................................. 20
6.7 Preservation ............................................................................................................. 21

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Contents (continued)
Page

7 Loads and limit-states criteria .............................................................................................. 21


7.1 Loads ....................................................................................................................... 21
7.2 Limit-states criteria ................................................................................................... 21

8 Analysis of structure ............................................................................................................. 21


8.1 General .................................................................................................................... 21
8.2 Elastic analysis ......................................................................................................... 22
8.3 Evaluation of the effects of sway in structures ......................................................... 22

9 Design lengths of members .................................................................................................. 22


9.1 Spans of simply-supported flexural members .......................................................... 22
9.2 Spans of continuous flexural members .................................................................... 22
9.3 Effective lengths of members in compression ......................................................... 22
9.3.1 General ...................................................................................................... 22
9.3.2 Compression members in frames .............................................................. 23
9.3.3 Compression members in trusses ............................................................. 23

10 Slenderness ratios and values ............................................................................................. 23


10.1 General .................................................................................................................... 23
10.2 Maximum slenderness ratio and slenderness value ................................................ 24

11 Gross and net areas ............................................................................................................. 24


11.1 Application ................................................................................................................ 24
11.2 Gross areas .............................................................................................................. 24
11.3 Net area ................................................................................................................... 24
11.4 Dimensions of timber commonly produced in South Africa ..................................... 25

12 Calculation of design deflection ........................................................................................... 25


12.1 Factor for load duration ............................................................................................ 25
12.2 Factor for moisture content ...................................................................................... 26
12.3 Slip in joints .............................................................................................................. 26

13 Member and connection resistance ..................................................................................... 26


13.1 General .................................................................................................................... 26
13.1.1 Ultimate resistances .................................................................................. 26
13.1.2 Conditions and factors affecting strength and resistance ......................... 26
13.1.2.1 Partial material factor for load duration, m1 .............................................. 27
13.1.2.2 Partial material factor for load sharing, m2 ................................................ 29
13.1.2.3 Partial material factor for stressed volume, m3 ......................................... 29
13.1.2.4 Partial material factor for moisture content, m4 ......................................... 29
13.1.2.5 Partial material factor for pressure treatment, m5 ..................................... 29
13.1.2.6 Capacity reduction factor for laminate thickness and
curvature, cr .............................................................................................. 29
13.2 Tension .................................................................................................................... 30
13.2.1 Tension parallel to the grain ...................................................................... 30
13.2.2 Tension perpendicular to the grain ............................................................ 30

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Contents (continued)
Page

13.3 Axial compression .................................................................................................... 31


13.3.1 Rectangular sections ................................................................................. 31
13.3.2 Round sections .......................................................................................... 32
13.3.3 Spaced columns ........................................................................................ 33
13.3.4 Plywood in compression ............................................................................ 35
13.4 Shear ........................................................................................................................ 36
13.4.1 Beams without notches ............................................................................. 36
13.4.1.1 Rectangular sections ................................................................. 36
13.4.1.2 Round sections ......................................................................... 36
13.4.1.3 I-sections and box sections ....................................................... 36
13.4.2 Notched beams .......................................................................................... 36
13.4.2.1 Notches on the tension side ...................................................... 36
13.4.2.2 Notches on the compression side ............................................. 37
13.4.3 Combined shear and moment ................................................................... 38
13.4.3.1 Rectangular sections ................................................................. 38
13.4.3.2 I-beams and box beams ........................................................... 38
13.5 Bending Laterally supported members ................................................................. 39
13.5.1 Rectangular sections ................................................................................. 39
13.5.2 Doubly symmetric I-sections and box sections ......................................... 39
13.5.3 Doubly tapered rectangular beams ........................................................... 39
13.5.4 Curved beams with constant cross-section ............................................... 40
13.5.5 Heavily curved rectangular beams ............................................................ 40
13.5.6 Doubly tapered rectangular curved beams ............................................... 41
13.5.7 Plywood, fibreboard, particle board, blockboard and battenboard ............ 42
13.5.8 Stressed skin panels ................................................................................. 42
13.6 Bending Laterally unsupported members ............................................................. 43
13.6.1 Rectangular sections ................................................................................. 43
13.6.2 Doubly symmetric I-sections and box sections ......................................... 45
13.6.3 Doubly tapered rectangular beams ........................................................... 46
13.6.4 Curved beams with constant cross-section ............................................... 46
13.6.5 Heavily curved rectangular beams ............................................................ 46
13.6.6 Doubly tapered rectangular curved beams ............................................... 46
13.7 Lateral bracing of members in structures ................................................................ 46
13.7.1 Calculation of stiffness of lateral restraints ................................................. 46
13.7.2 Calculation of force in lateral restraints ...................................................... 47
13.7.3 Calculation of stiffness of bracing members or frames .............................. 47
13.7.3.1 Continuous bracing of compression members .......................... 47
13.7.3.2 Calculation of force in lateral restraints ...................................... 48
13.8 Axial compression and bending ............................................................................... 48
13.8.1 General ...................................................................................................... 48
13.8.2 Arches ........................................................................................................ 50
13.9 Axial tension and bending ........................................................................................ 50
13.10 Load bearing (compression perpendicular to the grain) .......................................... 50
13.11 Connector resistance ............................................................................................... 51
13.11.1 General ...................................................................................................... 51
13.11.2 Connector resistance at any angle to the grain ......................................... 51
13.11.3 Bolt resistance ........................................................................................... 52
13.12 Adhesive-bonded connections ................................................................................. 52
13.13 Welds in steel connectors ........................................................................................ 53

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Edition 2.3

Contents (continued)
Page

14 Fatigue .................................................................................................................................. 53
14.1 Timber ...................................................................................................................... 53
14.2 Steel connections ..................................................................................................... 53

15 Beams .................................................................................................................................. 53
15.1 Proportioning ............................................................................................................ 53
15.2 Rotational restraint at points of support ................................................................... 53
15.3 Notches .................................................................................................................... 54
15.4 Bearing stiffeners for I-beams or box beams............................................................ 54
15.5 Intermediate transverse stiffeners for I-beams ........................................................ 54
15.6 Lateral forces ........................................................................................................... 54
15.7 Openings .................................................................................................................. 54
15.8 Torsion ..................................................................................................................... 54

16 Trusses ................................................................................................................................. 54

17 Composite action with other materials in flexure ................................................................. 55

18 Composite action with other materials in compression ........................................................ 55

19 Spaced columns ................................................................................................................... 55

20 Stability of structures and individual members ..................................................................... 55


20.1 General .................................................................................................................... 55
20.2 Stability of columns .................................................................................................. 56
20.3 Stability of beams and trusses ................................................................................. 56

21 Load effects in connections .................................................................................................. 56


21.1 Alignment of members ............................................................................................. 56
21.2 Member ends not restrained against rotation .......................................................... 56
21.3 Member ends restrained against rotation ................................................................ 57
21.4 Connections of tension members ............................................................................ 57
21.5 Joints in compression members .............................................................................. 57

22 Mechanical connector details ............................................................................................... 57


22.1 General .................................................................................................................... 57
22.2 Spacing of nails ........................................................................................................ 57
22.3 Spacing of coach screws (lag screws) ..................................................................... 58
22.4 Bolts ......................................................................................................................... 58
22.5 Toothed connectors and split-ring connectors ......................................................... 60
22.6 Patented and specialized fasteners and connectors ............................................... 60
22.7 Slotted holes ............................................................................................................ 60

23 Adhesive-bonded joints ........................................................................................................ 62

24 Welding of steel connectors ................................................................................................. 62

25 Column bases ...................................................................................................................... 62


25.1 Loads ....................................................................................................................... 62
25.2 Resistance and finishing .......................................................................................... 62

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SANS 10163-1:2003
Edition 2.3

Contents (concluded)
Page

26 Holding-down bolts ............................................................................................................... 62


26.1 General .................................................................................................................... 62
26.2 Bolt resistance .......................................................................................................... 62

27 Seismic design ..................................................................................................................... 63


27.1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 63
27.2 Second-order effects ................................................................................................ 63
27.3 Earthquake motions ................................................................................................. 63
27.4 Seismically induced deformation ............................................................................. 63

28 Fabrication, protective treatment, erection and inspection of timber components


and structures ....................................................................................................................... 63

Annexes

A Construction ......................................................................................................................... 64

B Effective lengths of members in compression ...................................................................... 66

C Criteria for estimating effective column lengths in continuous frames.................................. 68

D Seismic design requirements for eccentrically braced frames.............................................. 70

E Margins of safety .................................................................................................................. 70

F Columns subject to biaxial bending ...................................................................................... 70

G Vibration in buildings ............................................................................................................ 71

H Wind sway vibrations ............................................................................................................ 75

J Recommended maximum values for deflections ................................................................. 76

K Guide to calculation of stability effects ................................................................................. 76

L Deflections of composite beams owing to shrinkage strain ................................................. 76

M Fire resistance of timber members ....................................................................................... 77

N Characteristic stresses and strengths .................................................................................. 78

P Dimensions of timber commonly produced in South Africa ................................................. 90

Q Determination of characteristic strength by the in-grade testing method ............................. 92

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................. 93
Amdt 3

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SANS 10163-1:2003
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The structural use of timber


Part 1:
Limit-states design

1 Scope and application


1.1 This part of SANS 10163 gives guidance on the design, fabrication and erection of timber
structures (and structural timber components in structures framed in other materials) where the
design is based on limit states.

Commentary

The term "timber structures" refers to structural members and frames that consist of structural
timber components, including the detail parts, bolts or other fasteners required in fabrication and
erection.

1.2 This part of SANS 10163 is applicable to structural timber in buildings and in other stationary
structures, except that supplementary rules or requirements may be necessary for:

a) unusual types of construction;

b) mixed systems of construction (i.e. timber and other structural materials); and

c) timber structures that

1) have unusual heights or spans,

2) are required to be movable or readily dismantled,

3) are exposed to severe environmental conditions or possible severe loads such as those
resulting from vehicle impact or chemical explosion,

4) are required to satisfy aesthetic, architectural or other requirements of a non-structural nature,

5) use materials or products not listed in clause 5, or

6) have other special features that could affect the design, fabrication or erection.

Commentary

1 Unusual structures: the designer may have to carry out supplementary research in respect of
structures that are considered unusual in a Southern African context.

To determine whether a structure is unusual or not, it is necessary to consider its span and
height, the nature of the construction and the type of timber used.

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Edition 2.3

Roof trusses manufactured from sawn pine of thickness 38 mm or 50 mm and that have a
slenderness ratio (span/height of truss at centre) of less than 15 are often used at spans of up to
25 m and roof trusses manufactured from 70 mm laminated pine or saligna of thickness 70 mm
and that have slenderness ratios as high as 20 have been used at spans of 30 m to 35 m.
However, the design of such large and slender roof trusses in timber requires the use of methods
of analysis that will properly account for slip in the joints and the secondary moments due to such
joint and member deformations. Large laminated timber portal frames of spans up to 50 m may
be designed within the scope of this part of SANS 10163, provided that appropriate methods of
analysis are applied.

Timber floors are generally constructed using solid or laminated beams within the limits dictated
by rational design and by the sizes commercially available. Trusses have rarely been used to
build floors of spans exceeding 10 m.

While large laminated timber beams have been used to build pedestrian or vehicle and rail
bridges in other countries, such structures are unusual in South Africa.

2 Environmental conditions: where timber is subjected to severe cyclical changes in moisture


content, its deflection increases and its strength can also be affected. However, within normal
ranges of moisture content, timber performs well in extreme cold and heat and in hostile chemical
environments.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this part of SANS 10163. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference
to a standard is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to
agreements based on this part of SANS 10163 are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of
the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. Information on currently valid national
and international standards may be obtained from Standards South Africa.

SANS 457-2 (SABS 457-2), Wooden poles, droppers, guardrail posts, and spacer blocks Part 2:
Softwood species.

SANS 457-3 (SABS 457-3), Wooden poles, droppers, guardrail posts, and spacer blocks Part 3:
Hardwood species.

SANS 753 (SABS 753), Pine poles, cross-arms and spacers for power distribution, telephone
systems and street lighting.

SANS 754 (SABS 754), Eucalyptus poles, cross-arms and spacers for power distribution and
telephone systems.

SANS 929 (SABS 929), Plywood and composite board.

SANS 1349 (SABS 1349), Phenolic, aminoplastic and one-part polyurethane resin adhesives for the
laminating and finger-jointing of timber, and for furniture and joinery.

SANS 1460 (SABS 1460), Laminated timber (glulam).

SANS 1700-7-1 (SABS 1700-7-1), Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 1: Hexagon head bolts Product grades A and B. Amdt 2

SANS 1700-7-2 (SABS 1700-7-2), Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 2: Hexagon head bolts Product grade B Reduced shank (shank diameter approximately
equal to pitch diameter). Amdt 2

SANS 1700-7-3 (SABS 1700-7-3), Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 3: Hexagon head bolts Product grade C. Amdt 2

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Edition 2.3

SANS 1700-7-4 (SABS 1700-7-4), Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 4: Hexagon head screws Product grades A and B. Amdt 2

SANS 1700-7-5 (SANS 1700-7-5), Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 5: Hexagon head screws Product grade C. Amdt 2

SANS 1700-14-1 (SANS 1700-14-1), Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 1: Style 1
Product grades A and B. Amdt 2

SANS 1700-14-2 (SABS 1700-14-2), Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 2: Style 2
Product grades A and B. Amdt 2

SANS 1700-14-3 (SABS 1700-14-3), Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 3: Product
grade C. Amdt 2

SANS 1783-2 (SABS 1783-2), Sawn softwood timber Part 2: Stress-graded structural timber and
timber for frame-wall construction.

SANS 1783-4 (SABS 1783-4), Sawn softwood timber Part 4: Brandering and battens.

SANS 10005 (SABS 05), The preservative treatment of timber.

SANS 10096 (SABS 096), The manufacture of finger-jointed structural timber.

SANS 10160 (SABS 0160), The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.

SANS 10162-1 (SABS 0162-1), The structural use of steel Part 1: Limit-states design of hot-rolled
steelwork.

SANS 10162-3 (SABS 0162-3), The structural use of steel Part 3: Allowable stress design.

SANS 10183 (SABS 0183), The terminology and classification of adhesives for wood.

SANS 10243 (SABS 0243), The manufacture and erection of timber trusses.

SANS 10400 (SABS 0400), The application of the National Building Regulations.

NOTE Related standards and publications are listed in the Bibliography. Amdt 3

3 Definitions and symbols


3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this part of SANS 10163, the following definitions apply:

3.1.1 calculated deflection: The predicted deflection of a member or structure, which is


calculated by means of an analysis based on elastic theory.

3.1.2 camber: The specified deviation from straightness of a member or structure, to compensate
for deflections that will occur in the member or structure when it is loaded (see 6.2.2).

3.1.3 characteristic joint strength: The force that is assigned to a joint or to a member of a joint
(such as a nail or a bolt), to quantify the strength of the joint or member. (It does not include the
safety factor.)

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3.1.4 characteristic timber strength: The strength that is assigned to a timber member or
product and below which not more than 5 % of the test results fall.

Commentary

Strength values in timber (including joint strength) vary significantly around the mean value. The
average strength value is therefore fairly meaningless and it is almost impossible to determine a
"guaranteed minimum strength". The characteristic strength value in timber is defined as the 5th
percentile strength value, i.e. that strength value below which 5 % of strengths fall. This is
normally statistically determined at a 75 % confidence level.

3.1.5 connector: A device that connects one or more timber members to one another and that is
capable of transmitting specified loads.

3.1.6 density group: Timber with a density exceeding 480 kg/m3 is classified under density
3 3
group D1, and timber with a density between 400 kg/m and 480 kg/m under density group D2.

3.1.7 design deflection: The calculated deflection adjusted to account for creep, abnormal
moisture content or abnormal fluctuation in moisture content.

3.1.8 Engineer: A professional engineer or competent person responsible for the design and satis-
factory completion of a structure in accordance with this part of SANS 10163.

3.1.9 glued laminated (Glulam) member: A member that is manufactured by gluing together a
number of timber laminations that have their grains essentially parallel.

3.1.10 limit states: Those conditions of a structure at which the structure ceases to fulfil the
function for which it was designed. The states concerning safety are called the ultimate limit states
and include exceeding of load-carrying capacity, overturning, uplift, sliding, fracture and fatigue
failure. The states that restrict the intended use and occupancy of the structure are called
serviceability limit states and include excessive deflection and vibration, and permanent
deformation.

3.1.11 load effect: A force or moment induced in a member, due to ultimate loading, ultimate
displacement or ultimate distortion.

3.1.12 loads

3.1.12.1 dead load: See 3.1.12.6 self-weight load.

3.1.12.2 gravity load: The mass of the object being supported, multiplied by the acceleration due
to gravity g.

3.1.12.3 imposed load (live load (deprecated)): The load due to intended occupancy (includes
loads due to movable partitions and loads due to cranes), snow, ice and rain, earth and hydrostatic
pressures, and horizontal components of static and inertia forces (see SANS 10160).

3.1.12.4 live load: See 3.1.12.3 imposed load.

3.1.12.5 nominal load: Those loads specified in SANS 10160.

3.1.12.6 self-weight load (deprecated: dead load): The load that consists of the weight of all the
members of the structure itself, plus the weight of all finishes, including permanent partitions, which
are to be supported permanently by any member of the structure.

3.1.12.7 serviceability load: The design load or action effect that pertains to the serviceability limit
state (see SANS 10160).

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3.1.12.8 ultimate load: The design load or action effect that pertains to the ultimate limit state
(see SANS 10160).

3.1.13 member: Any structural component that is a piece of solid timber or has been built up from
pieces of timber or plywood or both (e.g. a floor joist, a box beam or a member of a truss).

3.1.14 modification factor: A factor that is applied to the member resistance, the connection
resistance or the calculated deflection, to allow for the specific condition(s) under which a member
or structure will operate and which will influence its structural behaviour.

3.1.15 moisture content: The mass of water in a sample of timber, expressed as grams of
moisture per kilogram of oven-dry mass of the sample.

3.1.16 net cross-section: The cross-section of timber that remains after the operations of
machining, notching, grooving and drilling have been performed.

3.1.17 proof testing: The application of test loads whereby the acceptability of the design of a
structural component or components can be assessed before use.

3.1.18 prototype testing: The evaluation, under test loads, of the structural characteristics of a
component or components that is/are nominally identical with the proposed component or
components.

3.1.19 resistance factor : A factor, given in the appropriate clauses in this part of SANS 10163,
that is applied to a specified material property or to the resistance of a member, connection or
structure, that, for the limit state under consideration, takes into account the variability of material
properties, dimensions, workmanship, type of failure and uncertainty in prediction of member
resistance.

Commentary

To maintain simplicity of design formulae in this part of SANS 10163, the type of failure and the
uncertainty in prediction of member resistance have been incorporated in the expressions of
member resistance.

3.1.20 resistances

3.1.20.1 factored resistance R: The product of the resistance R and the appropriate resistance
factor.

3.1.20.2 resistance R: The resistance of a member, connection or structure, as calculated in


accordance with this part of SANS 10163, based on the specified material properties and nominal
dimensions.

3.1.21 rough-sawn: Descriptive of timber sawn on a breakdown saw or similar device and then
edged but not otherwise machined.

3.1.22 structure: Any assembly that consists of timber members, including the detail parts,
fasteners and other items required in the fabrication or erection of the assembly.

3.1.23 tolerances

3.1.23.1 erection tolerances: Tolerances related to the plumbness, alignment and level of the
piece as a whole. The deviations are determined by considering the locations of the ends of the
piece (see clause 28).

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3.1.23.2 fabrication tolerances: Tolerances allowed from the nominal dimensions and geometry,
including cutting to length, cutting of bevel angles and, for fabricated members, out-of-straightness
such as bow and camber (see clause 28).

3.1.23.3 manufacturing tolerances: Variations allowed from the nominal dimensions and
geometry with respect to cross-sectional area, out-of-straightness, out-of-squareness and warp in
the timber product as manufactured (see clause 28).

3.1.23.4 mill tolerances: Variations allowed from the nominal dimensions and geometry with
respect to cross-sectional area and out-of-straightness in the timber as sawn and dried.

3.1.24 web member: The members that join the top chords (usually carrying tensile and
compressive forces) and bottom chords to form the triangular pattern that gives truss action.

3.2 Symbols
The following symbols are used throughout this part of SANS 10163. Deviations from them and
additional nomenclature are noted where they appear.

3.2.1 General symbols

A is the cross-sectional area

Ag is the gross area

Ane is the net area

Av is the shear area

a is the distance between the end or the edge and the fastener hole

b is the width of section

be is the effective width

d is the diameter of round section

e is the eccentricity

h is the height; (unnotched) depth of a timber section

I is the second moment of area (moment of inertia)

J is the St. Venant torsion constant

K is the effective length factor

L is the length of a member; span length

Lb is the length of bearing of applied load

Le is the effective length

N is the number of lateral bracing members over the compression zone

n is the number of members

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R is the transition radius; resistance of a member, connection or structure; beam reaction of the
centre-line of the member

Rm is the radius of curvature

r is the radius of gyration: I /A

ry is the radius of gyration of a member about its weak axis

s is the centre-to-centre longitudinal spacing (pitch) of any two successive fastener holes

t is the thickness of plywood or boards

x is the subscript relating to the strong axis of a section

y is the subscript relating to the weak axis of a section

Z is the section modulus of a section

Ze is the section modulus of a member (see 13.5.1)

is the parameter for calculating shear resistance

is the angle of taper for a doubly tapered curved beam or the ratio of the notch projection
beyond the support to the total depth of the member

m1 is the partial material factor for load duration

m2 is the partial material factor for load sharing

m3 is the partial material factor for stressed volume

m4 is the partial material factor for moisture content

m5 is the partial material factor for pressure treatment

m6 is the partial material factor for area stressed by connectors

is the resistance factor = 0,68 (see 3.1.19)

cr is the capacity reduction factor for laminate thickness and curvature (see 13.1.2.6)

dt is the capacity reduction factor for a tapered rectangular beam

inner is the capacity reduction factor for a heavily curved beam

outer is the capacity reduction factor for a heavily curved beam

is the ratio of the notch projection beyond the support to the total depth of the member

is the non-dimensional slenderness value in a column formula

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3.2.2 Force, stress and resistance symbols

B is the bearing force

Br is the ultimate bearing resistance of a member or component

Bu is the bearing force in a member or component under ultimate load

C is the compressive force

Ce is the Euler buckling strength: 2EI/L2e

Ck is the material constant for a beam

Cr is the ultimate axial compressive resistance of a member or component

Cs is the slenderness factor for a beam

Cu is the compressive force in a member or component under ultimate load; ultimate axial load

E is the elastic modulus of timber

Fr is the ultimate connector resistance

f is the characteristic stress

fb is the characteristic bending stress

fc is the characteristic compression stress parallel to the grain

fcp is the characteristic compression stress perpendicular to the grain

ft is the characteristic tensile stress parallel to the grain

ftp is the characteristic tensile stress perpendicular to the grain

fv is the characteristic shear stress parallel to the grain

G is the shear modulus of timber

M is the moment

Mr is the ultimate moment resistance of a member or component

Mu is the bending moment in a member or component under ultimate load

PA is the ultimate average compressive force in a strut

PB is the ultimate axial resistance force in a bracing member

RP is the characteristic resistance of a connector parallel to the grain

RQ is the characteristic resistance of a connector perpendicular to the grain

T is the tensile force

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Tr is the ultimate tensile resistance of a member or component parallel to the grain

Tu is the tensile force in a member or component under ultimate load

U1 is the moment magnification factor for a beam-column

V is the shear force

Vr is the ultimate shear resistance of a member or component

Vu is the shear force in a member or component under ultimate load

is the ratio of smaller ultimate moment to larger ultimate moment at opposite ends of an
unbraced length: positive for double curvature and negative for single curvature

is the angle between the applied force and the direction of the grain

1 is the coefficient used to determine the equivalent uniform bending effect in a beam-column

2 is the coefficient for calculating the moment resistance of a laterally unsupported beam (see
table 6)

3 is the coefficient for calculating the moment resistance of a laterally unsupported beam (see
table 6)

4 Drawings
4.1 Application
The provisions of clause 4 are not mandatory for the roof construction of dwelling houses that fall
within the scope of the empirical rules of SANS 10400.

Commentary

Dwelling houses are defined in SANS 10400. For the roof construction of dwelling houses, the
empirical rules in SANS 10400 are often followed or, alternatively, line drawings accompanied by
standard details may suffice.

4.2 Design drawings

4.2.1 Design drawings shall be drawn to a scale adequate to convey the required information. The
drawings shall show a complete design of the structure (with members suitably designated and
located), including such dimensions and detailed description as are necessary to permit the
preparation of fabrication and erection documents. Floor levels and column centres, where
applicable, shall be dimensioned. The term "drawings" may include computer output and other data.

4.2.2 Design drawings shall designate the design codes used and shall designate the material or
product standards applicable to the members and details depicted (see clause 5). If connections are
not detailed, the design drawings shall give the governing combinations of shears, moments and
axial forces to be resisted by the connections. Where the timber structure is connected to other
parts of the structure that have not been designed by, and are not the responsibility of, the designer,
the maximum (relevant) connection forces shall be indicated on the drawing.

4.2.3 The size and location of stiffeners, reinforcement and bracing and the camber of beams and
trusses (if required) shall be shown on the design drawings.

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4.3 Fabrication drawings and erection diagrams

4.3.1 Connection design details

Connection design details shall include details of typical types and special types of connections,
and other data necessary for the preparation of shop details, and shall be referenced to the design
drawings. Connection details not specified by the design engineer shall be prepared in advance of
preparing shop details, and shall be submitted to the Engineer for confirmation that the intent of the
design is met.

4.3.2 Shop details

Shop details shall provide complete information for the fabrication of the various members and
components of the structure, including the required material and product specifications; and the
location, type and size of all mechanical fasteners. These drawings shall be prepared in advance of
fabrication and shall be submitted to the Engineer for review.

4.3.3 Erection diagrams

Erection diagrams are general arrangement drawings that show the principal dimensions of the
structure, piece marks, sizes of members, sizes and details of site connections, elevations of
column bases, all necessary dimensions and details for setting holding-down bolts, and all other
information, including bracing, necessary for the assembly of the structure. Where these drawings
are not prepared by the Engineer, they shall be submitted to the Engineer for review.

4.3.4 Erection procedures

Erection procedures shall outline the construction methods, erection sequence, temporary bracing
requirements and other engineering details necessary for transporting members and components,
erecting the structure and maintaining its stability. Erection procedures shall be supplemented by
drawings and sketches to identify the location of stabilizing elements. Erection procedures shall be
submitted to the Engineer for review when so specified.

4.3.5 Site work details Modifications

Where modifications become necessary on site, site work details shall provide complete information
for the modification of fabricated members in the shop or on site. All operations required to modify
the members shall be shown on the site-work details. If extra materials are necessary to make
modifications, shop details shall be prepared. Site-work details shall be submitted to the Engineer
for review.

Commentary

Nail-plated timber trusses are normally manufactured using proprietary systems. The structural
engineering, the connectors and the documentation incorporated in such a system should be in
accordance with the National Building Regulations and should provide the structural design and
also the shop details of all the members and connections. The shop details and site
documentation are thus prepared as part of the design.

When a roof structure is within the empirical limits as set out in SANS 10400, the trusses may be
manufactured and supplied without the need for the approval of, or supervision by, the Engineer.

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5 Materials Standards and identification


5.1 Standards
The following standards shall be used in conjunction with this part of SANS 10163:

SANS 1349

SANS 10160

SANS 10183

SANS 10243

SANS 10400

Materials, products and procedures that comply with standards other than those listed above may
also be used if approved by the Engineer. Approval shall be based on published standards that
establish the characteristics and suitability of the materials, products and procedures to the extent
and in the manner of the above standards.

5.2 Identification

5.2.1 Methods

Except as provided in 5.2.2, the materials and products used shall be identifiable from legible
markings on the material or product. The markings shall have been made by the producer of the
material or product, in accordance with the applicable standard.

5.2.2 Unidentified structural timber

Timber that cannot be proved to conform to a recognized structural grade (a grade the
characteristic strengths of which have been published in its country of origin) shall not be used
unless its characteristic strengths have been determined in accordance with 5.2.3 and its use is
approved by the Engineer.

Commentary

It is not uncommon for timber that is not of a recognized structural grade, even in its country of
origin, to be proposed for use in a structure. Usually the timber is of an appearance grade that is
intended for joinery or other non-structural purposes. If it does in fact conform to a recognized
structural grade the characteristic strengths of which have been published in its country of origin,
and these strengths are available, the Engineer may approve its use. If not, characteristic
strengths for the particular timber, or batch of timber, can be determined in accordance with
5.2.3. If only allowable stresses are available, the Engineer will need to derive the appropriate
characteristic strengths.

5.2.3 Determination of characteristic strengths

If so permitted by the Engineer, timber with no published strength data may be tested to establish
these data. Testing shall be carried out by a testing agency that has the relevant experience in
timber and uses the in-grade testing method described in annex Q, or another approved method. All
tests shall be conducted on structural sizes of timber.

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Commentary

The characteristic strengths for timber are based on the value of the 5th percentile strength at
the 75 % confidence level.

The in-grade testing method is the most suitable for determining the 5th percentile strength value
when sufficient pieces of the timber are available for testing. The testing is rapid and results in as
few as 10 % of the pieces tested being broken. The use of non-parametric statistics in this
method gives reliable values. If insufficient timber is available, other methods, e.g. those
described in BS 5820 can be considered. Enough specimens to be representative of the
population have to be tested for each design property required. As the results of strength tests
on timber are usually non-normally distributed, an appropriate statistical analysis such as the
Weibull distribution should be used.

5.2.4 Affidavit

The manufacturer, if so requested by the Engineer, shall provide an affidavit stating that the
materials and products that he has used in fabrication comply with the applicable material or
product standards called for by the design drawings or specifications.

6 Design requirements
6.1 General

6.1.1 Limit states

Structures shall be designed by the limit-states design method to be serviceable during the useful
life of the structure, and safe from collapse during construction and during the useful life of the
structure. This aim is achieved in this part of SANS 10163 by the use of load factors applied to the
specified nominal loads (see clause 7) and of resistance factors applied to the specified resistances
(see clause 13).

Commentary

Limit states define the various types of collapse and unserviceability that are to be avoided;
those concerning safety are called the ultimate limit states (exceeding of load-carrying
capacity, overturning, uplift, sliding, fracture and fatigue failure) and those concerning
serviceability are called the serviceability limit states (deflections, vibration and permanent
deformation). The object of limit-states design calculations is to keep the probability of a limit
state being reached below a certain value previously established for the given type of structure.

The various limit states are set out in this clause. Some of the limit states relate to the
serviceability loads and others to the ultimate loads. Camber, and provisions for creep, for
expansion and contraction, and for corrosion protection are further design requirements related
to serviceability and durability. All limit states need to be considered in the design.

6.1.2 Structural integrity

The general arrangement of the structural system and the connection of its members shall be such
that resistance to widespread collapse as a consequence of local failure is provided.

6.1.3 Alternative methods

Alternative methods of design to those given in this part of SANS 10163 may be used, provided that
they comply with SANS 10160. In such cases, the design shall provide nominal margins (or factors)
of safety at least equal to those intended in the provisions of this part of SANS 10163 (see
annex E).

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6.2 Requirements under serviceability loads

6.2.1 Deflections

6.2.1.1 Members and structures shall be so proportioned that, under serviceability loads,
deflections are within acceptable limits for the nature of the materials to be supported and for the
intended use and occupancy of the structure (see SANS 10160).

6.2.1.2 In the absence of a more detailed evaluation, see SANS 10160 and annex J for recom-
mended values for deflections.

6.2.1.3 The serviceability loads shall be used to calculate the long-term deflections in roofs of
buildings, taking into account the resulting loads due to ponding.

6.2.2 Camber

6.2.2.1 Any required camber of the beams or trusses shall be specified on the design drawings.
Generally, long span trusses and beams should be cambered to compensate for the elastic
deflection and creep deflection due to the self-weight load (see 6.2.6).

6.2.2.2 Any special camber requirements necessary to bring a loaded member into proper relation
with the work of other trades shall be specified on the design drawings.

6.2.3 Dynamic effects

6.2.3.1 Suitable provision shall be made in the design for the effect of an imposed load that induces
impact or vibration, or both. In severe cases, for example structural supports for heavy machinery
that causes substantial impact or vibration when in operation, the possibility of harmonic resonance,
fatigue or unacceptable vibration shall be investigated (see SANS 10160).

6.2.3.2 Special consideration shall be given to floor systems susceptible to vibration, for example
large open floor areas free of partitions, to ensure that such vibration is acceptable for the intended
use and occupancy. (Guidance regarding floor vibrations is given in annex G.)

6.2.3.3 Unusually flexible structures (generally those whose ratio of height to effective resisting
width exceeds 4:1) shall be investigated for lateral vibrations under varying wind loads. Lateral
accelerations of the structure shall be checked to ensure that such accelerations are acceptable for
the intended use and occupancy. (Information on lateral accelerations under varying wind loads is
given in annex H and SANS 10160)

6.2.4 Resistance of steel components to fatigue

Structural steel components shall be designed to resist the effects of fatigue under the specified
serviceability loads in accordance with SANS 10162-1.

6.2.5 Permanent deformation

The permanent deformation of timber structures shall be within the limits given in SANS 10160.

Commentary

Creep in the timber members and the slip in connections formed with mechanical connectors
can result in the permanent deformation of timber structures.

Creep deflection in the timber members of a structure designed at their ultimate capacity is of the
order of the calculated elastic deflection at serviceability loads. This can be taken into account in

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design by using the guidelines referred to in 6.2.6. However, substantial changes in moisture
content can lead to greater creep taking place over a much longer period.

The strengths for mechanical fasteners are usually limited by keeping the load in the
approximately linear portion of the load-deformation curve. Ill-fitting bolts or connectors in over-
sized holes or grooves can cause serious permanent deformations. It is therefore advisable to
set split-ring connectors in epoxy resin in the groove, to prevent unsightly deformation. Bolts
used in combination with washers will deform less than bolts without washers.

6.2.6 Calculation of design deflection

The design deflection shall be calculated in accordance with clause 12.

6.3 Requirements under ultimate loads

6.3.1 Strength

Structures shall be designed to resist moments and forces that result from the application of the
ultimate loads acting in the most critical combination, taking into account the resistance factors as
specified in the appropriate clauses of this part of SANS 10163.

6.3.2 Overturning, uplift and stress reversal

Structures shall be designed to resist overturning, uplift and stress reversal that result from the
application of the ultimate loads acting in the most critical combination, taking into account the
importance of the structure as specified in SANS 10160, and the resistance factors as specified in
the appropriate clauses of this part of SANS 10163 (see clause 7).

6.4 Expansion and contraction


Suitable provision shall be made for expansion and contraction, in a manner commensurate with
the service and erection conditions of the structure.

Commentary
6
The coefficient of linear expansion of timber is small around 5 10 per degree Celsius and
expansion joints are therefore required only very occasionally unless made necessary by the
cladding. Expansion due to an increase in the moisture content is not normally considered in
structural design, because this will not happen in normal building if the detailing and site control
are correct.

6.5 Corrosion protection of steel components


Where necessary, steel components shall be adequately protected against corrosion, in accordance
with SANS 10162-3, in a manner commensurate with the thickness of the material used, the
severity of the conditions to which the structure will be exposed and the ease of subsequent
inspection and maintenance.

6.6 Protection against fire


The fire ratings of different types of buildings shall be in accordance with SANS 10400. A method
for the calculation of the resistance of timber members to fire is given in annex M.

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6.7 Preservation
Timber for use in the proclaimed areas of the Republic of South Africa, as defined in regulation 602
in Government Gazette No. 10158 (of 27 March 1986), shall be effectively protected against rot and
attack by fungi and insects by having been treated in accordance with SANS 10005.

Commentary

All structural timber in contact with the ground has to be treated with a preservative. This is
primarily to guard against termite attack. Brush application of a preservative is not sufficient and
pressure impregnation is necessary.

7 Loads and limit-states criteria


7.1 Loads
Loads and other influences to be considered in the design of a structure shall be adopted in
accordance with SANS 10160.

7.2 Limit-states criteria


The criteria for avoiding a failure at ultimate limit states and for avoiding unfitness for purpose at
serviceability limit states of a structure are, respectively:

factored resistance > effect of ultimate loads

serviceability requirements > effect of serviceability loads

The factored design resistance is determined in accordance with other clauses of this part of
SANS 10163 and the effect of the ultimate or serviceability loads is determined in accordance with
clause 8, using the ultimate or serviceability loads defined in SANS 10160.

8 Analysis of structure
8.1 General

8.1.1 When the structure is being proportioned to meet the various design requirements of
clause 6, an appropriate method of analysis shall be used.

Commentary

Timber flexural members fail in a brittle manner. The moment-curvature relationship has no
significant plateau, i.e. does not show any ductile behaviour. Therefore for continuous statically
indeterminate beams, where continuity has been achieved without mechanical connectors, the
linear elastic bending moments should be used. No moment distribution is permitted.

Moment connections fabricated with mechanical connectors are not rigid. Some slip will occur
and the relationship between moment and relative rotation of the two connecting parts will have
a finite stiffness.

It is important that the relative rotational and axial movement of connections be taken into
account in the analysis of the forces and moments in the design of statically indeterminate
continuous beams, arches or portal frames.

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High secondary bending moments can occur in shallow trusses of low profile. The method used
in analysing the forces and moments in such trusses should take this effect into account. A great
disparity in the overall stiffness of the top and bottom chords will distribute such moments to the
stiffer member. It is therefore strongly recommended that the stiffness matrix method of analysis
be used to analyse shallow trusses.

A shallow truss is considered to have a pitch of less than 12 or a span/height ratio exceeding
12, where the height is defined as the overall height measured at the centre of the span.

8.1.2 The distribution of internal forces and bending moments shall be determined both under the
serviceability loads to satisfy the requirements of serviceability and fatigue given in 6.2, and under
the ultimate loads to satisfy the requirements of strength and overturning given in 6.3.

8.2 Elastic analysis


Under a particular loading combination, the forces and moments throughout all or part of the
structure can be determined by an analysis that assumes that individual members behave
elastically.

8.3 Evaluation of the effects of sway in structures


In the case of structures where sway is possible, the analysis referred to in 8.2 shall include the
sway effects in each storey produced by the vertical loads acting on the structure in its displaced
configuration. These second-order effects due to the relative transitional displacement (sway) of the
ends of a member shall preferably be determined from a second-order analysis. Alternatively, the
second-order effects can be calculated in accordance with annex K.

9 Design lengths of members


9.1 Spans of simply-supported flexural members
Beams and trusses can be designed on the basis of simple spans, whose length can be taken as
the distance between the centroidal axes of supporting members. Alternatively, the span length of
beams can be taken as the actual length of such members measured between centres of end
connections. In all cases, the design of columns or of other supporting members shall provide for
the effect of any significant moment or eccentricity that arises from the manner in which a beam or
truss is actually connected or supported.

9.2 Spans of continuous flexural members


Beams or trusses that have full or partial end restraint owing to continuity or cantilever action shall
be proportioned to carry all moments, shears and other forces at any section, assuming the span, in
general, to be the distance between the centroidal axes of the supporting members. Supporting
members shall be proportioned to carry all moments, shears and other forces induced by the
continuity of the supported beam or truss.

9.3 Effective lengths of members in compression


9.3.1 General
Members in compression shall be designed on the basis of their effective length

Le = KL

where

K is the effective length factor;

L is the unbraced length.

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Unless otherwise specified in this part of SANS 10163, the unbraced length L shall be taken as the
length of the compression member between the centres of restraining members. The unbraced
length can differ for different cross-sectional axes of the compression member. At the bottom storey
of a multi-storey structure or for a single-storey structure, L shall be taken as the length from the top
of the base plate to the centre of restraining members at the next higher level.

9.3.2 Compression members in frames

The effective length factor K shall be taken as 1,0 for the compressive members of frames in which

a) sway effects have been included in the analysis used to determine the moments and forces, or

b) the sway effects in addition to the lateral loads are resisted by bracing or shear walls, unless the
degree of rotational restraint afforded at the ends of the unbraced lengths shows that a value of
K of less than 1,0 is applicable (see annexes B and C).

9.3.3 Compression members in trusses

Unless otherwise specified in this part of SANS 10163 or unless analysis shows that a smaller value
is applicable, the effective length factor K shall be taken as 1,0 for compression members in trusses
(see C.8 of annex C).

Commentary

1 With regard to the effective length for "in-plane" buckling, in a continuous compression
member such as a chord of a truss, take the effective length for "in-plane" buckling as the
distance between the node points multiplied by a factor of between 0,85 and 1,0, depending
on the degree of fixity and the distribution of the load. In a non-continuous compression
member such as the web of a truss, take the effective length for "in-plane" buckling as the
actual length of the member multiplied by a factor of between 0,85 and 1,0, depending on the
degree of end fixity.

2 With regard to effective length for "out-of-plane" buckling, the following apply:

a) take the effective length of the compression chords to be equal to the purlin or batten spacing,
provided that the purlins or battens are adequately fixed to the chords, properly spliced to
transmit the forces and adequately braced against longitudinal movement;

b) in the case of tiles supported on battens, the battens being spaced less than 400 mm apart
and fixed to the chords with one or two plain wire nails, use a minimum slenderness value of
Le/b = 15 for calculating the ultimate compressive stresses for the chords;

c) if the compression chords are braced by means of a bracing frame or a truss that restrains the
longitudinal movement of all battens, use the minimum slenderness value given in (b) above;
and

d) in the case of web members, use the distance between the intersection of the centre-lines of
connecting members.

10 Slenderness ratios and values


10.1 General
Commentary

It is customary in timber design to use slenderness values for rectangular and round members
and to use slenderness ratios for built-up members with cross-sections other than round or
rectangular.

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10.1.1 Slenderness ratio

The slenderness ratio of a compression member shall be taken as the ratio of the effective length
KL to the corresponding radius of gyration r. The slenderness ratio of a tension member shall be
taken as the ratio of the unbraced length L to the corresponding radius of gyration r.

10.1.2 Slenderness value

The slenderness value of a compression member shall be taken as the ratio of the effective length
KL to the corresponding dimension b or h in the case of rectangular members, or d in the case of
round members.

The slenderness value of a tension member shall be taken as the ratio of the unbraced length L to
the corresponding dimension b or h in the case of rectangular members, or d in the case of round
members.

10.2 Maximum slenderness ratio and slenderness value


10.2.1 Compression members

The slenderness ratio of a compression member shall not exceed 180. The slenderness value of a
compression member shall not exceed 52.

Commentary

For composite sections, use the relevant modular ratio method to determine the combined
section properties.

10.2.2 Tension members

The slenderness ratio of a tension member shall not exceed 250. The slenderness value of a
tension member shall not exceed 72. These limits may be waived if other means are provided to
control flexibility, sag, vibration and slack in a manner commensurate with the service conditions of
the structure, or if it can be shown that such factors are not detrimental to the performance of the
structure or of the assembly of which the member is a part.

11 Gross and net areas


11.1 Application
Members in compression and members without holes shall be proportioned on the basis of their
gross areas.

Members in tension or in shear, and that have holes, notches or grooves, shall be proportioned on
the basis of their net areas.

11.2 Gross areas


When the gross areas and other cross-sectional properties of sawn members are being calculated,
the minimum rough sawn dimensions shall be used.

Where the dimensions are non-standard, the measured sizes of timber shall be used in all cases.

11.3 Net area


The net area is the cross-sectional area of timber that remains after the operations of machining,
notching, grooving and drilling have been performed.

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11.4 Dimensions of timber commonly produced in South Africa


The dimensions of sawn and laminated timber commonly produced in South Africa are given in
annex P.

12 Calculation of design deflection


The load cases to be considered are the serviceability loads of SANS 10160. Creep in timber
members is a function of the load, the load duration and of the moisture content. The design
deflection shall be calculated as follows:

Design deflection = Calculated deflection . d1 . d2

where

d1 is the factor for load duration (see 12.1.1);

d2 is the factor for moisture content (see 12.2).

12.1 Factor for load duration

12.1.1 The factor for load duration d1 can be calculated from:

W DS + W IS + W WS
d1 = Amdt 1
C dD . W DS + C d I . WD IS + C dW . W WS

where

WDS is the serviceability self-weight load effect;

WIS is the serviceability imposed load effect;

WWS is the wind load effect;

CdD is the deflection coefficient for self-weight loads;

CdI is the deflection coefficient for imposed loads;

CdW is the deflection coefficient for wind loads.

12.1.2 When the full load or combination of loads acts on a solid or laminated SA pine or saligna
member for a period or sum of periods exceeding 3 months, the applicable deflection coefficient Cd
shall be taken in the range 0,5 to 0,7, but 0,6 is recommended. In all other cases, Cd shall be taken
as 1,0.

Commentary

Particleboard and fibreboard products, when used for bending on flat, are inclined to creep more
than sawn or laminated timber and plywood under long duration loading. Due allowance for this
long-term deflection should be made when boards are used for this application.

12.1.3 When the full load or combination of loads acts on a fibreboard or chipboard product for a
period or sum of periods exceeding 3 months, the applicable deflection coefficient Cd shall be taken
as 0,3 for fibreboard and 0,5 for chipboard.

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12.2 Factor for moisture content


The appropriate values for the factor for moisture content d2 shall be as given in table 1.

Commentary

Typical moisture content values: approximately 100 g/kg in the highveld area;
approximately 150 g/kg in coastal areas.

Table 1 Factor for moisture content

1 2
Moisture content
g/kg d2
Normal, i.e. less than or equal to 170 1,0
Exceeding 170 but not exceeding 200 1,3
Exceeding 200 1,7
At time of construction, exceeding 170 but less than or equal to 250 and
after that, falling to 170 or less 1,4
At time of construction exceeding 250 and after that, falling to 170 or less 1,7
Fluctuating over a range, exceeding 100 1,4

12.3 Slip in joints


The slip in bolted joints loaded up to the serviceability load will be approximately:

a) 1,0 mm + 0,1 D for two-member joints; and

b) 1,0 mm + 0,02 D for three-member joints;

where D is the bolt diameter, in millimetres.

Commentary

All mechanically connected timber joints will slip when load is applied. Slip in joints is important
in shallow trusses, i.e. high span-to-depth ratios, where joint slip could dominate overall
deflections.

13 Member and connection resistance


13.1 General

13.1.1 Ultimate resistances

To comply with the provisions of this part of SANS 10163, all ultimate resistances, as determined in
this clause, shall be equal to or greater than the effect of ultimate loads determined in accordance
with 7.2, and the resistance factor shall be taken as 0,68 unless otherwise specified.

13.1.2 Conditions and factors affecting strength and resistance

The member resistance and connector resistance shall be modified by the following partial material
factors:

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a) m1, which is the partial material factor for load duration;

Commentary

The strength of timber is a function of the load duration and the stress level to which the timber is
loaded. Timber is able to carry short-term loads at a higher stress level than long-term loads.
The load duration factor m1 provides for a combination of long-term and short-term loads.

b) m2, which is the partial material factor for load sharing;

Commentary

Structural timber has a statistical distribution of strength and modulus of elasticity. There is a
good correlation between its strength and the modulus of elasticity or the stiffness. When a
number of members share a load and are constrained to the same deformation, the weaker
members, which are usually also the less stiff members, shed some of the load to the stronger
members, which are usually also the stiffer members. The modification factor m2 provides for this
load sharing between members.

c) m3, which is the partial material factor for stressed volume;

Commentary

Structural timber strengths are usually determined by the testing of members of length 2,4 m and
of depth 114 mm. Timber has strength-reducing features distributed throughout its length and
depth. When the volume of timber is increased, more strength-reducing features are present.
When the stressed volume is increased, more of these strength-reducing features will be found
in areas of high stress. The strength of the member is therefore a function of the volume and
also of the level of stress. The m3 factor provides for an increase or decrease in volume and in
stress.

d) m4, which is the partial material factor for moisture content; and

Commentary

Structural timber is tested for strength at a moisture content of below 180 g/kg. Timber,
especially in compression members, loses strength when its moisture content increases. The
m4 factor provides for the loss in strength caused by an increase in the moisture content.

e) m5, which is the partial material factor for pressure treatment.

Commentary

Certain pressure treatments and certain chemical agents decrease the strength of structural
timber. The m5 factor provides for any loss in strength caused by such treatment.

13.1.2.1 Partial material factor for load duration, m1

The specified strengths and resistances given in this part of SANS 10163 are based on permanent
loads. When the specified loads act for durations other than permanent, the specified strengths and
resistances shall be modified by a load duration factor m1. Table 2 defines load durations and
table 3 gives values for the coefficient to be used in the calculation:

C f D . W DU + C f .W U + C f W .W WU
m1 = Amdt 1
W DU + W U + W WU

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where

WDU is the factored serviceability self-weight load effect;

WIU is the factored serviceability imposed load effect;

WWU is the factored wind load effect;

CfD is the load coefficient for self-weight loads;

CfI is the load coefficient for imposed loads;

CfW is the load coefficient for wind loads.

Commentary

If the design method is strictly applied, different members in the same structure (e.g. the top and
bottom chords in a truss) will have different d1 and m1 factors. However, in general, the
difference in the values for d1 and m1 for different members in the same structure will be small. It
is therefore common practice amongst truss designers to assume that the values for d1 and m1
are the same for each member in the structure. This assumption is acceptable for normal timber
roof trusses.

Table 2 Definition of load duration

1 2 3
Duration definition Duration of load Description of load
Permanent More than 3 months Self-weight earth-pressure loads from contents of tanks and silos or
similar retaining structures
Imposed loads that are removed and replaced at regular intervals
such that the structure remains loaded for a substantial proportion of
its life
Medium term 1 day to 3 months Snow loads, traffic loads on bridges
Imposed loads that are applied at frequent intervals
Imposed loads on scaffolding and concrete shuttering (These loads
include some imposed floor loads as defined in SANS 10160)
Short term Less than 1 day Normal wind loads
Other imposed loads that are supplied at infrequent intervals (These
loads include the imposed roof loads as defined in SANS 10160)

Table 3 Load coefficients for different load combinations

1 2 3 4 5 6
CfI
Load combinations to SANS 10160 CfD CfW
Short Medium Long
Self-weight load only 1,00
Self-weight load plus imposed load 1,26 0,62 0,76 0,94
Self-weight load plus imposed load plus wind load1) 1,26 1,99 2,42 3,02 0,77
Self-weight load plus wind load1) 1,67 0,77
1) Factors to be applied if effect of loads is in the same direction.
Where wind load predominates, use only CfW .

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13.1.2.2 Partial material factor for load sharing, m2

Where a load or combination of loads acts on more than one member or structure, advantage may
be taken of the greater confidence that can be placed in such a load-sharing system. In the case of
uniformly distributed loads that act on members or structures operating together in such a way that
they are restrained to the same deflection, and where the loads are spaced not more than 600 mm
apart, m2 shall be taken as 0,87.

Commentary

This factor is not to be applied to members of structural systems that have similar stiffness and
do not display a ductile failure mode, such as laminated beams.

13.1.2.3 Partial material factor for stressed volume, m3

Some specified strengths of timber vary with member size and applied loading, and shall be
modified by a volume factor m3.

Commentary

All the characteristic stresses of all members in a truss should be modified by a m3 factor, given
by:

m3 = 0,87 + 0,015 L

where L is the span length, i.e. the length between the supports of the truss, in metres.

All the characteristic stresses of girders or beams should be modified by a m3 factor, given by:

m3 = 0,85 + 0,03 L

where L is the span length, i.e. the length between the supports of the girder or beam, in metres.

13.1.2.4 Partial material factor for moisture content, m4

In cases where the moisture content in a compression member could occasionally exceed 200 g/kg,
m4 should be taken as 1,33; otherwise, as 1.

13.1.2.5 Partial material factor for pressure treatment, m5

Where members have been pressure treated with water-borne preservatives or fire retardants, the
specified strengths and resistances shall be modified by a treatment factor of m5 taken as 1,11.

13.1.2.6 Capacity reduction factor for laminate thickness and curvature, cr

Where flexural members are built up of curved laminates, the specified moment resistance Mu shall
be multiplied by a laminate thickness and curvature factor cr.

2
t
cr = 1 _ 2 000
Rm
where

t is the laminate thickness; and

Rm is the radius of curvature.

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13.2 Tension

13.2.1 Tension parallel to the grain

The ultimate tensile resistance Tr developed by a member subject to an axial tension force parallel
to the grain shall be taken as:

ft
Tr = . Ane .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

13.2.2 Tension perpendicular to the grain

Tensile resistance perpendicular to the grain is low and is a function of the size of the member; the
values given in this part of SANS 10163 should therefore be used with care.

Commentary

The behaviour of full-sized timber members in tension perpendicular to the grain is difficult to
predict, as a result of local distortions of the grain.

Connections should be so detailed that, where at all possible, tensile forces perpendicular to the
grain are avoided.

For plated or gusseted joints, in circumstances where tensile force perpendicular to the grain
cannot be avoided, the connector should cover a minimum of the greater of:

0,35 x h, or 35 mm,

(where h is the depth of the member).

In the case of bolted connections, the connector should be further than the greater of:

half the depth away from the stressed edge (see figure 1), or 50 mm.

Bolts should be placed at centres of 15 d or greater.

Figure 1 Stressed edge due to force direction

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The ultimate tensile resistance Trp perpendicular to the grain developed by a member subject to an
axial tension force perpendicular to the grain shall be taken as:

f tp
T rp = . Aeff . Amdt 3
. m 1 . m 6

where

is a connector depth ratio

2 3
a a
= 1 3 r + 2 r and
h h

m6 is the factor for the area stressed by the connectors;

0,2
A
= eff
A0

where

A0 is a standard stressed area


6 2
= 10 mm ; and Amdt 1

Aeff is the effective area

= Leff.b

where

b is the penetration depth of the connector; and

Leff is the effective stressed length

2
= L r 2 + (c . h )

where

Lr is the distance between the outer connectors of the connector group

3
4 a a
c = . r . 1 - r Amdt 3
3 h h

13.3 Axial compression

13.3.1 Rectangular sections

The ultimate axial compressive resistance for rectangular sections, Cr, shall be determined as
follows:

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a) if b < 10
fc
C1 = 0,91 . . A .
m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5

b) if 10 < b < bcr


2
fc
Cr = . A . [1 0,425 b ] and
m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5 bcr

c) if bcr < b < 52

A.E 1
C r = 0,38 . . .
1,81
b m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5

where

KL
b is the slenderness value and
b

1,18 . E
bcr =
fc

For variable cross-sections, the dimension b shall be taken to be an effective dimension equal to the
minimum dimension plus 0,45 times the difference between the maximum and the minimum
dimension. The ultimate compressive resistance determined in this manner shall not exceed the
ultimate resistance based on the minimum dimension in conjunction with a slenderness value of 10.

13.3.2 Round sections

The ultimate axial compressive resistance for round sections, Cr, shall be determined as follows:

a) if d < 9

fc
C r = 0,88 . . A .
m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5

b) if 9 < d < dcr

fc
Cr = . A . [1 - 0,55 ] and
m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5

c) if dcr < d < < 52

A.E 1
C r = 0,3 . . .
1,81
d
m 1 . m 2 . m 4 . m 5

where

KL
d is the slenderness value and
d

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1,17 . E
dcr =
fc

For variable cross-sections, the diameter d shall be taken to be an effective diameter equal to the
minimum diameter plus 0,45 times the difference between the maximum and the minimum
diameter. The ultimate compressive resistance determined in this manner shall not exceed the
ultimate resistance based on the minimum diameter in conjunction with a slenderness value of 9.

13.3.3 Spaced columns

A spaced column is a column that consists of two or more members separated by spacer blocks
securely fastened at the ends and at intermediate positions.

The ultimate axial compressive resistance of the column shall be calculated in accordance with
13.3.1 as if it were a column of area equal to the sum of the individual member areas and of an
effective length that depends on the nature of the fixing of the spacer blocks. In addition, the
compressive resistance of the individual members shall be checked, using the appropriate effective
length between spacer and fixing blocks.

Commentary

The method proposed here follows the guidelines given by Ozelton and Baird, 1990.

Under an axial load, it is possible for the spaced column to buckle about one of three axes. The
axes are WW, XX and YY and are shown in figure 2. The XX and YY axes are the axes of the
composite column while the WW axes are the axes of the individual members. The axial
capacity of the section is determined by considering the buckling capacity about the three axes.
The lowest capacity will govern the ultimate design strength.

The effective length for buckling about the WW axes is equal to the maximum centre-to-centre
spacing between the blocking spacers. The ultimate axial load capacity is calculated as for a
rectangular column whose sectional area is equal to the sum of the areas of the individual
members. The effective length for buckling about the XX axis is equal to KL (see annexes B and
C), with the slenderness ratio being given by Le/D. The effective length for buckling about the YY
axis is dependent upon the end restraints (see annex B) and the type of connection used for the
end spacers, and also upon the ratio between thicknesses of members and the distance
between them. The buckling length has to be modified by a factor that makes provision for any
slip that will occur at the joints and also for the ratio between member thickness and member
spacing. This modification factor Ksc is given in table 4. Le = K.Ksc.L.

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Figure 2 Spaced column dimensions

Table 4 Effective length modification factor Ksc for spaced column buckling

1 2 3 4 5
Ratio A/B
Method of connection
0 1 2 3
Nailed 1,8 2,6 3,1 3,5
Screwed or bolted 1,7 2,4 2,8 3,1
Attached by connector 1,4 1,8 2,2 2,4
Glued 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,4

For buckling about the YY axis, the equivalent width be of a rectangular member is given by:

12 . r y

For a spaced column with two members, the effective width be is equal to:

2
be = B 2 + 3 ( A + B )

Further requirements on the geometry of the composite unit and on the method of fixing are:

End spacers shall be at least 6B in length and the connection between member and end spacer
shall be able to transfer a shear force of:

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1,5 . P
Vj=
n

where

Vj is the shear force between member and end spacer;

P is the axial force on the column; and

n is the number of members.

The clear spacing between members shall not exceed 3B.

Intermediate spacers shall have a length of 230 mm and the method of attachment shall be the
same as for the end spacers, but minimal shear transfer is required.

The slenderness ratios Le/B and Li/D of the individual members shall be the lesser of 20 and 0,7
times the slenderness ratio of the overall column. To calculate the effective length for buckling
about the WW axes Le and Li, the centre-to-centre spacing between spacers can be used.

13.3.4 Plywood in compression

Plywood members in compression that have a slenderness value Le/t exceeding 10 can be
designed in accordance with 13.3.1, with the area being taken as 55 % of the cross-sectional area
for compression parallel to the grain and 45 % for compression perpendicular to the grain.

The second moment of area (moment of inertia) can be calculated as follows:

if t < 32 mm,
2,63
I = 0,15 . t and
-3 3,65
I = 4,4 x 10 . t

if t > 32 mm,

t3
I = I =
24

where

I is the second moment of area for outer plies in the direction of the axial force; and

I is the second moment of area for outer plies perpendicular to the direction of the axial
force.

The slenderness value is then equal to:

Le Le L . A
= = e
be 12 . r 12 . I

where I is the relevant second moment of area depending on the direction of the axial force relative
to the direction of the outer ply grain.

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13.4 Shear

13.4.1 Beams without notches

13.4.1.1 Rectangular sections

For beams without notches, the ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by a rectangular section
shall be taken as:

fv
V r = 0,67 . . Av .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

where Av is the shear area (b.h).

13.4.1.2 Round sections

The ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by a round section shall be taken as:

fv
V r = 0,75 . . Av .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

d2
where Av is the shear area .
4

13.4.1.3 I-sections and box sections

The ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by the web(s) of I-sections or box sections shall be
taken as:

fv
V r = 0,67 . . Av .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

where Av is the shear area (hw . tw),

where

hw is the height of the web; and

tw is the thickness of the web.

13.4.2 Notched beams

Commentary

Reference to the formulae can be found in Ozelton and Baird (1990).

13.4.2.1 Notches on the tension side

13.4.2.1.1 Square-cut notches

The ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by a rectangular section that has a square cut notch
(see figure 3) shall be taken as:

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Edition 2.3

fv
V r = 0,67 . . 2 . A .
m 1 . m 2 . m 5

where

A is the cross-sectional area of the section prior to the notch; and

is the parameter for calculating shear resistance in notched beams

he
= (see figure 3).
h

Figure 3 Square-cut notch on tension side

13.4.2.1.2 Tapered or filleted notches

The ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by a rectangular section where the notch end has been
led in by a taper or fillet (see figure 4), shall be taken as:

fv
V r = 0,67 . . . A .
m 1 . m 2 . m 5

The symbols are as defined in 3.2 and 13.4.2.1.1.

Figure 4 Tapered notch on tension side

13.4.2.2 Notches on the compression side

The ultimate shear resistance Vr developed by a rectangular section where the notch depth is less
than 40 % of the section depth (see figure 5), shall be taken as:

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Edition 2.3

a) for < ,

fv
V r = 0,67 . . (1 + ). A.
m 1 . m 2 . m 5

where is the ratio of the notch projection beyond the support to the total depth of the member;

b) for > ,

fv
V r = 0,67 . . . A .
m 1 . m 2 . m 5

The symbols are as defined in 3.2, 13.4.2.1.1 and 13.4.2.2(a).

Figure 5 Notch on compression side

13.4.3 Combined shear and moment

13.4.3.1 Rectangular sections

Rectangular sections shall be so proportioned that the following limits are observed:

V
< 1,0
Vr

M
< 1,0
Mr

where

Vr is the ultimate shear resistance of the member; and

Mr is the ultimate moment resistance of the section as defined in 13.5.1 or 13.6.1.

13.4.3.2 I-beams and box beams

I-beams and box beams shall be so proportioned that the following limits are observed:

Vu
< 1,0
Vr

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Mu
< 1,0
Mr

where

Vr is the ultimate shear resistance of the web(s); and

Mr is the ultimate moment resistance of the section as defined in 13.5.2 or 13.6.2.

13.5 Bending Laterally supported members


The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a member that is subject to bending moments
and where continuous lateral support is provided to the compression edge, shall be taken as given
in 13.5.1 to 13.5.8.

13.5.1 Rectangular sections

fb
M r = . Ze .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

where Ze is the section modulus

b. h 2
=
6

13.5.2 Doubly symmetric I-sections and box sections

ft
M r = . Ze .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

The other symbols are as defined in 3.2 and 13.5.1.

13.5.3 Doubly tapered rectangular beams

Ensure that the tension zone of a tapered beam is so cut as to give a slope not exceeding 1:12.

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a doubly tapered member of rectangular cross-
section (see figure 6) shall be taken as:

fb
M r = . Ze .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5 . (1 + 2,7 tan )

where

b . h2
Ze = and
6

is the angle between the tangent to the top surface of the beam at a springing point and the
straight line joining the two springing points (see figure 6).

The other symbols are as defined in 3.2, 13.5.1 and figure 6.

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Figure 6 Doubly tapered rectangular beam

13.5.4 Curved beams with constant cross-section

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a curved member (Rm /h > 10) of constant
rectangular cross-section (see figure 7) shall be taken as the lesser of:

fb
a) M r = . cr . Z e . and
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

f tp
b) M r = 0,67 . . b . h . R m .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

Figure 7 Curved beam with constant cross-section

13.5.5 Heavily curved rectangular beams

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a heavily curved member (Rm /h < 10) of
rectangular cross-section (see figure 8) shall be taken as:

a) for inner face positive moment

fb
M r = . cr . inner . Z e . and
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

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Edition 2.3

b) for outer face positive moment

fc
M r = . cr . outer . Z e .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

where

Rm
inner =
( R m + 0,5h)

Rm
outer =
( R m 0,3h)

Figure 8 Heavily curved rectangular beam

13.5.6 Doubly tapered rectangular curved beams

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a doubly tapered curved member of rectangular
cross-section (see figure 9) shall be taken as the lesser of:

fb
a) M r = . cr . Z e . and
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

f tp
b) M r = . cr . dt . Z e .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

where

1
dt = 2
and
h h
A + B . a + C . a
Rm Rm

A, B, C are as given in table 5.

The other symbols are as defined in 3.2, 13.1.2.6, 13.5.1 and figure 9.

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Figure 9 Doubly tapered rectangular curved beam

Table 5 Values of constants A, B, C

1 2 3 4
Angle , Value of constant
degrees A B C
2,5 0,0 079 0,1 747 0,1 284
5,0 0,0 174 0,1 251 0,1 939
7,5 0,0 279 0,0 937 0,2 162
10,0 0,0 391 0,0 754 0,2 119
15,0 0,0 629 0,0 619 0,1 722
20,0 0,0 893 0,0 608 0,1 393
25,0 0,1 214 0,0 605 0,1 238
30,0 0,1 649 0,0 603 0,1 115

13.5.7 Plywood, fibreboard, particle board, blockboard and battenboard

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a plywood, fibreboard, particle board, blockboard
or battenboard member subject to bending moments shall be taken as:

fb
M r = . Ze . Amdt 3
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

2I
where Ze = (see 13.3.4 for plywood)
t

13.5.8 Stressed skin panels

Stressed skin panels are usually made by attaching plywood sheets to longitudinal timber members
either by means of glue (glue and nails) or by mechanical means (nails and staples), to give a
composite action. By doing so, it is possible to use thinner and shallower members than if timber
beams were used on their own.

Plywood is generally used in stressed skin construction since its creep properties are similar to
those of the timber. When the stiffness of the plywood and the induced stresses are being
calculated, only the plies that have grain direction parallel to that of the timber member shall be
used. The plies that are perpendicular to this shall be disregarded, because their stiffness and
strength are low.

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Hardboard, chipboard and medium-density fibreboard have different creep properties from those of
the timber. If these boards are used in stressed skin construction, the differential creep and also any
slip in the joints between timber and the panel shall be taken into account. When the stiffness of the
composite section is being calculated, the modulus of elasticity of chipboard shall be reduced by 1,2
and the modulus of elasticity of fibreboards by 2,0.

Only glues that comply with SANS 1349 and SANS 10183 should be used for gluing panels to the
timber. If panels are glued, the shear strength provided by the nails shall be disregarded, since the
nails will only transfer force once the glueline has failed.

When stressed skin panels are being designed, it is advisable to refer to a design manual (see
Bibliography). Amdt 3

13.6 Bending Laterally unsupported members


The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a member that is subject to bending moments
and where continuous lateral support is not provided to the compression edge, shall be taken as
given in 13.6.1 to 13.6.6.

13.6.1 Rectangular sections

Depending on the slenderness factor Cs, the ultimate moment resistance Mr shall be determined as
follows:

a) If 0 < Cs < 10,

fb
M r = . Ze .
m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

b) if 10 < Cs < Ck,

C
4
fb
. s . and
M r = . Z e . 1 - 0,333
C k m 1 . m 2 . m 3 . m 5

c) if Ck < Cs < 52,

2 .E
M r = 0,516 . . Z e . 2
C s m1 m 2 . m 3 . m 5
. .

where

L.h
Cs =
( 1 - 0,1125. 3 ). b 2

0,774 . 2 . E
Ck =
fb

where

L is the length of a laterally unbraced portion of beam;


2
2 = 1,75 + 1,05 + 0,3 , which shall be:

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< 2,5 for unbraced lengths subject to end moments;

= 1,0 when the bending moment at any point within the unbraced length is larger than
the larger end moment; or

when there is no effective lateral support for the compression flange at one end of
the unsupported length;

= the appropriate value given in table 6 for simply supported beams and cantilevers:

a) positive for double curvature, and

b) negative for single curvature;

3 = 0 for continuous beams;

= the appropriate value given in table 6:

a) positive for a simply supported beam with destabilizing loads (see figure 10), and

b) negative for a simply supported beam with stabilizing loads (see figure 10);

where is the ratio of the smaller to the larger ultimate moments at opposite ends of the
unbraced length, positive for double curvature and negative for single curvature.

Commentary

Stabilizing loads are those loads that work against the torsional buckling of the beam, whereas
destabilizing loads increase the twisting of the member. A stable member is vertically orientated
as shown in figure 10(b).

Figure 10 Stabilizing and destabilizing loads

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Table 6 Load and stability modification factors for simply supported beams

1 2 3
Loading condition 2 3

1,00 0,00

1,13 1,41

1,35 1,73

1,04 2,64

1,31 1,00

2,04 1,80

1) For a cantilever beam, it is assumed that the beam is fixed against rotation
about the longitudinal axis and about the vertical axis at the supports. The end of
the cantilever is laterally unsupported.

NOTE 1 Beams are laterally restrained at supports, i.e. rotation about the longi-
tudinal axis is not possible at the supports.

NOTE 2 For cantilever beams with lateral support at the tip, a rational method
of analysis taking into account the lateral support conditions at the support and
tip of the cantilever such as that given in Galambos, Theodore V. (ed.) Guide to
stability design criteria for metal structures should be used.

13.6.2 Doubly symmetric I-sections and box sections

Take the lesser of

ft
a) M r = . Z e . and
m 1 . m2 . m3 . m5

2 . 3 . h Iy
2 . E
b) M r = 0,581 . . . Iy. J . 1 .
L L J

where 2 and 3 are as defined in 13.6.1.

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13.6.3 Doubly tapered rectangular beams

Ensure that the tension zone of a tapered beam is so cut as to give a slope not exceeding 1:12.

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a doubly tapered member of rectangular cross-
section shall be taken as the lesser of:

a) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.5.3; and

b) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.6.1.

13.6.4 Curved beams with constant cross-section

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a curved member of constant rectangular cross-
section shall be taken as the lesser of:

a) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.5.4; and

b) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.6.1.

13.6.5 Heavily curved rectangular beams

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a heavily curved member (Rm /h < 10) of
rectangular cross-section shall be taken as the lesser of:

a) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.5.5; and

b) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.6.1.

13.6.6 Doubly tapered rectangular curved beams

The ultimate moment resistance Mr developed by a doubly tapered curved member of rectangular
cross-section shall be taken as the lesser of:

a) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.5.6; and

b) Mr as calculated in accordance with 13.6.1.

13.7 Lateral bracing of members in structures

13.7.1 Calculation of stiffness of lateral restraints

For a single or multiple struts prevented from buckling by lateral restraints, ensure that the spring
constant of the lateral restraint (stiffness) is at least:

4 . ks .C
kL =
L1

where

ks is the factor for number of lateral supports

L1 is the distance between lateral supports

46
SANS 10163-1:2003
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= 2 1 + cos ( )
m

where

m is the number of equal spans between lateral restraints;

C is the compressive force in the member due to serviceability loads


(for tiled roofs use the force due to self-weight load (dead load) only).

Commentary

The stiffness of the bracing is a serviceability requirement. Calculate the required stiffness for
the serviceability load in the compression members. The concrete tiles used on roofs in South
Africa have a fair amount of friction between the individual tiles. When live load is applied to the
roof, the friction between the tiles should ensure that no movement will occur. It is therefore
generally not necessary to design the bracing of tiled roofs for live load. The friction between the
tiles is broken when temperature expansion and contraction of the tiles occurs as well as when
wind gusts or earth tremors shake the roof. These conditions usually happen under serviceability
dead load.

Both the required stiffness and the force in the bracing increase as the number of lateral braces
increases. The force in the lateral restraints is a function of the initial and final curvature. As the
initial curvature of the compression members will, however, differ and should not necessarily all
be in the same direction, the cumulative force is not a linear function of the number of
compression members.

13.7.2 Calculation of force in lateral restraints

For a number of members n, supported by lateral restraints m, the force CL in the lateral restraints is:

CL = n 0,7 . 0,03 .Cu

where

n is the number of members being restrained;

Cu is the compressive force in the member under ultimate load


(for tiled roofs use the force due to self-weight load (dead load) only).

13.7.3 Calculation of stiffness of bracing membranes or frames

13.7.3.1 Continuous bracing of compression members

The required stiffness modulus req for bracing systems that brace compression members
continuously is given by:

5,921 . m 2 . 2 . C e C
req = 2 m 2
L Ce

where

L is the length of beam or distance between eaves support and apex support of truss

Ce
m = 1 for > 0,447 Buckling in half-sine wave
C

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Ce
m = 2 for 0,447 > > 0,227 Buckling in full sine wave
C

Ce
m = 3 for 0,227 > > 0,200 Buckling in one and a half sine waves
C

Ce
m = 4 for 0,200 > Buckling in double sine wave
C

C is defined in 13.7.1

Ce is the fifth percentile Euler buckling load

2 . E 0,05 . I
=
L2

where

I is the second moment of area about the minor axis

E0,05 is the fifth percentile modulus of elasticity.

13.7.3.2 Calculation of force in lateral restraints

The required lateral uniformly distributed load qL, induced in the bracing system is given by:

0,06 . n 0,7 . C u
qL =
L

where

n is the number of members being supported by the bracing system;

Cu is the ultimate force in the member


(for tiled roofs use load due to self-weight load (dead load) alone);

L is as defined in 13.7.3. Amdt 2

13.8 Axial compression and bending


13.8.1 General

A member that is required to resist both bending moments and axial compressive force shall be so
proportioned that:

C u U 1x . M ux U 1y . M uy
+ + <1
Cr M rx M ry

where the symbols are as defined in 3.2, with suffixes x and y indicating component directions.

13.8.1.1 Capacity of member

The capacity of the member shall be examined for the following cases:

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a) cross-sectional strength, in which case,

Cr is as defined in 13.3, with the slenderness value d = 0 or b = 0,

U1x and U1y are taken as 1; and

Mr is as defined in 13.5;

b) overall member strength, in which case,

Cr is as defined in 13.3, with the effective length factor K = 1, and is based on the maximum
slenderness value or ratio for biaxial bending. For uniaxial strong-axis bending, Cr = Crx
(see also 9.3.2),

U1x and U1y are as defined in 13.8.1.2, and

Mr is as defined in 13.5;

c) lateral torsional buckling strength, when applicable, in which case,

Cr is as defined in 13.3, with K = 1, and is based on weak-axis bending (see also 9.3.2),

U1x is as defined in 13.8.1.2, but is not less than 1,

Mrx is as defined in 13.6,

U1y is as defined in 13.8.1.2, and

Mry is as defined in 13.5.

13.8.1.2 Value of U1

In lieu of a more detailed analysis, the value of U1, which accounts for the second-order effects due
to the deformation of a member between its ends, shall be taken as:

1
U1 =
Cu
1
Ce

where

1 is as defined in 13.8.1.3, and

Cu and Ce are as defined in 3.2. Amdt 2

13.8.1.3 Value of 1

Unless otherwise determined by analysis, the following values shall be used for 1:

a) for members not subject to transverse loads between supports,

1 = 0,6 0,4 > 0,4

b) for members subjected to distributed loads or a series of point loads between supports,

1 = 1 and

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c) for members subjected to a concentrated load or moment between supports,

1 = 0,85.

NOTE In load and moment combinations not defined above, use 1 = 1.

For the purposes of design, members subjected to a concentrated load or moment between
supports (e.g. crane columns) may be considered to be divided into two segments at the point of
load or moment application. Each segment shall then be treated as a member that depends on its
own flexural stiffness to prevent side-sway in the plane of bending considered, and 1 shall be
taken as 0,85. When the slenderness ratio for use in 13.8.1 is being computed, the total length of
the member shall be used.

13.8.2 Arches

13.8.2.1 General

Arches shall be designed as members carrying combined axial loads and bending moment.

13.8.2.2 Stability

When the top edge of an arch is held in line by, for instance, decking, the structural depth-to-width
ratio of the arch shall not exceed 5 and, when such firm bracing is missing, the structural depth-to-
width ratio shall not exceed 4.

13.9 Axial tension and bending


Members required to resist both bending moments and axial tensile forces shall be so proportioned
that:

T u M ux M uy
+ + <1
T r M rx M ry

where

Tr is as defined in 13.2; and

Mr is as defined in 13.5 or 13.6.

13.10 Load bearing (compression perpendicular to the grain)


The ultimate bearing resistance Br developed by a member or portion of a member subject to
bearing vertical to the grain direction shall be taken as:
f cp
Br = . A .
m 1

where A is the contact area.

Commentary

Where the forces are applied at an angle to the direction of grain, the ultimate bearing
resistance Br developed by a member or portion of a member shall be taken as:

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f c . f cp
Br = . A .
m 1 ( f c . cos 2 + f cp . sin 2 )
where A is the contact area.

13.11 Connector resistance


13.11.1 General

The characteristic strengths of common connectors are given in annex N.

Commentary

Where the designer wishes to use connectors not given in annex N, characteristic strengths can
be obtained from the manufacturer or from the published results of tests performed by a
recognized South African testing agency using a test methodology appropriate for the product
and its intended application. The strength of connections is dependent on the type of timber
used, therefore strength values published in overseas journals should not be used.

Connector detailing shall comply with clauses 21 and 22.

Commentary

Timber swells and shrinks due to changes in the moisture content of the timber. Friction-grip
connections are only possible when special components are used.

13.11.2 Connector resistance at any angle to the grain

The ultimate resistance Fr developed by a connector that is subject to forces at any angle to the
grain shall be taken as:

R P . RQ
Fr = .
m 1 ( R P . sin 2 + R Q . cos2 )
When a group of connectors is used and the connectors are placed in rows parallel to the direction
of the applied load, the resistance of the group is equal to the sum of the resistances of the
individual connectors multiplied by the modification factor con. The ultimate resistance Frn of the
group of n connectors is given by:

Frn = con . n . Fri

where

con is the modification factor for the number of connectors in a row (see table 7)

= 1 for nails;

n is the number of connectors; and

Fri is the resistance of the individual connector.

Commentary

If groups of similar connectors are used in a row parallel to the direction of the applied load, the
connectors will not share the load equally. The first and last connectors will be subject to a
higher proportion of the load than the inner connectors. This is mainly owing to the non-linear
load-slip behaviour of the connectors and the elasticity of the timber, which allows strain
between the connectors.

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Table 7 Connector modification factor, con

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Dimension Number of fasteners in a row
of smallest
Joint type
member 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
mm
Two-member 38 x 76 0,99 0,93 0,89 0,84 0,79 0,74 0,70 0,65 0,61 0,57
joint 38 x 114 1,00 0,99 0,97 0,96 0,93 0,91 0,89 0,86 0,83 0,80
38 x 152 1,00 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,95 0,93 0,91 0,89 0,87 0,84
38 x 228 1,00 0,99 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,95 0,94 0,92 0,91 0,89
50 x 76 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,95 0,93 0,90 0,87 0,84 0,81 0,78
50 x 114 1,00 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,95 0,93 0,91 0,89 0,87 0,84
50 x 152 1,00 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,96 0,95 0,93 0,91 0,90 0,88
50 x 228 1,00 0,99 0,99 0,98 0,98 0,97 0,96 0,94 0,93 0,91
Multiple-member 38 x 76 0,92 0,84 0,75 0,68 0,61 0,55 0,50 0,45 0,42 0,38
joint 38 x 114 0,94 0,88 0,81 0,75 0,68 0,62 0,57 0,52 0,48 0,45
38 x 152 0,95 0,91 0,85 0,79 0,73 0,67 0,62 0,58 0,54 0,50
38 x 228 0,97 0,93 0,89 0,84 0,79 0,74 0,70 0,65 0,61 0,57
50 x 76 0,93 0,87 0,80 0,72 0,66 0,60 0,55 0,50 0,46 0,43
50 x 114 0,95 0,91 0,85 0,79 0,73 0,67 0,62 0,58 0,53 0,50
50 x 152 0,97 0,93 0,88 0,83 0,78 0,72 0,68 0,63 0,59 0,55
50 x 228 0,97 0,94 0,90 0,86 0,82 0,77 0,73 0,68 0,64 0,61

13.11.3 Bolt resistance

The ultimate tensile, shear and combined-tension-and-shear resistance of a bolt shall be calculated
in accordance with SANS 10162-1.

13.12 Adhesive-bonded connections


The characteristic strength parallel to the grain in an adhesive-bonded joint shall be taken as equal
to the applicable characteristic shear strength for the particular timber given in annex N. The
characteristic shear stress perpendicular to the grain (rolling shear) shall be taken as 25 % of that
parallel to the grain. For loads at an angle to the grain, the characteristic strength can be calculated
using the Hankinson formulae:
Strength parallel to the grain:

fv
R= . A .
m 1

Strength perpendicular to the grain:

0,25 . f v
R= . A .
m 1

Strength at any angle to the grain:

0,25 f v
R= . A .
m 1 . ( sin 2
+ 0,25 . cos 2 )
where A is the shear area of the glue-line.

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Commentary

For manufacturing recommendations, see clause 23.

Shear stress across the grain or perpendicular to the grain is referred to as "rolling shear", since
the tendency is for the outer fibres to roll.

13.13 Welds in steel connectors


The resistance of welds in steel connectors shall be calculated in accordance with SANS 10162-1.

14 Fatigue
14.1 Timber
Timber is normally not subject to fatigue failure. Crack propagation is the typical mode of fatigue
failure in timber structures. This is possible under cyclic loads and usually takes place at a stress
raiser such as a notch.

14.2 Steel connections


In addition to complying with SANS 10162-1 for fatigue, any steel connection shall also comply with
the provisions for the static load conditions using the ultimate loads.

Connections subject to fatigue loading shall be so designed, detailed and fabricated as to minimize
stress concentrations and abrupt changes in cross-section.

In the design of connections, serviceability loads shall be used for all fatigue calculations.

A nominal load less than the maximum nominal load but acting with a greater number of cycles
could govern and shall be considered.

15 Beams
Commentary

Laminated beams or members are usually rectangular in cross-section and have laminates
placed randomly such that their properties can be calculated in the same way as for solid
rectangular members.

Built-up beams are normally manufactured from materials that have different properties, such as
I-beams and box-beams that have plywood, hardboard or chipboard webs and stressed skin
panel systems. The materials are placed in such a way that effective use is made of the strong
properties of the materials.

15.1 Proportioning
Beams shall be proportioned on the basis of the properties of the net areas. Deductions shall be
made for all fastener holes. The effect of openings other than holes for fasteners shall be
considered in accordance with 15.7.

15.2 Rotational restraint at points of support


Beams shall be restrained against rotation about their longitudinal axes at points of support.

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15.3 Notches
The notching of structural timber members other than at supports should generally be discouraged.
However, where notching is unavoidable, the reduced cross-sectional area only should be used in
the analysis.

15.4 Bearing stiffeners for I-beams or box beams

15.4.1 Points of concentrated loads

Pairs of bearing stiffeners on the webs of I-beams shall be required at points of concentrated loads
and reactions wherever the bearing resistance of the web is exceeded. Box beams may have
diaphragms designed to act as bearing stiffeners.

15.4.2 Design

Bearing stiffeners shall bear against the flange or flanges through which they receive their loads
and shall extend approximately to the end of the flange. They shall be designed as columns in
accordance with 13.3, assuming the column section to consist of a pair of stiffeners and a centrally
located strip of the web equal to not more than 25 times its thickness at interior stiffeners, or a strip
equal to not more than 12 times its thickness when the stiffeners are located at the end of the web.
When the ratio KL/r is being calculated, the effective column length KL shall be taken as at least
0,75 times the length of the stiffeners.

15.5 Intermediate transverse stiffeners for I-beams


When intermediate transverse stiffeners are used, they shall be spaced to suit the shear resistance
determined in accordance with 13.4, except that at beam end panels or at panels adjacent to large
openings, the tension-field component in the web shall be taken as zero, unless means are
provided to anchor the tension field.

15.6 Lateral forces


Beams or the flanges of I-beams shall be proportioned in accordance with 13.8 to resist any lateral
force.

15.7 Openings
Except as provided in 15.1, the effect of all openings in beams shall be considered in the design. At
all points where the ultimate shear or moment at the net section would exceed the resistance of the
member, adequate reinforcement shall be added to the member to provide the required strength
and stability.

15.8 Torsion
Beams subject to torsion shall have sufficient strength and rigidity to resist the torsional moment
and forces in addition to other moments or forces. The connections and bracing of such members
E
shall be adequate to transfer the reactions to the supports. Take the shear modulus G as .
16
16 Trusses
When trusses are being designed, reference shall also be made to SANS 10243.

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17 Composite action with other materials in flexure


Commentary

This clause applies to composite beams that consist of timber sections interconnected with
either a concrete slab, steel or a fibre product, i.e. materials that are not all timber based.

The strength of connectors that join timber to timber is well recorded and can be used with a
certain degree of confidence. When timber is connected to other materials, the connection
between the timber and the other materials (such as steel, concrete and fibre products) is not
that well recorded.

Composite beams may be assumed to carry the load in composite load-sharing action, provided
that such beams are designed in accordance with the provisions of the latest published research
on the topic and provided that such composite load-carrying capacity is substantiated by tests.

Reference could be made to Natterer et al (1991) for timber-concrete composite action.

18 Composite action with other materials in compression


Commentary

This clause applies to composite columns that consist of timber sections interconnected with
either steel or a fibre product.

Composite columns may be assumed to carry the compressive load in composite load-sharing
action, provided that such columns are designed in accordance with the provisions of the latest
published research on the topic and provided that such composite load-carrying capacity is
substantiated by tests.

19 Spaced columns
All the components of a spaced column shall comply with 13.3.3.

20 Stability of structures and individual members


20.1 General

20.1.1 Design

In the design of a timber structure, care shall be taken to ensure that the structural system is
adequate to resist the forces caused by the ultimate loads and to ensure that a complete structural
system is provided to transfer the ultimate loads and their resultant forces to the foundations,
particularly when there is a dependence on walls, floors or roofs acting as shear-resisting elements
or diaphragms. (See also 8.3.)

NOTE The structure should also be checked to ensure that adequate resistance to torsional deformations has
been provided.

20.1.2 Drawings

Design drawings shall indicate all load-resisting elements essential to the integrity of the completed
structure and shall show details necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the load-resisting system.
Design drawings shall also indicate the requirements for roofs and floors used as diaphragms.

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20.1.3 Erection diagrams

Erection diagrams shall indicate all load-resisting elements essential to the integrity of the
completed structure. Permanent and temporary load-resisting elements essential to the integrity of
the partially completed structure shall be clearly specified on the erection diagrams.

20.1.4 Transfer of forces

Where the portion of the structure under consideration does not provide adequate resistance to
lateral forces, provision shall be made for transferring the forces to adjacent lateral-load-resisting
elements.

20.2 Stability of columns


Beam-to-column connections shall have adequate strength to transfer the lateral forces produced
by possible out-of-plumbness. These forces shall be calculated using the appropriate load
combination factors in accordance with clause 7.

20.3 Stability of beams and trusses

20.3.1 Bracing

Bracing members assumed to provide lateral support to the compression edge of beams or to the
compression chord of trusses, and the connections of such bracing members, shall be proportioned
to resist the forces calculated in accordance with 13.7.

20.3.2 Effected bracing

When bracing of the compression edge or chord is effected by floor panels, deck or bracing
membrane, the floor panels, deck or membrane and the means by which the calculated bracing
forces are transmitted between the compression edge or chord and the floor panels, deck or
membrane shall be adequate to resist a force in the plane of the floor panels, deck or membrane.
This force shall be considered to be uniformly distributed along the length of the compression edge
or chord and shall be taken as at least 0,1 times the average force, owing to self-weight load, in the
compression side or chord, unless a lesser amount can be justified by analysis.

20.3.3 Accumulation of forces

Consideration shall be given to the probable accumulation of forces when a bracing member has to
transfer forces from one braced member to another. The accumulative force shall be calculated in
accordance with 13.7.

21 Load effects in connections


21.1 Alignment of members
Axially loaded members that meet at a joint shall, if practicable, have their centroidal axes
intersecting at a common point; otherwise, the results of bending owing to significant joint
eccentricity shall be provided for.

21.2 Member ends not restrained against rotation


Where enough rotational capacity has been provided at member ends to accommodate end
rotations (owing to serviceability loads) of equivalent simply supported beams, connections may be

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detailed to transfer shear and axial reactions only. However, connection details shall be compatible
with the analysis.

Commentary

"Member ends not restrained against rotation" means that the member end is free to rotate
about an axis perpendicular to the plane of bending. However, the member ends should still be
restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis.

21.3 Member ends restrained against rotation


When beam or truss member ends are subject to shear and moment reactions owing to full or
partial end restraint or to continuous or cantilever construction, their connections shall be designed
for the combined effect of shear, bending and axial load.

21.4 Connections of tension members


The connections at ends of tension members shall develop the full force owing to the ultimate loads.
Furthermore, the connection shall be designed to carry at least 0,5 times the tensile resistance of
the member.

21.5 Joints in compression members

21.5.1 Columns on bearing plates

Where columns bear on bearing plates or are finished to bear at splices, there shall be sufficient
fasteners to hold all parts securely in place.

21.5.2 Compression members

Where compression members, other than columns bearing on plates, are cut to bear, the splice
material and connecting fasteners shall be arranged to hold all parts in place and shall be
proportioned for 0,5 times the calculated load.

22 Mechanical connector details


22.1 General
When more than one nail, screw, bolt or other connector is used in a joint, the ultimate strength of
the connection is the sum of the strength of the individual units multiplied by the modification factor
for the number of rows, provided that the centroid of the connector group lies on the axis of the
member, and that the spacing, end and edge distances are sufficient to develop the full strength of
each fixing unit (see 13.11.2).

22.2 Spacing of nails

22.2.1 Nails Solid timber

Except as permitted in 22.2.2, the nail spacing given in figure 11 shall be used. Deviations of 20 %
are permitted, provided that the number of nails is not increased.

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Figure 11 Minimum nail spacing

Commentary

The spacing given in figure 11 does not apply to nail-plate connectors because the nails are
integral with the plate, which tends to hold the timber together.

Where metal side plates are used, the internal nail spacings may be 0,7 times those given for
timber-to-timber joints. Edge and end distances remain unaltered.

22.2.2 Nails Pre-drilled holes

Provided that the nails are driven into pre-drilled holes of diameter between 0,5 and 0,8 times the
nominal diameter of the nails, the nail spacing (other than edge distance) given in figure 11 may be
reduced by 50 %.

Commentary

Pre-drilled holes are used to prevent splitting of the timber. The design values for lateral
resistance of a fastener with a drilled hole are the same as those for a fastener without a drilled
hole.

22.3 Spacing of coach screws (lag screws)


In the case of coach screws, the spacing given in 22.4 for bolts of the same diameter shall be used.
The diameter of the shank of the coach screw shall be used to calculate the spacing.

22.4 Bolts

22.4.1 Spacing of bolts

The minimum distances for the spacing of bolts that comply with SANS 1700 shall be as given in
figure 12. Amdt 2

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Figure 12 Minimum bolt spacing

Commentary

The minimum spacing requirements are necessary mainly to prevent splitting of the timber.

22.4.2 Washers

Washers of size at least 3 times the nominal diameter of the bolt shall always be placed under the
bolt head and the nut. Nuts on bolts that comply with SANS 1700 shall be adequately tightened and
care should be taken to ensure that the timber under the washers is not damaged. When so
specified, lock washers, lock nuts, thread burring, welding or other methods approved by the
Engineer shall be used to prevent nuts from working loose. Amdt 2

Commentary

Washers of diameter exceeding 3 times the diameter of the bolt may be used. If the washer
sizes given in table 8 are used, the increased characteristic strengths given in annex N apply.
Cuphead square neck (carriage) bolts are not an adequate substitute for ISO black bolts.

Table 8 Recommended larger washer sizes

1 2 3
Square Round
Bolt
mm mm
Bolts up to M6 ....................... 16 16 2 20 2
Bolts up to M12 ..................... 35 35 4 35 4
Bolts up to M20 ..................... 55 55 6 60 6
Bolts exceeding M20 ............. 80 80 10 96 10
Amdt 1

The diameter of bolt holes, especially in hardwoods, should match or exceed the diameter of the
bolts, since splitting can occur when a bolt is forced into a hole that is too small.

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22.5 Toothed connectors and split-ring connectors


22.5.1 Bolts and nuts

The bolts and nuts of connectors shall comply with the relevant requirements of SANS 1700.
Amdt 2

Commentary

When toothed connectors are used, ensure that the teeth are completely imbedded in the timber.
In small and light structures, the bolts may be used for impressing the toothed connectors,
provided that the diameter of the bolts is at least 12 mm and suitably large washers are used. In
other cases, use a threaded high-tensile rod in place of the bolt.
3
Toothed connectors are not recommended for timber that has a density exceeding 500 kg/m ,
because of the difficulty of ensuring proper penetration of the teeth.

Split-ring connectors require the use of a special tool for correct and satisfactory fitting. The use
of an adhesive to fill the groove is recommended in order to facilitate the transfer of the load from
the ring to the timber.

22.5.2 Minimum spacing

The minimum spacings for circular-toothed connectors shall be as given in table 9, and the
minimum spacings for split-ring connectors shall be as given in table 10.

Table 9 Minimum spacing for circular-toothed connectors

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Minimum edge distance Minimum end distance
Spacing (centre-to-centre)
Size of (centre-to-edge) (centre-to-end)
connector Parallel to Perpendicular Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded
grain to grain edge edge end end
50 76 64 32 38 38 89
63 95 76 38 38 38 89
75 114 89 44 44 44 89
NOTE 1 These values are the minimum values permissible except that, in the case of tension
members, the end distance may be reduced if the load is reduced.

NOTE 2 The loaded end distance may be reduced to 38 mm, provided that the permissible load is
reduced to 70 %. Increased edge or end distances or increased spacing does not allow higher
loading values to be used.
Amdt 1

22.6 Patented and specialized fasteners and connectors


All patented and specialized fasteners and connectors shall be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.

Commentary

Different types of patented and specialized mechanical fasteners, usually of metal, have been
developed to provide effective joints for timber members, or between steel and timber. Most of
these products require the use of special equipment for correct and satisfactory fitting.

22.7 Slotted holes


Slotted holes are not advisable in timber members but may be used in the connecting of steel cleats
or brackets.

60
Table 10 Minimum spacing for split-ring connectors

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Minimum end distances Minimum edge distances
Minimum spacing of connectors (centre-to-centre)
(centre of connector to end of timber) (centre of connector to edge of timber)
30 to 90 angle of Compression
0 to 30 angle of load to grain Tension members 30 to 90 angle of load to grain
Size and load to grain members
type of 0 to 30
Spacing perpen- angle of Compression
connector Spacing parallel to grain Spacing Opposite
Spacing dicular to grain Full Force Full Force force to side of connector
perpen- compres-
Full Force Force parallel Full Force basic reduced basic reduced grain Full Force
dicular sion side of
basic reduced reduced to grain basic reduced force by 37,5 % force by 37,5 % basic reduced connector
to grain
force by 25 % by 50 % force by 15 % force by 15 %
63 split-ring
connector 180 130 90 90 90 115 90 150 75 100 65 45 70 45 45
100 split-ring
connector 230 180 125 140 140 165 140 180 90 140 85 70 95 70 70
Amdt 1

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23 Adhesive-bonded joints
Only those adhesives that produce joints of such strength and durability that the integrity of the
glue-line is maintained throughout the life of the structure shall be used.

Commentary

Gluing of structural joints should be carried out by skilled tradesmen using the correct
equipment. Careful quality control should be provided at all stages of manufacture. Reference
should be made to SANS 1460 and SANS 10096.

Gluing under site conditions may be done only under a very high standard of quality control and
then only with adequate specialist supervision. Dust or foreign particles or adverse weather
conditions could affect the adhesive. This will cause insufficient bonding and the joint will have
insufficient strength.

24 Welding of steel connectors


The design of welded steel connections shall comply with SANS 10162-1.

25 Column bases
25.1 Loads
Suitable provision shall be made to transfer column loads and moments to footings and
foundations.

25.2 Resistance and finishing


The finishing and resistances of steel base plates to a timber column shall comply with
SANS 10162-1.

Commentary

Timber columns connected to steel base plates shall be detailed in such a way that water
entrapment is avoided. Entrapped water could lead to decay of the column end. Care has to be
taken that especially the end grain of the timber is properly ventilated. For detailing of
connections, reference can be made to the Canadian and American timber design codes.

26 Holding-down bolts
26.1 General
Holding-down bolts shall be designed to resist the effect of ultimate uplift forces, bending moments
and shears as determined in accordance with clause 7. The anchorage of the holding-down bolts in
the foundation unit shall be such that the required load resistance can be developed. Forces
present during construction and in the finished structure shall be resisted.

26.2 Bolt resistance


The resistance of holding-down bolts shall be determined in accordance with SANS 10162-1.

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27 Seismic design
27.1 Scope
Clause 27 provides requirements for the design of members and connections in the lateral-load-
resisting systems of timber-framed buildings for which ductile response is required under seismic
loading. This clause shall be applied in conjunction with SANS 10160.

27.2 Second-order effects


When second-order effects at ultimate limit states under seismic load are being calculated, the
seismic load shall be combined with gravity loads likely to be present under the action of the
earthquake.

27.3 Earthquake motions


If structural or non-structural elements that are not considered to form part of the lateral-load-
resisting system have a significant effect on the structural response to earthquake motions, they
shall be considered in the analysis.

27.4 Seismically induced deformation


Structural members and their connections that are not considered to form part of the lateral-load-
resisting system shall be capable of maintaining their resistance when subject to seismically
induced deformations.

28 Fabrication, protective treatment, erection and inspection of timber


components and structures
Commentary

For general guidance on the fabrication, protective treatment, erection and inspection of timber
components and structures, see SANS 10005, SANS 10082, SANS 10155, SANS 10243 and
annex A.

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Annex A
(informative)

Construction

A.1 General
The recommendations given in A.2 to A.6 concern the application of the design rules given in this
part of SANS 10163. So construct timber structures that they conform to the principles and practical
considerations of the design.

So apply, use or fix material for the structures as to enable them to adequately perform the
functions for which they are designed.

Ensure that workmanship in the fabrication, preparation and installation of materials conforms in all
respects to accepted good practice.

A.2 Materials
Ensure that timber and timber-based components of structural elements are not exposed to climatic
conditions more severe than those to be encountered in the finished structure and, in particular, that
they are not subjected to prolonged exposure to the weather or to conditions conducive to fungal or
insect attack.

Ensure that timber that has been crushed or otherwise damaged is not used for structural work.

Ensure that, before use, the timber is seasoned as nearly as is practicable to the moisture content
appropriate to the climatic conditions at the site of the completed structure.

A.3 Machining
Ensure that the size, shape and finish of all timber and other materials conform to the detailed
design drawings and specifications for the structure.

Avoid cutting of timber after preservative treatment. Where cutting is unavoidable, treat the cut
surfaces liberally with preservative.

A.4 Joints
Unless otherwise specified, drive nails in at right angles to the grain of the timber and to such a
depth that the heads are flush with the timber surface.

Ensure that the diameter of bolt holes does not exceed the diameter of the bolts by more than
2 mm. Use washers of diameter and thickness at least 3D and 0,3D, respectively (where D is the
nominal diameter of the bolt), under the heads of bolts and under nuts.

So tighten nuts that the members fit closely, and if necessary tighten the nuts again after the timber
has reached its equilibrium moisture content.

When toothed connectors are used, ensure that the teeth are completely imbedded in the timber. In
small and light structures, the bolts may be used for impressing the toothed connectors, provided
that the diameter of the bolts is at least 12 mm and suitably large washers are used. In other cases,
use a threaded high-tensile rod in place of the bolt.

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In all cases, ensure that the diameter or side length of the washer is at least the same as that of the
connector and that the thickness of the washer is at least 0,1 times the diameter or side length.
Make a careful check to ensure that the bolt has not been damaged during the tightening.

Pre-drill coach-screw holes and ensure that the holes and the insertion of the coach screws comply
with the following:

a) the lead hole for the shank has the same diameter as that part of the shank and a depth equal to
the length of the unthreaded shank;

b) the lead hole for the threaded portion has a diameter that is determined by the characteristic
density of the timber and length and diameter of the screw;

c) non-corrosive lubricants are used to facilitate insertion of the screws; and

d) screws are inserted by turning them with a suitable wrench and not by driving them with a
hammer.

A.5 Assembly
Assemble members in such a way that no unintentional stresses are induced. Do not use members
that are badly warped, split or ill-fitting.

A.6 Transportation, storage and erection


Do not permit the overstressing of members during transportation, storage and erection. Take
special care to avoid distortion when structures such as framed arches and portal frames are
hoisted from the horizontal to the vertical position.

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Annex B
(informative)

Effective lengths of members in compression

B.1 The slenderness ratio of a member in compression is defined as the ratio of the effective
length to the applicable radius of gyration.

The slenderness value of a member in compression is defined as the ratio of the effective length to
the applicable dimension.

The effective length KL may be thought of as the actual unbraced length L multiplied by a factor K
such that the product KL is equal to the length of a pin-ended compression member of equal
resistance to the actual member. The effective length factor K of a column of finite unbraced length
therefore depends on the conditions of restraint afforded to the column at its braced locations.

B.2 A variation in K between 0,65 and 2 would apply to the majority of cases likely to be
encountered in actual structures. Table B.1 illustrates six idealized cases in which joint rotation and
translation are either fully idealized or non-existent.

66
Table B.1 Recommended effective length factors for compression members

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Buckled shape of column is
shown by dashed line

Theoretical K value 0,5 0,7 1,0 1,0 2,0 2,0


Recommended design value
when ideal conditions are 0,65 0,80 1,0 1,2 2,0 2,0
approximated
End condition code Rotation fixed Translation fixed

Rotation free Translation fixed

Rotation fixed Translation free

Edition 2.3
SANS 10163-1:2003
Rotation free Translation free
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Annex C
(informative)

Criteria for estimating effective column


lengths in continuous frames

C.1 Because this part of SANS 10163 requires that the sway effects produced by vertical loads
acting on the structure in its displaced configuration be included in the analysis (see 8.3), this annex
only covers cases in which there is no relative translational displacement of the ends of the column.

C.2 Figure C.1 is a nomograph applicable to cases in which the equivalent I/L of adjacent beams
that are rigidly attached to the columns is known; it is based on the assumption that all columns in
the portion of the framework considered reach their individual critical load simultaneously.

In the usual building frame, not all columns would be so loaded as to reach their buckling loads
simultaneously; therefore some conservatism is introduced in the interest of simplification.

C.3 The nomograph is based on the following equation:

GU . GL G + GL /K tan /2 K
( / K )2 + U 1 tan /K + 2 =1
4 2 /K

where

G is the ratio between the column stiffness and the beam stiffness; and

K is the effective length factor.

Subscripts U (upper) and L (lower) refer to the joints at the two ends of the column section
under consideration.

C.4 G is defined as:

(I c/ L c)
G =
(I b/ L b)

where

is the summation of all members rigidly connected to that joint and lying in the plane
in which buckling of the column is being considered;

Ic and Ib are the second moments of area about the axes of a column (c) and beam (b)
perpendicular to the plane of buckling;

Lc is the unsupported length of a column section; and

Lb is the unsupported length of a beam or other restraining member.

C.5 For column ends supported by, but not rigidly connected to, a footing or foundation, G can be
taken as 10 for practical designs. If the column end is rigidly attached to a properly designed
footing, G can be taken as 1,0. Smaller values can be justified by analysis.

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C.6 Refinements to beam ratios Ib /Lb can be made when conditions at the far end of any particular
beam are known definitely or when a conservative estimate can be made. For the case with no
side-sway, multiply beam stiffness by the following factors:

a) 1,5 if the far end of the beam is hinged; and

b) 2,0 if the far end of the beam is fixed against rotation (i.e. rigidly attached to a support that is
itself relatively rigid).

C.7 Having determined GU and GL for a column section, determine the effective length factor K by
the intersection of the straight line between the appropriate points on the scales for GU and GL.

C.8 The nomograph may be used to determine the effective length factors for compression
members in trusses with rigid joints, provided that all members of the truss that meet at the joint
under consideration do not reach their ultimate loads simultaneously (failure in tension or buckling
in compression), in which case the effective length factors should be taken as 1,0. This latter case
occurs typically when the members are sized individually for one dominating load combination.

Figure C.1 Nomograph chart for effective length


of columns in continuous frames

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Annex D
(informative)

Seismic design requirements for


eccentrically braced frames
Design the structure for the loading in accordance with SANS 10160.

Annex E
(informative)

Margins of safety
An advantage of limit states design is that the probability of failure for different loading conditions is
made more consistent by the use of distinct load factors for the different loads to which the structure
is subject, compared to allowable or working stress design, where a single factor of safety is used.
Furthermore, different resistance factors can, in a parallel manner, be applied to determine member
resistance with uniform reliability. The combination of the load factor and the inverse of the
resistance factor gives a number comparable to the traditional factor of safety.

Annex F
(informative)

Columns subject to biaxial bending


Commentary

The precise design of beam-columns to resist biaxial bending is extremely complex. More
refined design expressions than those given in clause 13 are available but these are shape-
dependent. Clause 13 provides design expressions for rectangular sections.

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Annex G
(informative)

Vibration in buildings

G.1 Because of their lightweight nature, timber floors sometimes exhibit excessive vibrations
which cause undue disturbances and discomfort to their users under normal working conditions.
The common approach of ensuring acceptable levels of vibration in floors under impact-type
excitation is to impose a lower bound on the natural frequencies of the floors. This is usually
adequate for heavier structures built with concrete or steel. For many timber floors it is also
necessary to limit the magnitudes of the vibration because of the lightweight nature of the
construction.

BS 6472 suggests that, for the purpose of predicting human response, vibration in buildings should
be evaluated by calculating the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) acceleration for the design vibration.
Based on the recommendations of the British standard, the following design criteria are proposed:

a) the fundamental frequency fn should be higher than 8 Hz;

b) the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration ar of the response caused by a normal human footfall
2
impact should be less than 0,45 m/s .

The above criteria apply to timber floors in domestic settings. BS 6472 gives values for ar of
2 2
between 0,3 m/s and 0,45 m/s . Any value between these two extremes may be used if it can be
justified by appropriate data or experience. For non-residential floors, the value of ar can be
2
increased to 0,64 m/s . The lower limit value of ar should be used in cases where the designer
suspects that the occupants or equipment on the floors will be sensitive to vibrations.

G.2 The fundamental frequency of a timber floor can be explicitly determined from the following
equation:

E j . I j . (n - 1)
fn = 2
.
2a s . h . b + j . A . (n - 1)

where

a is the span;

Ej is the modulus of elasticity of the joists;

Ij is the second moment of area of the joists;

n is the number of joists;

s is the density of the flooring;

h is the thickness of the flooring;

b is the width of the floor;

j is the density of the joist; and

A is the cross-sectional area of a joist.

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The frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration ar can be calculated using the following formula, which
treats the floor, which is essentially a ribbed plate, as an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom
system:

2 000 . K
ar =
M . . f 02

where

a 280
M= . s . h . b + j . A . ( n 1) +
2 a

E j . I j . ( n 1)
fo = .
2a 2 s . h . b + j . A . ( n 1 ) + 280/a

The value of the variable K is dependent upon the fundamental natural frequency f0 of the loaded
floor. K is a function of the viscous damping ratio of the floor and the duration of the design footfall
impact. The viscous damping ratio can be assumed to have a value of 3 % and the design footfall
impact varies between 0,05 s and 0,07 s. Table G.1 shows the value of K within the defined range
of impact duration, when f0 is between 8 Hz and 40 Hz.

Table G.1 Values of K for different fundamental natural frequencies

1 2 1 2
f0 K f0 K
Hz Hz
8 38,8 26 67,4
9 41,4 27 65,1
10 44,0 28 69,5
11 45,5 29 72,6
12 45,6 30 74,1
13 44,5 31 74,0
14 42,2 32 72,4
15 38,7 33 69,3
16 34,3 34 72,8
17 35,9 35 76,8
18 45,1 36 77,9
19 52,9 37 76,1
20 58,7 38 71,8
21 62,0 39 74,8
22 62,7 40 80,2
23 61,9
24 65,8
25 67,7

The above equations do not account for the influence of composite action between joists and
flooring owing to shear transfer in the connections. If a stiff flooring or very rigid connections are
used, the designer may modify the expressions for determining fn and f0 accordingly.

NOTE The equations for fn and ar assume that a floor acts as a single-degree-of-freedom system. This is a
reasonable assumption in situations such as when all four edges of a rectangular plan floor are supported and
adequate bridging is provided. More complex modelling is required when inadequate bridging is provided.
Table G.2 suggests minimum bridging requirements for residential construction.

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Table G.2 Minimum number of rows


of bridging for domestic flooring

1 2
Span Minimum number of
m rows of bridging
< 2,5 1
2,5 4,5 2
> 4,5 3

G.3 References
Allen, DE, and Pernica, G. A simple absorber for walking vibrations. Canadian Journal of Civil
Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1. March 1984.

Allen, DE, and Rainer, H. Vibration criteria for long-span steel floors. Canadian Journal of Civil
Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2. June 1976.

Allen, DL. Vibrational behaviour of long-span floor slabs. Proceedings of The Canadian Structural
Engineering Conference. 1974.

British Standards Institute. 1984. Guide to evaluation of human exposure to vibration in buildings
(1 Hz to 80 Hz). British Standard BS 6472. BSI, London, Great Britain.

Chui, YH, and Smith, I. 1990. A dynamic approach to timber floor design. The New Zealand Journal
of Timber Construction, February 1990.
Chui, YH. Evaluation of vibrational performance of lightweight wooden floors: methods of
assessment of floor vibration in buildings due to human footsteps. TRADA Research Report 3/86.
Trada, Hughendon Valley, Great Britain, 1986.

Chui, YH. Evaluation of vibrational performance of lightweight wooden floors. Proceedings of the
International Timber Engineering Conference. Washington State University, Pullman, WA., 1988.

Chui, YH. A rational method of evaluating dynamic response of timber floors. Structural Engineering
Review, 1, 1988, 151-164.

Lenzen, KH. Vibration of steel joist-concrete slab floors. AISC Engineering Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3,
July 1966, p. 133.

Nelson, FC. The use of viscelastic material to damp vibrations in buildings and large structures.
AISC Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, April 1968, p.72.

Ohlsson, S. Springiness and human induced floor vibrations A design guide. Swedish Council for
Building Research, Stockholm, Sweden. 1988.

Onysko, DM. Performance of Wood-joist floor systems A literature review. Forest Products
Laboratory Information Report OP-X-24, Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and
Forestry. January 1970.

Onysko, DM. 1985. Serviceability criteria for residential floors based on field study of consumer
response. Report No. 03-50-10-008, Forintek Canada Corporation, Ottawa, Canada.

Smith, I, and Chui, YH. 1988. Design of lightweight wooden floors to avoid human discomfort.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 15, 254-262. Canada.

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Steffens, RJ. Some aspects of structural vibration. Building Research Current Paper Engineering
Series 37, Building Research Station, Ministry of Technology, Great Britain.

Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada, 1990: Commentary on serviceability criteria
for deflections and vibrations.

Thomson, WT. Vibration theory and applications. Prentice-Hall.

Wright, DT and Green, R. Human sensitivity to vibrations. Department of Civil Engineering, Report
No. 7, Queens University, February 1959.

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Annex H
(informative)

Wind sway vibrations

H.1 Wind motion of multistorey buildings or other flexible structures could create annoyance for
human occupants unless measures are taken at the design stage. The main source of annoyance is
lateral acceleration, although noise (grinding and wind howl) and visual effects also cause concern.

H.2 For a given wind speed and direction, the motion of a building, which includes vibration
parallel and perpendicular to the wind direction and twist, is best predicted by a wind tunnel test.
Approximate calculation rules are, however, given in the supplement to the National Building Code
of Canada, chapter 4.

H.3 In cases where wind motion is significant in design, the following should be considered:

a) education of occupants that, although high winds can occasionally cause motion, the building is
safe;

b) minimization of noises through, for example, detailing of building joints to avoid grinding;

c) minimization of twist through symmetry of layout, bracing or outer walls. Twist vibration also
creates a magnified visual effect of relative motion of adjacent buildings; and

d) possible introduction of mechanical damping to reduce wind vibration.

H.4 References
Chen, PW, and Robertson, LE. Human perception thresholds of horizontal motion. Journal of the
Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. Po98, No. PoST8. August 1972, pp. 1681-1695.

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Monograph on the Planning and Design of Tall
Buildings. Volumes PC and SB. American Society of Civil Engineers, 1981.

Hansen, RJ, Reed, JW, and van Marke, EH. Human response to wind-induced motion of buildings,
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. ST7. July 1973, pp. 1589-1605.

Hogan, M. The influence of wind on tall building design. Faculty of Engineering Science Research
Report BLWT-4-71, University of Western Ontario. March 1971.

Reed, JW. Wind-induced motion and human discomfort in tall buildings. Department of Civil
Engineering Research Report R71 - 42. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, November 1971.

Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada, 1990, Chapter 4, Commentary B on Wind
Loads.

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Annex J
(informative)

Recommended maximum values for deflections


This annex refers specifically to serviceability live and wind loads as defined in SANS 10160. The
Engineer, when selecting deflection criteria, should, where appropriate, consider the inclusion of
serviceability self-weight loads. For example, if non-permanent partitions are likely to be applied to
the structure after the completion of finishes susceptible to cracking, these partitions should be part
of the loading considered under this annex. Because some building materials augment the rigidity
provided by the timber, the wind load that is assumed to be carried by the timber and is used for
calculating deflections can be somewhat reduced from the design wind load that is used in strength
and stability calculations. The more common structural elements that contribute to the stiffness of a
building are masonry walls and certain types of curtain walls. The maximum suggested amount of
the reduction to the deflection under wind loading is 15 %.

Annex K
(informative)

Guide to calculation of stability effects


When large deflections of a structure are expected, the second-order effects due to these large
deflections should be taken into account. For a simplified method of calculating these stability
effects, reference can be made to SANS 10162-1.

Annex L
(informative)

Deflections of composite beams owing to shrinkage strain

L.1 Design
When composite concrete and timber beams are being designed, reference should be made to the
latest research publications on this subject.

L.2 Reference
Natterer et al. Holzbau Atlas Zwei. Mnchen: Institut fr Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation
GmbH, 1991.

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Annex M
(informative)

Fire resistance of timber members

M.1 Definition
The fire resistance of a structural component is determined as the time during which it, while
subjected to a fire, will continue to support the serviceability load.

M.2 Charring rate


Timber that is exposed to a fire of sufficient intensity to cause it to burn, chars at a fairly constant
rate, regardless of the heat intensity, provided that no timber dimension is less than 25 mm. It can
be assumed that the timber behind the charring line does not distort or lose strength to any
significant extent. Although the charring rate depends on various factors such as timber density,
permeability and moisture content, the charring rates given in table M.1 can be used.

Table M.1 Charring rates of timber

1 2
Timber species Charring
rate1)
Timber of average density 450 kg/m3 0,8 mm/min
Timber of average density exceeding 450 kg/m3 0,6 mm/min
1) The charring rate for glulam members can be considered to be
identical with that for solid timber members.

M.3 Timber members


Use the dimensions of the "residual" or uncharred section for the calculation of the ultimate
resistance of a member in a fire. This calculation involves determining the time to failure of the
"residual" section under serviceability loading. Ensure that the time to failure exceeds that required
for the type of structure.

To determine the ultimate strength of compression or flexural members, take the resistance factor
as 0,94.

In addition, for beams and floors, take the limit on deflection after a fire of the specified duration as
span/30.

M.4 Connections
Design metal connections to give the required fire-resistance rating. Connections that are covered
by timber will benefit from the insulating effect of the timber. Provided that the connector unit
remains behind the charring line, the strength of the joint can be calculated using a resistance
factor of 1,00. Assume that externally exposed connector plates or metal hangers have no fire
resistance, unless appropriate protection has been provided.

M.5 Treatment
Treatment with chemical fire retardants may be permitted, provided that they do not have a
corrosive effect on the connections and do not weaken the timber.

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Annex N
(normative)

Characteristic stresses and strengths


Commentary

The basic stresses and strengths in SANS 10163-2 were derived from the characteristic stress
and strength values. A safety factor of 2,22 was used.

N.1 Characteristic stresses for South African pine


1)
Table N.1 Characteristic stress for SA pine

Values in megapascals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tension Tension Compression Compression Shear Modulus
Bending parallel perpendicular parallel to perpendicular parallel of
Grade2) to grain to grain grain to grain to grain elasticity
Le/b = 0
fb ft ftp fcp fv E
fc
5 11,5 6,7 0,36 18,0 4,7 1,6 7 800
7 15,8 10,0 0,51 22,8 6,7 2,0 9 600
10 23,3 13,3 0,73 26,2 9,1 2,9 12 000
14 32,4 19,1 1,04 35,3 12,9 4,0 16 000
1) These stresses apply to visually, mechanically or proof-graded timber that complies with SANS 1783-2
(grades 5, 7 or 10), SANS 1460, grades 5, 7, 10 and 14 as appropriate.

2) Grade stresses given here are for a range of grades beyond those covered in current SANS standards.
The intention is to cater for any special purpose grade that could be introduced.

NOTE 1 Designers should check the availability of any grade they wish to specify.

NOTE 2 SANS 1460 refers to both hardwoods and softwoods. In the case of laminated timber, use the
appropriate grade stress for the applicable grade of timber.
Amdt 2

N.2 Characteristic stresses for round poles


1)
Table N.2 Characteristic stresses for round poles

Values in megapascals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tension Compression Compression Shear Modulus
SANS Bending parallel parallel to perpendicular parallel of
Timber
specifi- to grain grain to grain to grain elasticity
type
cation Le/b = 0
fb ft fcp fv E
fc
457-2 Pine 24 13,3 27,7 8,0 1,6 9 000
457-3 Gum 34,0 24,0 29,4 8,0 1,6 10 000
753 Pine 55,1 22,0 41,0 13,3 4,7 10 000
754 Gum 55,1 40,0 46,5 13,3 4,7 11 000
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 457-1, SANS 457-2, SANS 753 or SANS 754
as appropriate.
Amdt 2

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N.3 Characteristic stresses for plywood


N.3.1 Standard lay-out
1)
Table N.3 Characteristic stresses for plywood

1 2
Characteristic stress
Nature of stress
MPa
Bending on edge fb 13,1
Tension ft 13,1
Compression2) fc 20,9
Panel shear fv 4,4
Rolling or interlaminar shear fv 0,9
Modulus of elasticity E 14 800
Bending on flat fb 3)
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 929.

2) For Le/t not exceeding 10, where Le is the effective length


of the compression member and t is the thickness.

3) See N.3.2.

Commentary

The characteristic stresses given in this clause refer to plywood manufactured from South
African pine veneer. It has been assumed that the veneer thickness is less than 3 mm, an
uneven number of plies have been used and alternate plies have their grain direction
perpendicular to each other. Furthermore, the lay-up is such that there is a minimum of 40 %
cross-grain.

Characteristic stresses for non-standard or special lay-ups should be based on tests carried out
by an approved authority.

Bending on edge applies to boards that are used as web material for I-beams and box beams
and is for stresses that are induced by moments that are at right angles to the plane of the
veneer.

N.3.2 Characteristic stresses for bending on flat


Characteristic stresses for bending depend on the direction of the grain of the outer veneers, and
the following formulae should be used:

a) in the case of plywood of thickness not exceeding 32 mm, the characteristic stress

1) parallel to the outer grain is taken as


2
f = 42 S 1,11t + 0,016t ; and

2) perpendicular to the outer grain is taken as



f = 0,69t; and

b) in the case of plywood of thickness exceeding 32 mm, the characteristic stress parallel or
perpendicular to the outer grain is taken as 22,2 MPa.

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N.4 Characteristic stresses for fibreboard


Commentary

These boards are E. grandis based fibreboards, where standard hardboard and medium-density
fibreboard are for interior applications and tempered hardboard is for exterior applications.
1)
Table N.4 Characteristic stresses for fibreboard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Characteristic stress
Modulus
MPa
Nominal of
Panel type thickness elasticity Bending Tension Inter- Panel Bending
E on flat laminar shear on edge
shear
mm MPa fb ft fv fv fb
Standard hardboard 3,2 5 000 38,2 10,9 0,47 4,44 10,9
4,8 5 000 34,4 10,9 0,47 4,44 10,9
6,4 5 000 30,9 10,9 0,47 4,44 10,9
9,5 5 000 25,1 10,9 0,47 4,44 10,9
Tempered hardboard 3,2 5 800 45,1 13,1 1,0 4,44 13,1
4,8 5 800 43,3 13,1 1,0 4,44 13,1
6,4 5 800 43,3 13,1 1,0 4,44 13,1
9,5 5 800 30,2 13,1 1,0 4,44 13,1
Medium-density fibreboard 12
(MDF) 16
4 500 28,9 13,1 1,33
18
22
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 540-1 and SANS 540-2.

N.5 Characteristic stresses for particle board


Commentary

These boards are commonly called chipboard, with class P4 - load-bearing boards for use in any
conditions, class P5 - load-bearing boards for use in humid conditions, class P6 - heavy duty
load-bearing boards for use in dry conditions and P7 - heavy duty load-bearing boards for use in
humid conditions.
1)
Table N.5 Characteristic stresses for particle board

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Characteristic stress
Modulus of
Nominal MPa Average
elasticity
Class thickness Interlaminar density
E Bending Panel shear
shear
mm MPa fb fv fv kg/m3
Class P4 12 3 300 6,0 0,89 3,3 650
Class P5 12 3 300 8,0 0,67 3,3 650
16-18 3 500 11,1 0,67 2,9 700
22 3 000 10,7 0,67 2,4 650
Class P6 12 3 300 9,8 0,89 3,3 700
16-18 3 300 11,5 0,89 2,9 650
Class P7 12 3 300 8,9 0,89 3,3 700
16-18 3 500 14,0 1,11 2,9 700
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 50312-1, SANS 50312-2, SANS 50312-3,
SANS 50312-4, SANS 50312-5, SANS 50312-6 and SANS 50213-7.
Amdt 2

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N.6 Characteristic stresses for blockboard


Commentary

The ply number refers to the number of veneer layers in the plywood that are glued to the
outside of the pine core.
1)
Table N.6 Characteristic stresses for blockboard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Characteristic stress
Modulus of
Nominal Direction of MPa
elasticity
Panel type thickness span relative Interlaminar
E Bending Panel shear
to face grain shear
mm MPa fb fv fv
3-ply hardwood 21 Parallel 7 600 23,8 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 500 12,0 1,5 0,89
5-ply sliced veneer face 15 Parallel 7 500 17,1 1,5 0,89
hardwood Perpendicular 3 800 8,9 1,5 0,89
17 Parallel 7 500 16,0 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 500 8,9 1,5 0,89
5-ply RC pine2) 19 Parallel 7 600 15,3 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 300 8,7 1,5 0,89
21 Parallel 7 500 14,9 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 100 8,0 1,5 0,89
32 Parallel 7 200 13,1 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 2 200 5,6 1,5 0,89
9-ply hardwood sliced 38 Parallel 7 600 26,6 1,5 0,89
veneer Perpendicular 2 300 5,6 1,5 0,89
13-ply pine 38 Parallel 7 800 17,8 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 5 000 8,9 1,5 0,89
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 929.

2) RC = rotary cut.

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N.7 Characteristic stresses for battenboard


1)
Table N.7 Characteristic stresses for battenboard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Characteristic stress
Modulus of
Nominal Direction of MPa
elasticity
Panel type thickness span relative Interlaminar
E Bending Panel shear
to face grain shear
mm MPa fb fv fv
3-ply RC pine 16 Parallel 4 900 11,5 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 4 700 8,9 1,5 0,89
19 Parallel 4 600 10,4 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 5 000 8,9 1,5 0,89
202) Parallel 4 200 9,8 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 5 100 8,9 1,5 0,89
5-ply RC pine3) 212) Parallel 7 300 14,9 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 000 8,0 1,5 0,89
214) Parallel 7 300 14,9 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 000 8,0 1,5 0,89
245) Parallel 7 300 14,2 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 2 500 7,1 1,5 0,89
29 Parallel 7 300 13,5 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 2 400 6,0 1,5 0,89
9-ply hardwood sliced 295) Parallel 7 500 15,1 1,5 0,89
veneer Perpendicular 4 200 9,1 1,5 0,89
322) Parallel 7 500 14,4 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 4 000 8,9 1,5 0,89
384) Parallel 7 400 13,5 1,5 0,89
Perpendicular 3 500 8,0 1,5 0,89
1) Complying with the relevant requirements of SANS 929.

2) For exterior use (concrete formwork).

3) RC = rotary cut.

4) Resin faced direction refers to length of panel.

5) Mining utility cut.

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N.8 Characteristic strength of bolts


N.8.1 Characteristic strength of bolts in multiple member joints

Table N.8 Characteristic strength of bolts in multiple member joints

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Nominal Characteristic strength of one bolt
Nominal kN
thickness
bolt
of thinner Grade of timber
diameter
member
5 7 10
Parallel to Perpendicular Parallel to Perpendicular Parallel to Perpendicular
mm mm
grain to grain grain to grain grain to grain
38 10 4,2 2,9 4,4 3,1 4,9 3,3
12 6,0 3,8 6,9 4,4 7,3 4,7
16 7,5 4,4 8,2 4,7 9,3 5,3
20 9,3 5,1 10,2 5,6 11,8 6,4
24 11,3 5,8 12,2 6,2 14,0 7,3
50 10 4,2 2,9 4,4 3,1 4,9 3,3
12 6,2 4,0 6,9 4,4 7,3 4,7
16 9,8 5,6 10,7 6,2 12,2 7,1
20 12,2 6,7 13,3 7,1 15,3 8,2
24 14,9 7,8 16,0 8,2 18,4 9,5
76 10 4,2 2,9 4,4 3,1 4,9 3,3
12 6,2 4,0 6,9 4,4 7,3 4,7
16 10,9 6,2 11,3 6,4 12,2 7,1
20 17,1 9,3 17,8 9,5 19,1 10,2
24 22,4 11,5 24,4 12,7 27,5 14,2
Amdt 2

N.8.2 Characteristic strength of bolts through metal side plates


Where bolts are inserted through close-fitting holes in metal side plates of thickness at least one-
sixth of the nominal dimension of the bolt and of strength adequate to transfer the loads, the
characteristic strengths on the shear planes for loads parallel to the grain, as given in table N.8, can
be increased by 25 %. No increase is permitted for loads perpendicular to the grain.

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N.9 Characteristic strength of wire nails in single shear


Table N.9 Characteristic strength of wire nails in single shear

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Characteristic strength
kN
Optimum
Nominal Nominal Penetration depth
penetra-
length of diameter mm
tion of
nail of nail Optimum
point 25 38 50 75
penetration
Density group1)
mm mm mm D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1
50 2,5 25 0,36 0,42 0,36 0,42
63 2,8 28 0,40 0,47 0,44 0,53
3,2 32 0,42 0,51 0,56 0,67
75 3,2 32 0,42 0,51 0,56 0,67
3,5 36 0,49 0,58 0,71 0,84
90 4,0 44 0,51 0,60 0,78 0,93 0,89 1,07
100 4,0 44 0,51 0,60 0,78 0,93 0,89 1,07
5,0 60 0,89 1,07 1,15 1,40 1,40 1,67
125 5,0 60 0,89 1,07 1,15 1,40 1,40 1,67
5,6 70 0,95 1,13 1,24 1,49 1,73 2,09
150 5,6 70 0,95 1,13 1,24 1,49 1,73 2,09
6,3 85 1,29 1,55 1,95 2,33 2,20 2,64
7,1 95 1,47 1,78 2,22 2,64 2,80 3,35
1) Density groups as defined (see 3.1.6).

N.10 Characteristic strength in withdrawal of coach screws in the side


grain of seasoned timber
Calculate the characteristic strength in the withdrawal of coach screws in the side grain of seasoned
timber by multiplying the applicable characteristic strength given in tables N.10 and N.11 with the
appropriate factor given in table N.12.

Table N.10 Characteristic strength in withdrawal of coach screws


per 25 mm penetration of thread in the side grain of seasoned timber

1 2 3
Characteristic strength
Nominal diameter
kN
of coach screw
Density group1)
mm D2 D1
10 1,64 2,22
12 2,04 2,75
16 2,40 3,24
20 2,75 3,71
1) Density groups as defined (see 3.1.6).

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Table N.11 Maximum characteristic strength based


on tension at the root of the thread

1 2
Nominal diameter Characteristic
of coach screw strength1)
mm kN
10 10,88
12 21,33
16 34,39
20 51,95
1) Applicable for both density groups D1
and D2.

Table N.12 Factors to calculate penetration of the thread

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2 3 4 5 6
Factors
Density Actual penetration of
group1) thread into the two parts Nominal diameter of coach screw
10 12 16 20
D2 150 1,0 1,0 0,8 0,7
125 1,0 0,8 0,7 0,5
100 0,9 0,7 0,5 0,4
75 0,7 0,5
50 0,4
D1 150 1,0 1,0 0,9 0,7
125 1,0 0,9 0,7 0,6
100 1,0 0,7 0,6 0,5
75 0,7 0,5
50 0,5
1) Density groups as defined (see 3.1.6).

N.13 Characteristic strengths of coach screws in lateral bearing in the


side of seasoned timber
Calculate the characteristic strength of coach screws that bear laterally, by multiplying the charac-
teristic strength given in table N.13 by the relevant factor given in table N.14, for penetration of the
threads into the second member.

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Table N.13 Characteristic strengths of coach screws in


lateral bearing in the side grain of seasoned timber

1 2 3 4
Characteristic strength
Nominal diameter
kN
of coach screw Loading to grain
Density group1)
mm D2 D1
10 Parallel 2,09 2,38
Perpendicular 1,58 1,80
12 Parallel 3,71 4,20
Perpendicular 2,42 2,73
16 Parallel 5,79 6,57
Perpendicular 3,49 3,93
20 Parallel 8,35 9,46
Perpendicular 4,60 5,19
1) Density groups as defined (see 3.1.6).

Table N.14 Factors to calculate the thickness of timber side plates

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2 3 4 5
Factors
Thickness at coach
screw's head side Nominal diameter of coach screw
10 12 16 20
76 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
50 1,00 1,00 0,92 0,89
38 1,00 0,95 0,77 0,66
25 0,89 0,62

Where coach screws are inserted through close-fitting holes in metal side plates of thickness at
least one-sixth of the diameter of the coach screws and of strength adequate to transfer the loads,
the characteristic lateral forces for coach screws, as given in table N.13, can be increased by 25 %.
No increase is permitted for loads perpendicular to the grain.

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N.15 Characteristic strength of various connectors


1)
Table N.15 Characteristic strength of circular-toothed connectors

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Characteristic strength of connector
kN
Size of Nominal Thickness of
connector bolt diameter timber No. of loaded Perpendicular to
Parallel to grain
faces grain
Density group2)
mm mm mm D2 D1 D2 D1
50 12 19 1 8,2 11,3 6,4 8,7
38 2
25 1 9,1 12,2 6,7 9,1
50 2
38 1 10,0 12,7 8,0 10,4
76 2
50 1 10,0 12,7 8,0 11,3
100 2
63 12 25 1 10,2 13,8 8,0 10,7
50 2
38 1 11,3 14,2 8,7 12,0
76 2
50 1 11,3 14,2 9,3 12,9
100 2
75 12 25 1 11,5 15,3 9,1 12,4
50 2
38 1 12,4 15,8 10,0 13,8
76 2
50 1 12,4 15,8 10,7 14,4
100 2
1) In accordance with BS 1579.

2) Density group as defined (see 3.1.6).

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1)
Table N.16 Characteristic strength of split-ring connectors

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Characteristic strength of connector
kN
Size of Nominal bolt Thickness of
connector diameter timber No. of loaded Perpendicular to
Parallel to grain
faces grain
Density group2)
mm mm mm D2 D1 D2 D1
63 12 25 1 17,3 20,2 11,8 14,2
38 1 20,6 24,6 14,4 17,3
2 15,8 18,2 10,9 12,9
50 1 20,6 24,6 14,4 17,3
2 20,2 24,6 14,4 17,3
100 18 38 1 38,4 46,4 26,6 31,5
50 1 39,5 47,5 27,8 33,3
2 31,5 38,0 20,2 26,6
76 1 or 2 39,5 47,5 27,8 33,3
1) In accordance with BS 1579.

2) Density group as defined (see 3.1.6).

1)
Table N.17 Characteristic strength of shear plate connectors

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Characteristic strength of connector
kN
Size of Nominal bolt Thickness of
connector diameter timber No. of loaded Perpendicular to
Parallel to grain
faces grain
Density group2)
mm mm mm D2 D1 D2 D1
63 18 38 1 25,1 24,2 13,8 16,9
2 16,4 18,6 13,8 16,9
50 1 26,2 25,8 14,4 18,2
2 20,2 24,2 14,4 16,4
76 1 26,2 25,8 14,4 18,2
2 21,8 25,8 14,4 18,2
100 18 38 1 28,6 33,5 21,3 25,8
50 1 32,6 39,1 22,6 27,1
2 24,2 28,6 16,7 20,2
76 1 32,6 39,1 22,6 27,1
2 31,1 36,6 19,8 25,8
1) In accordance with BS 1579.

2) Density group as defined (see 3.1.6).

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N.18 Representative properties for punched nail plates


Table N.18 Representative characteristic strengths of
nail plates applied using a mechanical press

1 2 3
Typical value for
Property Symbol
pair of plates
Characteristic stress with load at 0 to plate and 0 to grain f0,0 4,4 MPa
Characteristic stress with load at 90 to plate and 0 to grain f90,0 3,3 MPa
Characteristic stress with load at 0 to plate and 90 to grain f0,90 3,3 MPa
Characteristic stress with load at 90 to plate and 90 to grain f90,90 2,2 MPa
Approximate joint stiffness 10 MPa/mm2
Thickness of plate 1 mm
Nail spacing along axis of plate Sx 20 mm
Nail spacing at right axis to plate Sy 6 mm
Ratio of available steel area for tension to total steel area parallel 0,4
and perpendicular to axis
NOTE The occurrence of f0,0, f90,0, f0,90, f90,90 is illustrated in figure N.1.

Figure N.1

It is imperative that an assurance be obtained from the manufacturer that the values given in the
table can be achieved.

Nail plates that are specifically designed to be hammered in on site have much lower strength
values than those given in the table.

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Annex P
(informative)

Dimensions of timber commonly produced in South Africa

P.1 SA pine
The nominal sizes for solid SA pine members are given in table P.1.

Table P.1 Nominal sizes for solid SA pine members

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2 3 4
Nominal Minimum rough-
Members dimensions sawn dimension
mm mm
Brandering and battens1) 38 35
50 47
Structural timber Thickness 38 36
50 48
75 73
76 74
Width 75 72
76 73
100 97
114 111
150 147
152 149
200 197
225 222
228 225
300 297
1) For regularized timber, subtract 1,0 mm (see SANS 1783-4).

NOTE Timber of a specified nominal dimension as given in column 3 may


not be of dimension less than the corresponding dimension given in
column 4, even after the application of dimensional tolerances.
Amdt 2

P.2 SA pine stocklam


The standard sizes for SA pine stocklam are given in table P.2.

Table P.2 Nominal dimensions of SA pine stocklam

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2
Widths 35, 45, 70, 100, 140
Depths 100 to 600, in increments of 33,3
NOTE See SANS 1460.

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P.3 Saligna glulam


The standard sizes for Saligna glulam are given in table P.3.

Table P.3 Nominal dimensions of Saligna glulam

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2
Widths 25, 38, 50, 63, 75, 89, 114, 140, 165
Depths From 66 in increments of 22
NOTE See SANS 1460.

P.4 Cape pine glulam


The standard sizes for Cape pine "Lamtico" are given in table P.4.
1)
Table P.4 Nominal dimensions of Lamtico glulam

Dimensions in millimetres
1 2
Widths 50, 67, 100, 140
Depths 168, 231, 315, 420, 462, 567, 630
1) Lamtico is the trade-name of a product. This
information is given for the convenience of users
of this standard.

P.5 Non-standard sizes


Use the measured sizes of timber in all cases where the dimensions are non-standard.

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Annex Q
(informative)

Determination of characteristic strength


by the in-grade testing method
If so permitted by the Engineer, the characteristic strength of a batch of timber for which there are
no published strength data may be determined as given in Q.1 to Q.5.

Q.1 Ascertain that the batch to be tested is reasonably homogeneous, i.e. that it is of the same
species or genus, preferably from a single source, and not a random mixture of different timbers
from different sources.

Q.2 To determine the bending strength, compression strength or tensile strength, tests should be
conducted in accordance with SANS 6122.

Q.3 For each property to be tested, estimate the "proof" load that will break approximately 10 % of
the pieces. If, during testing, it is clear that many more than 10 % of the pieces are being broken,
the proof load should be reduced until about 10 % of the pieces are being broken. If, on the other
hand, too few pieces are being broken, the proof load should be increased and all the pieces that
did not break under the original load should be re-tested.

Q.4 To determine the modulus of elasticity, tests should be conducted in accordance with
SANS 6122.

Every 10th piece should be tested to destruction in order to give a reasonable estimate of the mean
strength.

Unbroken pieces may be returned to the main batch for subsequent structural use.

Q.5 The test results should be so plotted in a normalized ranking format that, if about 10 % of the
pieces have been broken, the lower 10 % "tail" of the frequency density distribution curve will be
shown reasonably smoothly. The lower 5th percentile strength can then be estimated fairly
accurately.

Q.6 The 5th percentile value is equal to the characteristic strength.

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Bibliography Amdt 3

Standards
BS 1579, Specifications for connectors for timber.

BS 5820, Methods of test for determination of certain physical and mechanical properties of timber
in structural sizes.

BS 6472, Guide to evaluation of human exposure to vibration in buildings (1 Hz to 80 Hz).

ISO 3898, Bases for design of structures Notations General symbols.

SANS 281 (SABS 281), Hardwood block and strip flooring.

SANS 540-1 (SABS 540-1), Fibreboard products Part 1: Uncoated fibreboard.

SANS 540-2 (SABS 540-2), Fibreboard products Part 2: Coated fibreboard.

SANS 629 (SABS 629), Softwood flooring boards.

SANS 1288 (SABS 1288), Preservative-treated timber.

SANS 1783-1 (SABS 1783-1), Sawn softwood timber Part 1: General requirements.

SANS 6122 (SABS SM 1122), Qualification testing of solid structural timber and laminated
structural timber (glulam) for verifying timber grading systems in accordance to a given standard.

SANS 10082 (SABS 082), Timber frame buildings.

SANS 10124 (SABS 0124), The application of soil insecticides for the protection of buildings.

SANS 10149 (SABS 0149), The mechanical stress grading of softwood timber (flexural method).

SANS 10155 (SABS 0155), Accuracy in buildings.

SANS 10162-2 (SABS 0162-2), The structural use of steel Part 2: Limit-states design of cold-
formed steelwork.

SANS 50312-1/EN 312-1 (SABS EN 312-1), Particleboards Specifications Part 1: General


requirements for all board types.

SANS 50312-2/EN 312-2 (SABS EN 312-2), Particleboards Specifications Part 2: Requirements


for general purpose boards for use in dry conditions.

SANS 50312-3/EN 312-3 (SABS EN 312-3), Particleboards Specifications Part 3: Requirements


for boards for interior fitments (including furniture) for use in dry conditions.

SANS 50312-4/EN 312-4 (SABS EN 312-4), Particleboards Specifications Part 4: Requirements


for load-bearing boards for use in dry conditions.

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SANS 50312-5/EN 312-5 (SABS EN 312-5), Particleboards Specifications Part 5: Requirements


for load-bearing boards for use in humid conditions.

SANS 50312-6/EN 312-6 (SABS EN 312-6), Particleboards Specifications Part 6: Requirements


for heavy duty load-bearing boards for use in dry conditions.

SANS 50312-7/EN 312-7 (SABS EN 312-7), Particleboards Specifications Part 7: Requirements


for heavy duty load-bearing boards for use in humid conditions.

Other publications
1 Galambos, TV. Guide to stability design criteria for metal structures. 4th ed. New York: Wiley,
1988.

2 Gtz, K, et al. Timber design and construction sourcebook. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1989.

3 Natterer et al. Holzbau Atlas Zwei. Mnchen: Institut fr Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation


GmbH, 1991.

4 Ozelton EC, and Baird, JA. Timber designers manual. 3rd ed. London: Collins, 1990.

Standards South Africa

94