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Cognitive domain

Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain

Blooms Taxonomy 1956 Anderson and Krathwohls Taxonomy 2001

1. Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously 1. Remembering: Recognizing or recalling knowledge


learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to
are: produce or retrieve definitions, facts, or lists, or to recite
previously learned information.
know identify define recall record name
relate list memorize recognize
repeat acquire

2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning 2. Understanding: Constructing meaning from different
from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function types of functions be they written or graphic messages, or
are: activities like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying,
summarizing, inferring, comparing, or explaining.
restate locate identify discuss illustrate
report recognize describe discuss interpret draw
explain express review infer represent
differentiate
conclude
3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to 3. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through
implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples executing, or implementing. Applying relates to or refers
of verbs that relate to this function are: to situations where learned material is used through
products like models, presentations, interviews or
apply relate organize employ practice simulations.
develop restructure calculate show
translate use interpret exhibit
operate demonstrate dramatize
illustrate

4. Analysis: The ability to break down or distinguish the 4. Analyzing: Breaking materials or concepts into parts,
parts of material into its components so that its organizational determining how the parts relate to one another or how
structure may be better understood.Examples of verbs that they interrelate, or how the parts relate to an overall
relate to this function are: structure or purpose. Mental actions included in this
function are differentiating, organizing, and
analyze compare differentiate experiment attributing, as well as being able to distinguish
probe inquire contrast scrutinize betweenthe components or parts. When one is analyzing,
examine contrast investigate detect discover inspect he/she can illustrate this mental function by creating
categorize survey classify dissect spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams, or graphic
deduce discriminate representations.
separate

5. Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a 5. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and
coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques,
to this function are: recommendations, and reports are some of the products
that can be created to demonstrate the processes of
evaluation. In the newer taxonomy,evaluating comes
before creating as it is often a necessary part of the
compose produce plan invent propose develop precursory behavior before one creates something.
design assemble formulate collect arrange construct
create prepare set up generalize organize
predict modify document originate derive
tell combine relate write propose

6. Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique 6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a
the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into
that relate to this function are: a new pattern or structure through generating, planning,
or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together
judge assess argue decide validate consider in a new way, or synthesize parts into something new and
compare evaluate choose rate select appraise value different thus creating a new form or product. This
conclude estimate criticize infer process is the most difficult mental function in the new
measure deduce taxonomy.

Table 1.1 (Wilson, L.O. 2001) Bloom vs. Anderson/Krathwohl revisions