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Determination of the length

between pipe supports by Requirements Pipe yield strength


the method of the "Maximum Ref. 2a. Table A-1
Bending Stress" [1] The ratio Lenght/deflection st = 25
is defined with a minimum
Data value of Pipe basic allowable stress at
Nominal pipe size (NPS) (L/y)min = 600 given temperature
dn = 300 mm Ref. 2a. Table A-1
Material: A 312 TP316L Maximum bending stress t= 72
Pipe pressure and temperature ratio sallow = 16.7
P= 20 bar sb/sallow = 0.3 sallow = 115.1
t= 22 C sb : Maximum allowed
Pipe filled with water bending stress Maximum bending stress
sallow : Pipe allowed stress sb = sallow * 0.3
It will be considered the weight in tension according B31.3 sallow = 115.1
of two men at the center of Table A-1 sb = 34.54
the pipe. sb = 3.5E+07
Concentrated weight The lenght is designed for the
mc = 200 kg pipe working with the Steel elasticity module
wc = 1961 N maximum allowed bending Sheet SS 316
Pipe insulation weigth stress sb. E= 2E+11
wi = 0 N/m
Pipe shedule is to be determined

Water load Concentrated weight


ww = rw * g * V wc = 1961 N
rw = 1000 kg/m
V= #VALUE! m/m Pipe length (eq. (h)
ww = #VALUE! N/m Lcalc = (-b + (b^2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / (2*a)
w 2 wc bI
16
L +
8
L-
d
=0 (h ) b= 245
Pipe load (steel) a= #VALUE!
wp = rp*g*(p/4)*(de^2-di^2) a= w/16 c= #VALUE!
(from sheet SS 316) w= #VALUE! N/m Lcalc = #VALUE!
rp = 8000 kg/m a= #VALUE! Let
de = #VALUE! m Lselected = 10
di = #VALUE! m b= wc /8
wp = #VALUE! N/m wc = 1961 N The selected length Lselected

b= 245 hast to meet two conditions:

Insulation load (no insulation) 1. Lselected <= Lcalculated to meet

wi = 0 N/m c= -sb * I /de the condition for the maximum


sb = 3.5E+07 Pa bending stress.

Total load I= #VALUE! 2. ycalc <= Lselected / 600 to meet

w= ww + w p + w i de = #VALUE! m the additional design condition.


ww = #VALUE! N/m c= #VALUE!
wp = #VALUE! N/m
wi = 0 N/m
w= #VALUE! N/m

Shedule Maximum bending stress Weld joint strenght reduction


Material A 312 TP316L Material: A 312 TP316L factor W
Nominal pipe size (NPS) Ref. 2a. Table A-1 Ref. 2c. Table 302,3,5
dn = 300 mm W= 1
Schedule, to be determined Yield strength Table A-1
Pressure in pipe syield = 25 ksi Coefficient Y
P= 20 bar Table 304.1.1
Temperature Allowed stress Table A-1 Ref. 2 ASME B31.3
t= 22 at the temperature Y= 0.4
sallow = 16.7 ksi
Pipe thickness sallow = 115.1 MPa Check requirement
Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008 P / S*E <= 0.385
t= P*D / ( 2*(S*E*W + P*Y) ) Maximum bending stress P= 2
t: Pressure design thickness sb = 34.54 MPa S= 34.54
P: Internal design gauge pressure E= 1
D: Outside pipe diameter Quality factor "E" P / S*E = 0.057899
d: Inside pipe diameter Ref. 2b. Table A-1B
c: sum of mechanical, corrosion Seamless tube A 316L Eq. (3a) is applicable, since P/(S*E
and erosion allowances E= 1
S: Material stress value. Table A-1
E: Quality factor from table A-1A or A-1B Exterior pipe diameter
W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per dn = 300 mm
para. 302.3.5 and Table 302.3.5 de = #VALUE! mm
Y: Coefficient from Table 304.1.1, valid for t <D/6
For t>= D/6, Y = (d + 2*c) / ( D + d + 2*c )

Presure design thickness (acc. Eq. 3a) For a SS pipe


tdis = #VALUE! mm dn = 300
Corrosion allowance TC = 1.59 mm sch = 40S
Thread depth TD = 0 mm s= #VALUE!
Over thickness OT = TC + TD
OT = 1.59 mm A schedule of 40S
Required thickness treq = tdis + OT #VALUE! #VALUE!
treq = #VALUE! mm #VALUE!

Mill tolerance MT = 12.5 % Selecting the next schedule


Minimum thickness tmin = treq * (100 /(100 - MT)) For a SS pipe
treq = #VALUE! mm dn = 300
MT = 12.50 % sch = 80S
tmin = #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

A schedule of 80S
For more information on these correction factors, see #VALUE! #VALUE!
www.piping-tools.net #VALUE!
Pipes. Wall thickness calculation according ASME B31.3
Selected shedule

ASME B31 . 3-2008


Pd ext
t= (3a )
2[ EW +PY ]

t= P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*
t = 9.2 mm
P= 2
de = #VALUE!
Sb = 34.53
E= 1
W= 1
y= 0.4
t= #VALUE!
t= #VALUE!
The reference has a calculation mistak

SS pipe
dn Sch
in -
1/8 5S
1/4 10S
3/8 40S
1/2 80S
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
30
Corrosion allowance Pipe dimensions
TC = 1.59 mm The schedule is to be determined
ksi Thread depth
TD = 0 mm Schedule initially assumed
allowable stress at Mill tolerance Sch = 40S
MT = 12.5 %
Exterior diameter (of SS pipe)
F Note. dn = 300 mm
ksi The above values are not considered de = Pipe_SS_Dext_dn
MPa in the example of the reference [1]. de = #VALUE! mm
de = #VALUE! m
bending stress
Interior diameter
MPa dn = 300 mm
MPa di = Pipe_SS_Dint_dn_sch
Pa Sch = 40S
di = #VALUE! mm
city module di = #VALUE! m

Pa www.piping-tools.net

Pipes. Maximum span between pipe supports for a given maximum bending stress.xlsm

cjcruz@piping-tools.net

Deflection Result
Deflection at ther center of a simple For
supported beam with a uniform load Lselected = 10 m
w and a concentrated load "wc". there is a deflextion
2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / (2*a) (from sheet equations) ycalc = #VALUE! mm
4 3
5wL +8wcL Requirement
y= (q )
384EI ycalc <= Lselected / 600
m Lselected = 10 m
Deflection value for the Lselected / 600 = 0.0167 m
m selected length Lselected / 600 = 16.67 mm
ycalc = (5*w*L^4 + 8*wc*L^3) / (384*E*I)
w= #VALUE! N/m Check
Lselected = 10.0 m ycalc = #VALUE! mm
wc = 1961 Lselected / 600 = 16.67 mm
r the maximum E= 2.00E+11 Pa thus
I= #VALUE! m4 ycalc #VALUE! Lselected / 600

ycalc = #VALUE! m #VALUE!


esign condition. ycalc = #VALUE! mm

strenght reduction Design thickness


Ref. 2 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.3-2008
ASME B31.3 paragraph 304.1.2, Ec. (3a)

ASME B31 . 3-2008


Pd
t= ext (3a )
2[ EW +PY ]

t = P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )

P= 2.0 Mpa
dext = #VALUE! mm
sb = 34.54 Mpa
E= 1.0 -
Mpa W= 1.00 -
MPa Y= 0.4 -
t= #VALUE! mm

Design thickness requirement


pplicable, since P/(S*E t= #VALUE! mm
dext = #VALUE! mm
dext/6 = #VALUE! mm
#VALUE!
mm For the given data, a span L = 10 m
will ensure that the maximum
mm bending stress is less than sb = 34.5 Mpa
It was considered sb = sallow * 0.3 L= 10
gives a thickness Additionally it holds that L/y>= 600 -
#VALUE! The model used is a simple supported beam y= #VALUE!
#VALUE!
spipe = #VALUE!
he next schedule The selected shedule is sch = 80S
srequired = #VALUE!
mm

mm

gives a thickness
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

80S

g=

B31 . 3-2008
xt
(3a )
EW +PY ]

P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )


MPa
m
MPa

m
mm
ce has a calculation mistake
Rev. cjc. 01.06.2017
Page 1 of 5

Equatorial inertia moment


I= (p/64) *( de^4-di^4)
de = #VALUE! m
di = #VALUE! m
I= #VALUE! m4

Area of pipe section


A= (p/4) * di^2
di = #VALUE! m
A= #VALUE! m

Water volume per meter pipe


V= A*1
A= #VALUE! m/m
V= #VALUE! m/m

r a given maximum bending stress.xlsm

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Page 3 of 5
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mm

mm

9.80665 m/s

Page 5 of 5
[1]
t=

Pipe seamless SS
Mater:
D: Outside diameter
dn =
de =

t=
P=
de =
sb =
E=
W
Y=
t=

Stainless steel
dn =
sch =
s=

Shedule to be selected: 80S

Note. This example is for a st


The reference uses for the se
of carbon steel pipes
Stainless steel
dn =
sch =
s=
Carbon steel
dn =
sch =
s=

Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbo


McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

[4]The American Society of M


ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, P
P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )

Pipe seamless SS
ASTM A 312 TP 316L
D: Outside diameter
300 NPS
#VALUE! mm

P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )


2 MPa
#VALUE! mm
34.53 MPa
1
1
0.4
#VALUE! mm

Stainless steel Stainless steel


300 mm dn = 300 mm
40S sch = 80S
#VALUE! mm s= #VALUE! mm

Shedule to be selected: 80S

Note. This example is for a stainless steel pipe.


The reference uses for the selection the dimensions
of carbon steel pipes
Stainless steel
300 mm dn = 300 mm
20S sch = 30S
#VALUE! mm s= #VALUE! mm
Carbon steel Carbon steel
300 mm dn = 300 mm
20 sch = 30
#VALUE! mm s= #VALUE! mm

Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbook, 4th edition


McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

[4]The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1995)


ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 182
Length of a beam to achieve that
the resulting beam stress has the Bending stress Replacing equation
defined maximum value Mc L2 L
= (b ) M=w + w c
I 8 4
Assumed a simply supported case
M:moment Nm
into equation (e )
c: distance to the neutral axis m
L2
Moments at the center of a simple
supported beam . [5 ], Figure 7
I: equatorial inercia moment m4
(
max = w + w c
8
Concentrated load w c at center
Maximum bending stress where the maximum
Mc the value correspon
M=wc
L max = max (c )
4 I application, and wi
Uniformly distributed load w In case of a pipe simply as the beam
L2 d 2
M=w
8
Total moment
c max =
2
and replacing equation (d ) into (c )
(d )
( L
b = w + w c
8
L
4
2
=( w + w
2
L
M=w + w c
L
( a)
M( d /2 ) L L
8 4
max = (e) b c
I 16 8

s allowed = (2/3) *s y

Beam stress b
Beam stress
For the stainless steel A 312 TP316L, Literature [1 ] recommends for the
ASME B31 . 3-2006, Table A-1 gives acual application, following security
the relation between the allowable margin
stress allow (t <= 300 F) to the yield 3
b = allow (o )
10
value y as replacing equation
2 2
allow= y
allow= y (n ) 3
(n)
3
into equation (o )
3 2
allow b
10 allow
value y as replacing equation
2 2
allow= y
allow= y (n ) 3
(n)
3
into equation (o )
3 2
b = y
10 3
1
b = y ( p)
5

Deflection at the center of a simple


4 3
supported beam . [5 ], Figure 7 5wL + 8wcL
y= (q )
384EI
Concentrated load w c at center
wcL3
y=
48EI
Uniformly distributed load w
5wL4
y=
384EI
Total deflection
3
5wL4 wcL
y= +
384EI 48EI
3
5wL4 8wcL
y= +
384EI 384EI
4 3
5wL +8wcL
y= (q )
384EI
Replacing equation from equation
Note that the length obtained f
L2 wc
M=w + w c
8
L
4
( a) (w
b = L2 +
16 8
L ) d
I
( g) equation (m) corresponds to t
bI w 2 wc case when the system is assum
into equation (e ) = L + L
d 16 8 to be similar to a simply suppo
L2
(
max = w + w c
8 4 I )
L d /2
(f )
w 2 wc bI
16
L +
8
L-
d
=0
. a .. . . .. . . .. . . .. b . . .. . . .. . . .. c
(h ) beam. A continuos pipe would
better represented by sections
where the maximum stress will have with corresponding to a beam fixed
the value corresponding to the given a=
w
(i)
both ends.
application, and will be denoted 16
wc
simply as the beam stress b b= ( j)
8
2

( L
)L d /2
b = w + w c
8 4 I
c= b
I
d
equation (h ) becomes
(k )

2
=( w + w )
L L d aL2 +bL+c=0 (m)
b c ( g)
16 8 I
w 2 wc I
L + L- b =0 (h )
16 8 d

In the following application the


value of the beam stress given
by equation (n) will be used.
commends for the This value is 20% of the yield stress
The in the standard indicated allowed
n, following security value is 67% of the yield stress.

(o ) 1
b = y (p)
5
on
(n)
)
on
(n)
)

( p)

y= P*L^3/(48*E*I)
3
wcL
(q ) y= (5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)
Page 1 of 3

at the length obtained from


n (m) corresponds to the
en the system is assumed
milar to a simply supported
A continuos pipe would be
epresented by sections
onding to a beam fixed at
ds.

Page 2 of 3
Page 3 of 3
Ferritic Steel
A term usually applied to a group of stainless steels with a chromium content in the range of 12- 18o and
whose structure consists largely of ferrite.
Such steels possess good ductility and are easily worked but do not respond to any hardening or tempering process
Types of applications include automotive trim and architectural cladding.

Austenitic Steels
Steels containing high percentages of certain alloying elements such as manganese and nickel which are austenitic a
and cannot be hardened by normal heat-treatment but do work harden. They are also non-magnetic.
Typical examples of austenitic steels include the 18/8 stainless steels and 14% manganese steel.
Martensitic Stainless Steels
(400 SERIES WHICH HAVE HIGH CARBON). These grades of stainless have chromium in the range of 11% to 17% as t
This is the same as the ferritic grades. However, carbon is added in amounts from 0.10 % to 0.65% to radically chan
The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heat treatment.
ASME B31.3-2008
Process Piping
ASME Code for Oressure Piping, B31

ASME B31 . 3-2008


Pd ext
t= ( 3a )
2[ EW + PY ]

t= P*D / ( 2*(S*E*W + P*Y) )

t: Pressure design thickness


P: Internal design gauge pressure
D: Outside pipe diameter
d: Inside pipe diameter
c: sum of mechanical, corrosion and erosion allowances
S: Material stress value. Table A-1
E: Quality facto from table A-1A or A-1B
W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per
para. 302.3.5
Y: Coefficient from Table 604.1.1, valid for t <D/6
and for materials shown.
For t>= D/6, Y = (d + 2*c) / ( D + d + 2*c )

Coefficient Y
Table 304.1.1
Ref. 2 ASME B31.3

Y= 0.4

Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008

(b) Equations (3a) and (3b) are not valid for


t >= d/6 or
P / S*E > 0.385

nge of 12- 18o and "Y" values for ferritic steels (t < D/6)
Table 304.1.1, ASME B31.1-2008, page 20.
rdening or tempering processes. Y<482 C = 0.4
Y482 to 510 C = 0.5
Y > 510 C = 0.7

d nickel which are austenitic at room temperature


o non-magnetic.
the range of 11% to 17% as the sole major alloying addition.
0 % to 0.65% to radically change the behavior of the martensitic alloys.
st
sallow sy st
st sy sallow syield
Spec Grade ksi
A 312 TP316L 25

at tmin to 100 F
s allowed = (2/3) *s yield

t
Spec Grade F
A 312 TP316L < 100
< 200

sallowed = 16.7
sallowed = 16,700
sallowed = 115.1
st

sallowed
ksi
16.7
16.7

ksi
psi
MPa
Quality factor

E= 1
Weld joint strenght reduction factor W

Weld joint strenght reduction factor W

W= 1
http://www.azom.com/properties.aspx?ArticleID=863

https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?docid=1wvrlddD8tQHoDc7feP9pqJ2AwImBdcPJpEqV4ic
Density of stainless steel
kg/m

SS 316
r= 8000 kg/m
Elasticity modulus
Emin = 190 Gpa
Emax = 205 Gpa

Selected value
AwImBdcPJpEqV4ic E= 200 Gpa
E= 2E+11 Pa
http://www.advancepipeliner.com/Resources/Others/Beams/Beam_Deflection_Formulae.pdf
http://www-classes.usc.edu/engr/ce/457/moment_table.pdf

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf
Beam simply supported at ends
Maximum deflection at beam center

a ) Uniformly distributed load w


5wL4
y=
384EI
b ) Concentrated load P at the center
3
8PL
y=
384EI
c ) Both cases, a and b
4 3
5wL +8PL
y=
384EI

Beam fixed at both ends


Maximum deflection at beam center

a ) Uniformly distributed load w


Beam fixed at both ends
Maximum deflection at beam center

a ) Uniformly distributed load w


4
wL
y=
384EI
b ) Concentrated load P at the center
3
16PL
y=
384EI
c) Both cases, a and b
4 3
wL +16PL
y=
384EI

mulas-0710.pdf

Simple beam. - Uniformly distributed load

Maximum moment
M= w * l^2 / 8
y= (5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)

Simple beam. - Concentrated load at the center

Maximum moment
M= P*l/4

M= w * l^2 / 8
M= P*l/4

y= P*L^3/(48*E*I)
nter

nter
d at the center
[1] Determination of maximum span between pipe supports using maximum bending stress theory
Dr. D.P. Vakharia, Mohd Farroq A.

http://ijrte.academypublisher.com/vol01/no06/ijrte0106046049.pdf

[2] ASME B31.3-2008


Process Piping
ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31

[3] Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbook, 4th edition


McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

[4] The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1995)


ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 182

[5]

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf
ormulas-0710.pdf