7 views

Uploaded by Alberto León

Introduction to WRC 107: Concepts, Limitations and Formula

- e303 Mechanics of Solids
- Notes 21 Primary Stress Loads
- Boiler and Pressure Vessel engineering - Lifting Trunnion Common Practices.pdf
- r5310105 Structure Analysis II
- Zick Analysis
- staadl
- T-2107 Tanque Outspect
- d912f50cee7e7a0051
- 06 Influence Lines
- Fem Report
- Process equipment slides
- Stress Deformation
- Nov Dec 04 May June 05 r04 Nov Dec 05 May June 06 r04 Nov Dec 06
- FME_Ch04
- EEE 223_Solid and Structural Mechanics_Exam_KPUC December 2010
- Working Stress Design.docx
- STR95029FU2
- LTS-5-I1
- SOM1-2
- Strength of Materials Section 5 - Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers

You are on page 1of 5

Disclaimer

Welding research council bulletin 107 which is globally known as WRC-107 introduces one of well-known and

important methods for calculation of local stresses in junction of shell and nozzle. This method was developed by

Professor B.P.Bijlaard and firstly published by WRC in 1965. Some well-known softwares such as CAESAR II,

PVElit and Compress use this method for nozzle loads checking. There are some important items that engineers who

use these softwares should be aware. Its limitations, scope and concepts of local stress cause are mentioned here.

WRC-107 consists of many curves enabling engineers to calculate all types of local stresses caused by external loads

exerting on a circular or rectangular nozzle on shell elements. The nozzle is assumed to be penetrated to a cylindrical

or spherical shell.

As shown in figure 1, local stresses are calculated at 8 points, named as , located on two

levels, upper and lower plates. The local stresses are calculated by some geometric parameters which can be

extracted by curves. For making a proper stress combination according to stress categories introduced in ASME

BPVC Section VIII Div 2, an engineer should know the types of all local stresses and their causes.

Figure 1: 6 external loads and 8 points on which local stresses are studied in WRC-107

WRC-107 supports 6 external loads in local stress calculation: Axial force, two lateral force, torsional moment and

two bending moments as shown in figure 1. Each load creates some types of local stresses such as membrane or

bending stresses in two directions: longitudinal and circumferential. Depending on other applied loadings such as

system weight, internal or external pressure, wind or earthquake, snow, thermal loads and etc., each type of

mentioned local stresses should be combined with their relative stresses in a proper way. The outcome may lead to

under design or overdesign If piping stress engineers or pressure vessel engineers who take care of nozzle loads, do

not know how to treat all extracted local stresses properly. For overcoming this common problem, engineers must

have knowledge about firstly all types of local stresses and secondly stress combination methods which have been

introduced by ASME BPVC Section VIII Div 2. Sign of stresses are important in the stress combination.

1-1-Local stresses due to axial force, P

Figure 2: Longitudinal and circumferential membrane stresses due to an external axial load

Figure 3: Longitudinal and circumferential bending stresses due to an external axial load

1-1-1-Membrane stress

Axial force, P, pushes the joint lines on which mentioned 8 points are placed in such a way a resistant force comes

up. As shown in figure 2, the joint line tends to move in both longitudinal and circumferential directions but because

of the resistance, two forces appear.

1-1-2-Bending stress

Axial load bend the junction line locally as shown in figure 3 and creates two bending moments at each 8 points: one

in circumferential direction, , and the other in longitudinal direction, .

The mentioned bending stresses which are defined as can be extracted by proper curves.

1-2-Local stresses due to longitudinal bending moment

Figure 5: Longitudinal and circumferential bending stresses due to

1-2-1-Membrane stress

Referring to figure 4, tends to push point A and pull point B. So, because of existing resistance against them, two

forces appear: one in longitudinal and another in circumferential direction. Actually these forces stem from

resistance of the adjacent area against the pushing and pulling. These forces which are shown in figure 4 as

create membrane stresses named as which can be calculated based on from suitable curves.

1-2-2-Bending Stress

As shown in figure 5, the longitudinal bending moment bends edges A and B locally in such away two bending

moments are created at the points A and B: a longitudinal bending moment, , and a circumferential bending

moment, . The relative stresses are defined as they are calculated by which are extracted

by proper curves.

The circumferential bending moment creates membrane and bending stresses at points C and D in a similar way

described in section 1-2: longitudinal bending moment part. For calculating the mentioned stresses, should be

substituted by and proper curves must be used.

1-4-Shear stresses resulting from external torsional moment ( ) and external lateral forces

The lateral forces including longitudinal and circumferential, named as respectively, as well as torsional

moment named as produce shear stresses which can be calculated based on the formula in WRC-107. These shear

stresses are clearly shown in figure 6.

1-5-Stress calculation summary table

The table 1 can be used to calculate the mentioned stresses when using WRC-107. In this table, all required stress

elements and their curves number are addressed for points . The direction (longitudinal/

circumferential), category (membrane/ bending) and the source load are clearly mentioned in the table.

Table 1: Local stresses stemming from 6 external loads with stress sources

WRC-107 is not applicable for all cases. Actually, because of some limitations blind use of WRC-107 may lead to a

dangerous design. Therefore engineers who use this method must be familiar with the restrictions. Some of these

limitations result from geometrical parameters which are used in the curves or the areas which are covered by them.

Some of these limitations are as follows:

WRC-107 is limited to stresses on shells not on nozzles. So, this method cannot be used for cases in which

maximum stress takes place on a nozzle instead of a shell. It maybe happens when the nozzle is not strong

enough comparing to the shell and so there is a possibility that the maximum stress goes to nozzle. In this case

WRC-297 maybe used instead.

When stiffness of a connecting pipe differs significantly from shell at the nozzle-shell junction, depending on

this difference, elastic characteristic of system and temperature difference, a plastic failure at the part of system

which has smaller stiffness may take place. Strain concentration factor is used and calculated to show this

possibility. WRC-107 says nothing about this factor. Finite element software such as Nozzle Pro or FE Pipe give

the factor in their results.

Quick Links About Us Useful Links Follow Us

DMCA PROTECTED

Home Your Success Privacy Policy

Products Our Mission Terms and Conditions

Contact Our Team

Blog

Wix.com.

- e303 Mechanics of SolidsUploaded bybhkedar
- Notes 21 Primary Stress LoadsUploaded byHeronijosh Dg
- Boiler and Pressure Vessel engineering - Lifting Trunnion Common Practices.pdfUploaded byAlexandru Asmarandei
- r5310105 Structure Analysis IIUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- Zick AnalysisUploaded byrksahay
- staadlUploaded byashwini1234
- T-2107 Tanque OutspectUploaded byMario Henao
- d912f50cee7e7a0051Uploaded byAma Davidescu
- 06 Influence LinesUploaded bybagasulistya
- Fem ReportUploaded byVarun James
- Process equipment slidesUploaded byShubham
- Stress DeformationUploaded byJose Miranda
- Nov Dec 04 May June 05 r04 Nov Dec 05 May June 06 r04 Nov Dec 06Uploaded bynishanth87
- FME_Ch04Uploaded bySreehari Viswanathan
- EEE 223_Solid and Structural Mechanics_Exam_KPUC December 2010Uploaded bycmmondieki
- Working Stress Design.docxUploaded byUopEmpty
- STR95029FU2Uploaded byvttrlc
- LTS-5-I1Uploaded bytggjr
- SOM1-2Uploaded byAbhishek Choudhary
- Strength of Materials Section 5 - Mechanical Engineering Questions and AnswersUploaded byIgnatiusAbby
- Flange Connection Type-P J1069 1051-1069(18Jul12)R01Uploaded bymohan chand mulpuri
- Timber Beam 1Uploaded bymuhanned
- 1anillosUploaded byhernanricali
- Large Displacement SolutionsUploaded bymatteo_1234
- 96670193-API-650-Design-TanksUploaded bysash
- Structural Analysis Tutorial 7Uploaded bypratyush mishra
- Diesel Tank ExampleUploaded bySomi Khan
- dynamic relaxationUploaded byRahul7LM
- ANSYS Presentation 2Uploaded bySimon Amboise
- ChioreanEngStruct2011Uploaded bycjcute91

- Design of Crane Steel beamsUploaded byshak543
- Design of Crane Steel beamsUploaded byshak543
- Enlaces y TangenciasUploaded byAlberto León
- c2quickUploaded byAlberto León
- LR101Uploaded byAlberto León
- Extractor de haz de tubos aéreo para extraer un haz de tubos de un intercambiador de calorUploaded byAlberto León
- tomo 1.pdfUploaded byAleFlorencio
- Managing On Stream Leak RepairsUploaded byAlberto León
- TABLA DE TUBERIAS.pdfUploaded byAlberto León
- ASME B31Q-2016Uploaded byAlberto León
- Abreviaciones de PipingUploaded byCesar Hernandez
- soporteriaUploaded byAlberto León
- Diseño de Tren de EngranajesUploaded byAlberto León
- The Art of Designing Pipe Support SystemsUploaded byguluu
- Shapiro - The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow Volume 1Uploaded byAlberto León
- ASME A13.1 - 1996 - Scheme for the Identification of Piping SystemsUploaded byAlberto León
- Dise%F1o_Plantas_I_Presentaci%F3n_5Uploaded byAlberto León
- Pressure Vessel Design CalculationsUploaded byajayghosh3140
- LIPMUploaded byAlberto León
- Pipe Stress Analysis (Seminar Notes)Uploaded byMuhammad Aqeel
- Proyecto de Investigacion Fidias AriasUploaded byalbinagonauta
- Tabla de TuberiasUploaded byAlberto León
- PROY-M1-NRF-028-PEMEX-2009 Rev 01Uploaded byAlberto León
- Técnicas de-Mantenimiento-Industrial.pdfUploaded byDeen Mario GY
- Manual de Diseño IndustrialUploaded bywhitew16
- Render en AutocadUploaded byFrancisco Muñoz
- Guia Practica InventorUploaded byAlberto León

- Tabular Result2Uploaded byUjwal Khandokar
- EFFECT OF MOLDING PARAMETER ON INJECTION MOLDINGUploaded byAnonymous CwJeBCAXp
- Precautions Before Entering CofferdamsUploaded bybswalimbe
- Bifurcation Design_Ref OnlyUploaded bysmarika_16
- Air PollutionUploaded byManu Jain
- Bosch o2 Section_aUploaded byporkface
- Periodic table + Ligacoes Quimicas-FinalUploaded by4gen_7
- Metallomics 2011 DupontUploaded byEdgar Ortiz
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded bymukkuga
- Fume Pt 1 Vikane SDS.pdfUploaded byDigitalGeeks
- manual turbidimetro.pdfUploaded bydlinareszabaleta
- Medium Pressure RangeUploaded byxuanphuong2710
- Curing ConcreteUploaded byShariq Khan
- 2016-Mec HVAC Errata ALLUploaded bySyed Ahmed
- slg unitUploaded byapi-319172800
- Bioassay Techniques for Drug Development by Atta-Ur RahmanUploaded byEmpress_Maripossa
- MM-PBSA.py.pdfUploaded byjeanmoulin
- SCRIPT making soap.docxUploaded bynur
- ch6Uploaded byMichael Wan
- PDFUploaded bygigel19
- Semi4ExSol1Uploaded byDevendra Chauhan
- Distilled Water From Dirty Water SolarUploaded bybatcaverna
- Surfactants, Anionic, (Detergents), Method 8028, 02-2009, 9th EdUploaded byMetha Manik
- IPA MSDSUploaded bySweekar Borkar
- ch2introUploaded byJdragon Rojo
- Petrochemical IndustryUploaded byMunir Baig
- Lecture 2, Fundamentals HplcUploaded byChevuru Manusha
- ChemDept_MGUUploaded byIvannof
- 8052 Cerabest Rev (1409)Uploaded byTrịnh Minh Khoa
- Energetic Analysis of Two Thermal Power Plants with Six and Seven HeatersUploaded byHelen Denise Lugo Me