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Simple Laminar Flow

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Transports in Laminar Regimes:

Simple Problems

Chemical Engineering ITB

Outcomes

effects of temperature and pressure on transport properties.

Students can explain the mechanisms of momentum, heat,

and mass transfers.

Students can explain the basic concepts underlying

momentum, heat, and mass transfer.

Students can apply microscopic balances to solve simple

problems in transport phenomena.

Students can estimate property profiles for simple problems.

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Basic Concepts

Entity

Momentum kg m s-1 M L T-1

Heat J M L2 T-2

Mass kg M

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Entity concentration

(quantity per volume)

Entity Concentration

Momentum v

Heat Cp T

Mass or c

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Transport Mechanisms

forces (without bulk movement) =

molecular transport

movement of fluid

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Flux

Flow rate of entity per surface area

(quantity per time per area)

Total flux consists of diffusive flux and

convective flux

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Diffusive Flux

perpendicular to transport direction

Diffusivity times concentration gradient

Symbols (Cartesian coordinate)

Momentum : xy

Heat : qx

Mass : Jx or Nx

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Diffusive Flux

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y

x

y

yx

zx

xx

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Newtons Law

x v1

vx Y

y

v2

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Fouriers Law

x T1

Y

y

T2

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Ficks Law

x A,1

Y

y A,2

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Analogy

Property Diffusivity

Momentum =/

Heat k = k / ( Cp)

Mass DAB DAB

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Dimensionless Numbers

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Transport Properties

diffusivity

Theory of gas kinetic (for simple gas)

Empirical (or semi) correlations or diagrams for

complex gas, liquids, and solids

Empirical mixing rules for mixtures

Experimental data is the best

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Viscosity

Depends on temperature

Liquid : T

Gas : T

Viscosity of water and air (cP)

T (C) Water Air (1 atm)

0 1.7870 0.0172

20 1.0019 0.0181

40 0.6539 0.0191

60 0.4665 0.0200

80 0.3548 0.0209

100 0.2821 0.0217

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Viscosity

O2 0.019 273 K

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Thermal conductivity of gases

(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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Thermal conductivity of solids

(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

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Mass diffusivity for binary liquids

(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

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Homework I

1. Problem 1.1

2. Problem 1.7

3. Problem 1.9

4. Problem 1.12

5. Problem 1.15

6. Problem 1.19

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Analogy

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Convective Flux

Concentration times velocity

Entity Concentration

Momentum ( v) v

Heat ( Cp T) v

Mass v or c v

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Rate Equation

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Methodology

Problem analysis

Microscopic balances

Newtons law

Boundary conditions

Profiles of transfer flux, transfer rate, and other

variables

Values of average, maximum, etc.

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Simple Cases on Momentum Transfer

Momentum Generation

Generation (same direction to fluid flow)

Consumption (opposite direction to fluid flow)

Gravity

F=mg

Pressure

F=PA

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Boundary Conditions

Continuity on flux and velocity at a liquid-

liquid interfacial plane

Zero flux at a liquid-gas interfacial plane

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Flow of a falling film

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Momentum entering

Molecular

Convective

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Flow of a falling film:

Momentum leaving

Molecular

Convektive

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Forces acting on fluid

Gravitation

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Flow of a falling film:

Momentum balance

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Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : xz = 0 at x = 0

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Flow of a falling film:

Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at x =

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Velocity profile

Maximum velocity

Average velocity

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Flow of a falling film:

Velocity profile

Volumetric velocity

Shear force

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Momentum entering

Molecular

Convective

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Momentum leaving

Molecular

Convective

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Forces acting on fluid

Gravitation

Pressure

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Forces acting on fluid

Gravitation and pressure drop

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Momentum balance

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Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : dvz/dx = 0 = rz at r = 0

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at r = R

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Velocity profile

Maximum velocity

Average velocity

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Average Velocity

r d dr dA = r dr d

r d

d

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Velocity profile

Volumetric velocity

Shear force

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Cannon-Fenske Viscometer

From analysis of flow in a circular tube

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Homework I (continue)

7. Problem 2B.6

8. Problem 2B.7

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Simple Cases of Heat Transfer

Boundary Conditions

Temperature at a surface

Heat flux at a surface

Continuity of temperature and of the heat flux at

solid-solid interfaces

Newton's law of cooling at solid-fluid interfaces

q = h (Tsolid Tfluid) for cooling solid

q = h (Tfluid Tsolid) for heating solid

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Heat Generation

Electrical sources

Viscous dissipation

Chemical reactions

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Heat conduction

with an electrical

source

Production rate

of heat per

volume of wire

= Se = I2/ke

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

surface at r

surface at r + r

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electrical dissipation

Heat balance

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

BC 1 : dT/dr = 0 at r = 0 (qr = 0 at r = 0)

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BC 2 : T = To at r = R

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

Maximum temperature

Average temperature

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Heat conduction

with a viscous heat source

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Heat conduction

with a viscous heat source

Heat balance

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Heat conduction

with a viscous heat source

Solution

Boundary conditions

T = To at x = 0

T = Tb at x = b

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Heat conduction

with a viscous heat source

Solution

= + 0.5 Br (1 )

= (T To)/(Tb To), = x/b

Br (Brinkman number) = V2 / k(Tb To)

Brinkman number

Importance of viscous heating relative to heat

flow

There is maximum temperature if Br > 2

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Composite walls

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Composite walls

Flux

q = U (Ta - Tb)

Heat transfer rate

Q = U A (Ta - Tb)

Overall heat transfer coefficient

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Composite cylinders

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Composite cylinders

Q = (2raL) Ua (Ta Tb) = (2rbL) Ub (Ta Tb)

Overall heat transfer coefficient

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Heat conduction with chemical heat source

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Heat conduction with chemical heat source

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Heat balance

Fouriers law

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Differential equations for three zones

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Boundary conditions

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Dimensionless differential equations

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Dimensionless temperature distribution

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Temperature distribution

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Homework II

1. Problem 10A.3

2. Problem 10A.4

3. Problem 10A.7

4. Problem 10B.14

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Ficks Law

(binary mixtures and constant c)

Flux relative to mixture (first law)

JA* = DABcA = c DABxA

NA = c DABxA + xA (NA + NB)

solve microscopic balances in mass transfer !

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Boundary Conditions

Concentration at a surface

Mass flux at a surface

At solid-fluid interfaces, flux at solid surface may follows

an analogy of Newtons cooling law

q = kc (cA,solid cA,liquid) for solid-to-fluid

q = kc (cliquid cA,solid) for liquid-to-solid

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

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Mass balance

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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Profile of concentration A

Profile of concentration B

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

Average concentration

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Determination of diffusivity

The diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 is being determined

by observing the steady-state evaporation of carbon

tetrachloride into a tube containing oxygen. The distance

between the CC14 liquid level and the top of the tube is z2

z1 = 17.1 cm. The total pressure on the system is 755 mm Hg,

and the temperature is 0 C. The vapor pressure of CC14 at

that temperature is 33.0 mm Hg. The cross-sectional area of

the diffusion tube is 0.82 cm2. It is found that 0.0208 cm3 of

CCI4 evaporate in a 10-hour period after steady state has been

attained. What is the diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 ?

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Determination of diffusivity

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Determination of diffusivity

Diffusivity

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

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Mass balance

(NBz = -NA/2)

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

(instantaneous reaction)

Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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(instantaneous reaction)

Concentration profile

Flux

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)

Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)

Concentration profile

Flux

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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

RA = - k a cA

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r

..(1)

r+r

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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

Equation (1) becomes

Boundary condition

cA = cAs at r = R

dcA/dr = 0 at r = 0 (symmetrical)

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Concentration profile

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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

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Homework III

tower as shown in the figure. The absorbing fluid is water, which is

moving down the tower with an average velocity of 17.7 cm/s. CO2 is

only slightly soluble in water, so that the viscosity of the water is

unaffected. Furthermore, the diffusion of CO2 takes place so slowly in

the liquid film that CO2 will not penetrate very far into the film (the

penetration distance will be small in comparison with the film

thickness). What is the absorption rate in g-moles/hr, if the liquid-

phase diffusivity of the CO2-water system is 1.5 x 10-5 cm2/s, and if the

solubility (saturation concentration) of CO2 in water is 0.04 g-mole per

liter (these are at the experimental temperature). The dimensions of the

tower are given in the figure.

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A solid sphere of naphthalene (A) with a radius of 2.5 mm is

surrounded by still air (B) at 300 K and 1 atm. Take the surface

temperature of naphthalene is 300 K and its vapor pressure at this

temperature as 0.104 mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene vapor in air

at 318 K is 6.92 10-6 m2/s. On assuming ideal gas behavior, determine

the rate at which naphthalene evaporates

TK5102

13 August 2011 DGA/107

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