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LOCAL WISDOM COMMUNITY OF GUNUNG KIDUL IN THE MANAGEMENT OF

WATER RESOURCES IN KARST AREA

ARTICLE

BY
LAILATUL MAGHFIROH

NIM : 160341606105

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG

FACULTY OF MATEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES


GRADUATE PROGRAM IN BIOLOGY EDUCATION

NOVEMBER 2016
ABSTRACT

Maghfiroh Lailatul. 2016. Local Wisdom Community Of Gunung Kidul In The Management
Of Water Resources In Karst Area. English for Biology Paper, Offering B S1
Biology Education, State University of Malang. Lecture: Drs. I Wayan Sumberartha,
M.ScE-mail: wayan.sumberartha.fmipa@um.ac.id.

Karst area in Mount Kidul Regency has a unique hydrological conditions.


Groundwater system in this region is dominated by dissolution cracks which caused drier
conditions at the surface. The condition also causes the groundwater in this area has
groundwater vulnerability to pollution is high.It also becouse the rocks character on the
surface is really easy to dissolved when it react with the water, so the water on the surface
flowed and stored in the uderground. Thats way the area of karst on Mount Kidul become
drought. Some of the results of previous studies is that some sources of water from
groundwater in karst areas in Gunung Kidul contained Escherecia coli bacteria . These
bacteria are thought to originate from the sanitary conditions are not good. This paper explain
the effort from the local people to prevent the drought that would really distract their dailylife
and also discusses the sanitary conditions in Gunungkidul karst area, sanitation systems are in
harmony with conservation of groundwater in karst areas, as well as to discuss the efforts that
must be done so that the sanitary conditions in Gunungkidul karst area be in harmony with
the conservation of groundwater in the region. Sanitary conditions in Gunung kidul karst area
is currently in poor condition so it could potentially cause contamination of groundwater in
the region.Thats why local communities manage back The dead Karst Lake that doesn't work
anymore, people see that the Lake has a great potential as a reservoir of rain water by looking
at the history of the village where the Lake used to be the Centre of the source of water for
the surrounding society then society as a working-together with making the arrangement of
rocks in every shores of Lake which serves as a water filter, then gives a layer of soil clays in
each side of the Lake which serves as a backstop to keep it water got under the surface
through the breach-the existing fissures and planting a variety of plants around the Lake such
as distance, teak and others serve as absorbent and water storage, after doing this the public
should wait until the rainy season during the three periods of three years to make it function
again. Because the Lake is built based on the existing environment and wisdom harnessed
together then society has a high sense of responsibility to maintain and manage it so that the
public is more looked at local culture that exists to manage it by creating custom rules on the
conservation and management of the Lake.

Keywords : Gunung Kidul, Water, Karst, Lake, People


INTRODUCTION

Water is the most important element in life, almost all living things that are on the
surface of the Earth requires water for the sustainability of life. In daily life water is used for
various activities such as, drinking, washing, irrigating the crop cultivation even for power
generation. It is very important to pay attention to the availability of water in an area,
especially in areas that often have the problem of the availability of water.

Gunung Kidul Regency is a region that is administratively included in the special


region of Yogyakarta. Gunung Kidul region geographically dominated by the mountains of
limestone (karst) which has its own uniqueness, according to Soerono (2008), karst area is an
area of carbonate rocks that commonly contain CaCO3 and prone to dissolving due to a
chemical reaction with acidic rain water. The presence of water in the area became obstacles
for society, because most of the water accumulated in the river and terinfiltrasi/underground
lake, while not the least bit stream that is above the soil surface only flows during the rainy
season.

With natural conditions and any constraint in Gunung Kidul area, it creates a behavior
of the people who wisely preserves the environment for the sake of getting their needs will be
water. A community effort to keep the water embodied in the rules of customary rules which
are generally aimed so that environmental sustainability was created, so that people are able
to make use of natural resources (especially water) in the area of their residence.

Local wisdom is the knowledge developed by the community to like the State of the
environment around the dwelling place of meraka. Such knowledge is believed to have a
positive impact for the environment as well as the lives of its people, so that it will continue
to be applied and taught by society to the next generation (Kusumawardana, 2001).
DISCUSSION

Environmental wisdom already present in public life since ancient times ranging from
pre-historic times to the present, the wisdom of the human environment is a positive behavior
in dealing with nature and the surrounding environment that can be sourced from religious
values, customs, tip the ancestors or local culture (Wietoler, 2007), who wakes up naturally in
a given community to adapt to the surrounding environment , this behavior evolved into a
culture in an area and will develop from generation to generation, in General, local culture or
culture area is meant as a culture that develops in an area of the camp, which is the culture of
the tribes who lived in the area. In the implementation of sustainable development by the
advances in technology are making people forget the importance of tradition or culture of the
community in managing the environment, local cultures often considered something you've
missed out on a century now, so that development planning often does not involve
community.

Gunung Kidul community had lived for years with the condition of the area that is
drought and water shortages despite having reserves of water under the surface of a very
large number, geological factors in this region as a region of limestone that are experiencing
the dissolving process, resulting in the surface of this area is the area which was dry, the
community utilizing water resources of the Lake-the Lake of kars and the caves that have
water sources. The environmental wisdom of the community of Gunung Kidul in managing
its environment conducted in working together to keep water sources that exist to do the
protection and create custom rules that give the prohibitions to the general negative
assessment of giving my father learned the impact that would be caused if not done, to be
able to maintain and manage water resources. Local culture in a region should remain
preserved so that the natural conditions of its environment remain awake, many government
programs conducted in Gunung Kidul area in the utilization and management of water
resources under the surface to meet the needs of the community in the whole region of
Gunung Kidul, but programs that have been run by the Government does not make the local
community as a cultural reference in carrying out development programs in the region kars
region, have characteristics that are different from the condition of the other territories, the
dissolving process which occurred resulted in any change of the characteristics of limestone,
much of the infrastructure construction of piping systems that are supposed to be able to
supply the water needs for the community to be not functioning at any given time a result of
blockage of flow pipe blockage-caused by the presence of the dissolving process, on a rock in
the water source of the skip.

Many Karst lake may not work anymore due to the construction of the reservoir
around the Lake and conducted dredging to deepen the water catchment assuming will be
able to increase the number of water supplies, but it is precisely this should in pay dearly with
loss of or not functioning due to the loss of sources of Lake water got under the surface
through fissures-clefts of rocks this is caused by the loss of mud (terarosa) that serves as the
retaining water. So a lot of piping systems and water reservoir that was built only into a
monument that may not work. Since ancient times people in Gunung Kidul area have been
living in conditions of drought, but they have their own special ways to adapt to the
surrounding nature in his life to meet the needs of daily necessities and agricultural land, this
continues until until now even though many people have started to leave it to search for a
livelihood in other places that are usually in large cities, but the community in the region of
Kars of Gunung Kidul keep doing environmental wisdom who has become the local culture
which is still developed by the the local community. Many environmental wisdom in the
region that became the program for communities to manage water resources and environment
as well as to develop tourism in the region of kars good natural attractions as well as special
interest tour the cave.

Problems arising in the management of the environmental area in the region of kars
can be a lesson for us together in developing community-based environmental management
to be better. The cultural community and the environmental community wisdom became the
main pillar in the kars region sustainable environmental management should be encouraged
by society and Government in managing its water resources and the environment so that it
becomes better.

The existing water resources in the region of Gunung Kidul has a very high value for
the community in the running of daily life either for the fulfilment of household needs as well
as for agriculture, much in the way that has been done by local people in an area that has
water resources by doing the care and management of the conventionally, this goes hand in
hand with the needs together. Patterns of community life centered on areas that have good
water source lake water maupan water from the subsurface that exist inside the cave cause a
sense of shared responsibility in managing them so that it can be utilized together. At the time
of rain, surface water will go through the holes vertical (sinkhole) which is usually located in
the valleys of kars (doline) and flows down through the river surface and subsurface flows
through the system perguaan (cave system) most will come out through springs or through
another cave mouth in one same system, the process of infiltration water sedimentation will
also bring into the cave through the flow and will be able to affect the water below the
surface comes out somewhere else to keep sedimentation to do management and sinkhole
caves kars properly, this has been done by people in many regions of kars which had a
sinkhole at a dolena in an area.

From the first people have to learn that sedimentation occurred at the time of
infiltration water, greatly influences the quality of the water in place of the water that comes
out as a source of water, because at the time the rain occurred in accordance with the law of
gravity that the water will flow to the lower places and accumulated into a basin with
sedimentary materials are joined together with a stream of water. Existing environmental
wisdom is how communities manage the sinkhole-sinkhole, with the build stacks of rocks
around the lip of the sinkhole that, this will serve as a rock filter sediments at the moment so
that water enters the rainy season water sources that are in the system it's not murky and still
can be used for daily necessities, from various places that have a sinkhole located in Gunung
Kidul area I have ever met are always in neat condition and usually always planted with
vegetation in the surroundings , the local community trust by keeping this sinkhole will
provide good benefits for existing water sources around its territory, other than that each
rainy season many communities that hold rainwater into water in order to shelter saved and
saving water to meet water needs at the time the dry season arrives.

Other environmental wisdom there is management of Lakes kars region of Gunung


Kidul, for example I have ever know how society manages a lake where the Lake is the
source of the water in the locality of Semanu, Gunung Kidul Regency, based on stories from
the local communities manage back kars Lake dead and does not work anymore, people see
that the Lake has a great potential as a reservoir of rain water by looking at the history of the
village where the Lake used to be the center of the source of water for the surrounding
society then society as a working-together with making the arrangement of rocks in every
shores of Lake which serves as a water filter, then gives a layer of soil clays in each side of
the Lake which serves as a backstop to keep it from getting into the water beneath the surface
through fissures and clefts-planting a variety of plants around the Lake such as distance, teak
and others serve as absorbent and water storage After doing this, the public should wait until
the rainy season during the three periods of three years to make it function again. Because the
Lake is built based on the existing environment and wisdom harnessed together then society
has a high sense of responsibility to maintain and manage it so that the public is more looked
at local culture that exists to manage it by creating custom rules on the conservation and
management of the Lake.

Custom rules that apply are the cultures existing community and combined with a side
of the trust set up all the social order to the environment, from the customary punishment
from the community when proven destructive to good water sources that local community or
society from outside their trust if it is done against the destruction of existing water sources
then they will get such a plague before the source of the Lake is in the disable back i.e. the
presence of drought disaster , failed harvests and famine. Some people believe in the
existence of Gunung Kidul a bad omen in the event of destruction against the source of the
water,
CONCLUSION

Sustainable environmental management (environmental management) can work well when


there is a balanced interaction between the needs of nature and the integrated management
system is run, either by the local community or the Government. Popular culture provides a
real picture of how an area that has the resources to be maintained as a valuable asset that can
be used on an ongoing basis, environmental wisdom will be a handle for the community in
carrying out sustainable development so that the Government needs to make the discernment
of the environment work plan reference materials in the construction and ultimately
sustainable development will run with perfect cooperation between the Government and the
community to achieve the common goal achieving equitable and prosperous society.
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