You are on page 1of 6

The Sampling Formula n = _ N__

Ne2+ 1

By Eddie Seva See, Mary Ann Musni See

There are five different formulae presented and discussed in research and statistics
textbooks. The most frequent formula of which is the formula that estimates population mean with
infinite population , which is given below

n = z2 2 where n is sample size, z = standard score based on an assumed confidence level


e2 = standard deviation, and e = margin of error (in ratio/interval measure)

(Pegula, 2008; Lind, et.al___; Berenson, et.al, 2006; Weirs, 2005; Moore, 2004; Larson &Faber, 2003;
McClave&Sincich, 2003; Moore, et.al, 2003; Davis, et.al, 2002; Pelosi, et.al, 2001; Triola, 2001; Cooper
&Schindler,1998; Healey, 1996; Sincich, 1996; Anderson,et.al,, 1996;Hamilton, 1996; Triola, 1995;
Mendenhall &Reinmuth, 1982; Hertzman& Mueller, 1980)

This is followed by the formula that estimates population proportion with infinite
population.

n = z2PQ where n is sample size, z = standard score based on an assumed confidence level
e2 P is assumed proportion in decimal, Q =1-P, , and e = margin of error (in decimal)

(Berenson, et.al, 2006; Weirs, 2005;Larson& Faber, 2003; McClave&Sincich, 2003;Duckworth, 2003;
Davis, et.al., 2002; Pelosi, et.al, 2001; Anderson, et.al., 1996; Sincich, 1996;Bordens& Abbot, 1996;
OSullivan &Rassel, 1995; Mendenhall &Reinmuth, 1982)

Third is the formula for estimating population mean with finite population size given below.

n = __N 2_
(N-1) e2+ 2
z2
where N = Population size; 2 = Variance of the variable being measured; e = Margin of error in
terms of the value of the variable being measured; z = Standard score based on an assumed
confidence level

(Lind, et.al.___; Berenson. et.al., 2006; Weirs, 2005; Newbold, et.al., 2003; Davis, et.al., 2002;
Anderson,et.al.,1996; Madsen &Moeschberger, 1983; Mendenhall &Reinmuth, 1982; Neter, et.al., 1966)

Fourth is the formula for estimating population proportion with finite population size
given as follow.

n = __NPQ__
(N-1) e2 + PQ
z2
where P= proportion between two variables of nominal measure in decimal form; Q = 1-P
e = margin of error in decimal form; z = standard score based on an assumed confidence level

(Weirs, 2005; Newbold, et.al., 2003; Davis, et.al., 2002; Anderson, et.al., 1996; Mendenhall &Reinmuth,
1982)

The least frequent (fifth) among the books is the formula that requires only population size and
margin of error.

n= N__
Ne2+ 1

(Nuque & Feliciano, 1984; Mendehall&Reinmuth, 1982; and Pagoso, et.al., 1978)

The sampling formula for estimating population means, while most frequently discussed in the
statistics books is seldom used in student researches. Perhaps this seeming unattractiveness of the method
is due to therequired variance, 2, which, after all, is one of the unknown variables sought to be measured
by the research. For studies involving new populations, this technique appears to be absurd. The
formulaewould be most useful when probing populations that have already been studied in the past.

In many sampling computations involving the same population but measured for different variables
that cover both ratio/interval and categorical measures, the formula that needs only population size and
margin of error is the most popular, This could be credited to the very few mathematical steps involved in
its calculation and only population size is required as an input parameter. It is also unexpected that a
formula rarely available in statistics and research textbooks would be so popular among research students.
In the same manner, it is also startling that a formula that is widely known to and used by researchers
would not be taught in books designed for future researchers.

n= N__
Ne2+ 1

Provided by Yamane in 1967 (Kasiuleviciusi, et.al,, 2006), many researchers wonder where this
formula came from. Unknown to many, it is derived from that one that estimates population proportion
with finite population.

n = ____NPQ____
(N-1)e2 + PQ
z2

How P, Q, and z became invisible in the formula is discussed in the following derivative steps.

n = ___NPQ____
(N-1)e2 + PQ
z2

Population size (P), Q, and z disappeared because they were replaced by actual values. Population
size, P is assumed to be 0.5, which automatically results to a Q value of 0.5 since Q = 1-P = 1-0.5 = 0.5.
The number 0.5 is the P value that yields the highest possible
sample size, as determined by this author and. as explained by Madsen &Moeschberger (1983, p. 314),

The quantity of PQ always lies between 0 and 0.25. It assumes a maximum value of
0.25 when P = 0.5. Consequently the largest value of n is at this value. To be on the safe side, we can use
this large value.

The standard score (z) of 2 arises from a confidence level of 95.44 per cent. How this was
determined is presented in the following process-set the confidence level at 95.44% or 0.9544, from this
value, define the level of significance, 1-0.9544= 0.0456, the matter is two-tailed, so divide 0.0456 by 2 ,
resulting to 0.0228, subtract this value from 0.500; 0.500-0.0228 = 0.4772, locate the z value of 0.4772
from the z table.The critical value, z = 2. How the minus 1 in N-1 disappeared is explained below

When N is very large the sample size formula reduces 1 to zero...(Mendenhall


&Reinmuth, 1982, p 72)

Substituting the assumed actual values to P, Q, and z and removing 1 thus translates
our equation to the following.

n = __ NPQ______ = __N(0,5)(0.5)__
(N-1) e2 + PQ N e2 + (0.5)(0.5)
z2 22

n =__0.25N__ = _____0.25N___ =__(4)0.256N


Ne2+ 0.25 Ne2 + (4)0.25 Ne2+ 1
4 4

n = __N__
Ne2+ 1

While the formula seems to depend only on the known size of the population and the
assumedmargin of error in decimal, its proof of derivation shows that it presupposes the following: a very
largepopulation size (N), a confidence level of 95.44 per cent, and a proportion (P) of 0.5. It is originally
designed for research variables with categorical measure. Using this derivative formula, a maximum
sample size each will result for any given margin of error, no matter how big the population is.

It must also be noted that when the size of N does not make 1 negligible (or N is not very large),
the derivative formula is

n= N_____
(N-1)e2+ 1

.
References

Anderson, David R., D.J. Sweeney, and T.A. Williams.( 2004). Essentials of Modern Business Statistics
with Microsoft Excel, 2e. South-Western, 5191 Natorp Boulevard, Mason, Ohio 45040
http://www.swcollege.com

Cooper, Donald R. and P.S. Schindler. (1998). Business Research Methods. Irwin-McGraw-Hill Boston
USA
Cozby, Paul C., P.E.Worden, and D.W. Kee. (1989). Research Methods in Human Development.
MayfieldPublishing Company.1240 Villa Street. Mountain View, California 94041.

Davis, Duane, J. Utts, and M. Simon. (2002). Statistics and Research Methods for Managerial
Decisions.Second Edition. Brooks/Cole, 511 Forest Lodge Road, Pacific Grove, CA, 93950 USA

Elmes, David G., B.H. Kantowitznd H.I. Roediger III. (1995). Research Methods in Psychology. 5th ed.
West Publishing Co.610 Opperman Drive P.O. Box 64526

Freedman David, R. Pisani, R. Purves, and A. Adhikari. (1991). Statistics. Second Edition.W.W. Norton
&Company, NY.

Gay, L.R. and Peter Airasian. (2000). Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and
Application.SixthEdition.Merrill, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Glass, Gene V. and K.D. Hopkins. (1984).Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology. Allyn and
Bacon, Boston

Hamilton, Lawrence C. (1996). Data Analysis for Social Scientists A First Course in Applied
Statistics.Duxbury Press, Boston.

Healy, Joseph. (2002). Statistics A Tool for Social Research. Sixth Edition.Wadsworth/Thomson Learning,
10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002-0563, USA.

Heiman Gary W. (1999) .Research Methods in Psychology.Houghton Mifflin Co.Boston.

Hertzman, William R. and F.W. Mueller. (1980). Statistics for Business and Economics. Allyn and Bacon,
Inc.,Boston

Hildebrand, David K.and Lyman Ott.(n.d.)Statistical Thinking for Managers. 2nded.Horim,

MosheBen and Haim Levy. (1981). Statistics Decisions and Applications in Business and
Economics.Random House, New York.

Howell, David C. (1997). Statistical Methods for Psychology.Fourth Edition.PWS Publishers. 20 Park
Plaza. Boston, Massachuesetts 02116.

Howell, David C. (1987). Statistical Methods for Psychology.2nd ed. PWS Publishers.20 Park Plaza.
Boston, Massachuesetts 02116.

Huntsberger, David V., D.J. Goft and P.B. Billengsley. (1980). Statistical Inference for Management and
Economics.SecondEdition.Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston.

Jaccard, James and M.A. Becker. (1997). Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences. Third Edition.
Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., NY.

Kazmier, Leonard J. and N.F. Pohi.(.n.d.) Basic Statistics for Business and Economics.Second
Edition.McGraw-Hill, Inc. NY.

Larson, Ron and B. Faber. (2003). Elementary Statistics Picturing the World. Second edition. Prentice
Hall Upper Saddle Drive NJ 07458
Levin, Jack and James Alan Fox. (2004). Elementary Statistics in Social Research The Essentials. Pearson
Education, Inc. New York.

Levin, Richard I. (1978). Statistics for Management.Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Madsen, Richard W. and M.L. Moeschberger. (1988). Introductory Statistics for Business and Economics.
Prentice-Hall, Inc.Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Mason, Robert D., D.A. Lind and W. Marchal. (1999). Statistical Techniques in
Business and Economics.Irwin-McGraw-Hill. USA.

McClave, James T. and Terry Sincich.(2006). A First Course in Statistics. Ninth Edition..Pearson Prentice
Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.

Mendenhall, William, Robert J. Beaver, and Barbara M. Beaver. (1999). Introduction to the
Practice of Statistics.10th ed. Duxbury Press, ITP, NY.

Minium, Edward W. (1978) .Statistical Reasoning in Psychology and Education.2nd ed. John Wiley &
Sons, NY.

Moore, David S., George P. McCabe, William M. Duckworth and Stanley L. Sclove. (2003). The Practice
of Business Statistics Using Data for Decisions. W.H. Freeman and Company, NY.

Neter, John, W. Waserman, and G.A. Whitmore. (1966). Fundamental Statistics for Business and
Economics.Abridged 4thEdition.Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Boston.

Newbold, Paul, W. Carlsen and B. Thorne. (2003). Statistics for Business and Economics. Fifth
edition.Prentice Hall Upper Saddle Drive NJ 07458

Nuque, Simplicio, R., F.T. Felciano and F.B. Uy. (1984). Fundamentals of Business Statistics for
College.Merriam & Webster, Inc., Manila, Phils.

Ott, Lyman. (1984). An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis. Second Edition. Duxbury
Press, Boston

Paguso, Cristobal, G. Garcia, and C.R. Guerrero De Leon. (1978). Fundamental Statistics for
CollegeStudents.Sinag-tala Publishers, Inc., Manila, Phils.

Pelosi, Marilyn, T.M. Sandifer, and U. Sekara. (2001). Research and Evaluation for Business.John Wiley
and Sons, Inc. 605 3rdVaenue, NY, NY.

Polit, Denise F. and Cheryl Tatano Beck. (2008). Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence
for Nursing Practice.8thEdition.Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams &Wilikns, NY USA.

Sanchez, C.A. (1998). Methods and Techniques of Research.Third Edition. Rex Printing Co. Inc., Q.C.,
Phils.

Santos, Kevin Carl P. (2012) .Ranked Sampling. The Philippine Statistician. 2012. Vol. 61 No. 2..Pp.123-
126.
Sincich, Terry. (1996). Business Statistics by Example. Fifth Edition. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River,
NJ 07458

Silverman, Franklin H. (n.d.) Research Design and Evaluation in Speech-Language Pathology and
Audiology Asking and Answering Questions. Prentice Hall,Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 07632.

Sirug, Winston. (2011). Introduction to Business Statistics A Comprehensive Approach. Mindshapers, Co.,
Inc., Manila, Phils.

Smith.Herman W. (1991).Strategies of Social Research.3rd ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. The
Dryden Press, Saunders College Publishing.

Spector, Paul E.(1982). Research Designs. SAGE Publications The Publisher of Professional Social
Science Research. London.

Sprinthall, Richard C. (1997). Basic Statistical Analysis.Allyn and Bacon A Division of Paramount
Publishing, 160 Goulf Street, Needham Heights, Massachusetts 02194

Thomas, Jerry R., and J.K. Nelson. (1996). Research Methods in Physical Activity. Third Edition.Human
Kinetics. P.O. Box 5076. Champaign IL. 61825-5076.

Touliatos, John and W.H. Compton. (1988). Research Methods in Human Ecology/Home Economics.Iowa
State University Press. Ames, Iowa 50010.

Triola, Mario F. (2001). Elementary Statistics Using Excel. Addison and Wesley, NY

Walker, Jefferey T. and Sean Maddan. (2005). Statistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice Analysis
and Interpretation.Second Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers International, Barb House, Barb Mews,
London W670A UK.

Walpole, Ronald E, (1982). Introduction to Statistics.ThirdEdition.McMillan Pub.Co.,Inc., NY.

Weinbach, Robert W. and Richard M. Grinnel, Jr. (1995).Statistics for Social


Workers.ThirdEdition.LongmanPublishers USA.

Weirs, Ronald M. (2005).Introduction to Business Statistics.Fifth edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole 10 Davis


Drive Belmont CA 94002

Weiss, Neil A. (1995). Introduction to Statistics.Fourth Edition. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.,NY.

Williamson, G.R. (2003 )Misrepresenting random sampling: A systematic Review of research papers in in
the Journal of Advanced Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2003:44(3):278-88

Willis, R.E. and N.L. Chervany. (1974). Statistical Analysis and Modelling for Management Decision-
Making.