You are on page 1of 54

TK5102

Advanced Transport Phenomena


Transports in Laminar Regimes:
Simple Problems

I Dewa Gede Arsa Putrawan


Chemical Engineering ITB

13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/1

Outcomes

Students can explain transport properties including the


effects of temperature and pressure on transport properties.
Students can explain the mechanisms of momentum, heat,
and mass transfers.
Students can explain the basic concepts underlying
momentum, heat, and mass transfer.
Students can apply microscopic balances to solve simple
problems in transport phenomena.
Students can estimate property profiles for simple problems.
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/2
Basic Concepts

13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/3

Entity

Entity Unit Dimension


Momentum kg m s-1 M L T-1
Heat J M L2 T-2
Mass kg M

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/4
Entity concentration
(quantity per volume)
Entity Concentration
Momentum v
Heat Cp T
Mass or c

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/5

Transport Mechanisms

Diffusive : transport by intermolecular


forces (without bulk movement) =
molecular transport

Convective : transport by bulk


movement of fluid

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/6
Flux

Measurement of transfer rate


Flow rate of entity per surface area
(quantity per time per area)
Total flux consists of diffusive flux and
convective flux

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/7

Diffusive Flux

Flow rate of entity per surface area


perpendicular to transport direction
Diffusivity times concentration gradient
Symbols (Cartesian coordinate)
Momentum : xy
Heat : qx
Mass : Jx or Nx
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/8
Diffusive Flux

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/9

z Velocity (vx) Gradient


y

x
y

yx
zx

xx

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/10
Newtons Law
x v1
vx Y
y
v2

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/11

Fouriers Law
x T1
Y
y
T2

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/12
Ficks Law
x A,1
Y
y A,2

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/13

Analogy

Property Diffusivity
Momentum =/
Heat k = k / ( Cp)
Mass DAB DAB
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/14
Dimensionless Numbers

Prandtl number (Pr) = / = Cp / k

Schmidt number (Sc) = / DAB = / ( DAB)

Lewis number (Le) = / DAB = Sc / Pr

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/15

Transport Properties

Viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mass


diffusivity
Theory of gas kinetic (for simple gas)
Empirical (or semi) correlations or diagrams for
complex gas, liquids, and solids
Empirical mixing rules for mixtures
Experimental data is the best

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/16
Viscosity
Depends on temperature
Liquid : T
Gas : T
Viscosity of water and air (cP)
T (C) Water Air (1 atm)
0 1.7870 0.0172
20 1.0019 0.0181
40 0.6539 0.0191
60 0.4665 0.0200
80 0.3548 0.0209
100 0.2821 0.0217
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/17

Viscosity

Gas (cP) Temp. Liquid (cP) Temp.

Air 0.018 293 K Water 100 Room

CO2 0.014 273 K Olive oil 102 Room

0.018 373 K Glycerol 103 Room

CH4 0.011 293 K Juice 105 Room

SO2 0.016 373 K Polymer 106 Melt

H2 0.008 273 K Glass 1015 Melt

O2 0.019 273 K

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/18
Thermal conductivity of gases
(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/19

Thermal conductivity of liquids


(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/20
Thermal conductivity of solids
(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/21

Mass diffusivity for binary gases


(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/22
Mass diffusivity for binary liquids
(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/23

Homework I

Richard G. Griskey [2002]

1. Problem 1.1
2. Problem 1.7
3. Problem 1.9
4. Problem 1.12
5. Problem 1.15
6. Problem 1.19
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/24
Analogy

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/25

Convective Flux

Flow rate of entity per flow area


Concentration times velocity

Entity Concentration
Momentum ( v) v
Heat ( Cp T) v
Mass v or c v
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/26
Rate Equation

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/27

Methodology
Problem analysis
Microscopic balances
Newtons law
Boundary conditions
Profiles of transfer flux, transfer rate, and other
variables
Values of average, maximum, etc.

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/28
Simple Cases on Momentum Transfer

13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/29

Momentum Generation

Forces acting on fluid


Generation (same direction to fluid flow)
Consumption (opposite direction to fluid flow)
Gravity
F=mg
Pressure
F=PA

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/30
Boundary Conditions

No slip at solid-fluid interfaces


Continuity on flux and velocity at a liquid-
liquid interfacial plane
Zero flux at a liquid-gas interfacial plane

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/31

Flow of a falling film

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA//32
Flow of a falling film

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/33

Flow of a falling film:


Momentum entering
Molecular

Convective

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/34
Flow of a falling film:
Momentum leaving
Molecular

Convektive

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/35

Flow of a falling film:


Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/36
Flow of a falling film:
Momentum balance

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/37

Flow of a falling film:


Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : xz = 0 at x = 0

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/38
Flow of a falling film:
Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at x =

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/39

Flow of a falling film:


Velocity profile
Maximum velocity

Average velocity

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/40
Flow of a falling film:
Velocity profile
Volumetric velocity

Shear force

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/41

Flow Through A Circular Tube

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/42
Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Momentum entering
Molecular

Convective

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/43

Flow Through A Circular Tube:


Momentum leaving
Molecular

Convective

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/44
Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation

Pressure

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/45

Flow Through A Circular Tube:


Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation and pressure drop

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/46
Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Momentum balance

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/47

Flow Through A Circular Tube:


Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : dvz/dx = 0 = rz at r = 0

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/48
Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at r = R

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/49

Flow Through A Circular Tube:


Velocity profile
Maximum velocity

Average velocity

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/50
Average Velocity

r d dr dA = r dr d
r d
d

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/51

Flow Through A Circular Tube:


Velocity profile
Volumetric velocity

Shear force

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/52
Cannon-Fenske Viscometer
From analysis of flow in a circular tube

Taking into account kinetic energy

= at + b/t (note: b/t at)

TK5102
13 August 2011 53

Homework I (continue)

R. Byron Bird et al [2002]


7. Problem 2B.6
8. Problem 2B.7

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/54
Simple Cases of Heat Transfer

13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/55

Boundary Conditions

Temperature at a surface
Heat flux at a surface
Continuity of temperature and of the heat flux at
solid-solid interfaces
Newton's law of cooling at solid-fluid interfaces
q = h (Tsolid Tfluid) for cooling solid
q = h (Tfluid Tsolid) for heating solid

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/56
Heat Generation

Electrical sources
Viscous dissipation
Chemical reactions

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/57

Heat conduction
with an electrical
source

Production rate
of heat per
volume of wire
= Se = I2/ke

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/58
Heat conduction with an electrical source

Rate of thermal energy in across cylindrical


surface at r

Rate of thermal energy out across cylindrical


surface at r + r

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/59

Heat conduction with an electrical source

Rate of production of thermal energy by


electrical dissipation

Heat balance

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/60
Heat conduction with an electrical source

BC 1 : dT/dr = 0 at r = 0 (qr = 0 at r = 0)

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/61

Heat conduction with an electrical source

BC 2 : T = To at r = R

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/62
Heat conduction with an electrical source

Maximum temperature

Average temperature

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/63

Heat conduction with an electrical source

Heat flow at the surface

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/64
Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/65

Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Heat balance

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/66
Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Solution

Boundary conditions
T = To at x = 0
T = Tb at x = b

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/67

Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Solution
= + 0.5 Br (1 )
= (T To)/(Tb To), = x/b
Br (Brinkman number) = V2 / k(Tb To)
Brinkman number
Importance of viscous heating relative to heat
flow
There is maximum temperature if Br > 2
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/68
Composite walls

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/69

Composite walls

Flux
q = U (Ta - Tb)
Heat transfer rate
Q = U A (Ta - Tb)
Overall heat transfer coefficient

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/70
Composite cylinders

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/71

Composite cylinders

Heat transfer rate


Q = (2raL) Ua (Ta Tb) = (2rbL) Ub (Ta Tb)
Overall heat transfer coefficient

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/72
Heat conduction with chemical heat source

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/73

Heat conduction with chemical heat source

Thermal energy in by conduction at z

Thermal energy out by conduction at z + z

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/74
Heat conduction with chemical heat source

Thermal energy in by flow at z

Thermal energy out by flow at z + z

Thermal energy produced

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/75

Heat conduction with chemical heat source

Heat balance

Fouriers law

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/76
Differential equations for three zones

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/77

Boundary conditions

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/78
Dimensionless differential equations

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/79

Dimensionless temperature distribution

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/80
Dimensionless temperature distribution

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/81

Temperature distribution

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/82
Homework II

R. Byron Bird et al [2002]


1. Problem 10A.3
2. Problem 10A.4
3. Problem 10A.7
4. Problem 10B.14

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/83

Simple Cases of Mass Transfer

13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/84


Ficks Law
(binary mixtures and constant c)
Flux relative to mixture (first law)
JA* = DABcA = c DABxA

Flux relative to stationary coordinate (second law)


NA = c DABxA + xA (NA + NB)

Relations between NA and NB need to know to


solve microscopic balances in mass transfer !
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/85

Boundary Conditions

Concentration at a surface
Mass flux at a surface
At solid-fluid interfaces, flux at solid surface may follows
an analogy of Newtons cooling law
q = kc (cA,solid cA,liquid) for solid-to-fluid
q = kc (cliquid cA,solid) for liquid-to-solid

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/86
Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/87

Diffusion through a stagnant gas film


Mass balance

Vapor B is stationary (NBz = 0)

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/88
Diffusion through a stagnant gas film
Mass balance

Boundary conditions

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/89

Diffusion through a stagnant gas film


Profile of concentration A

Profile of concentration B

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/90
Diffusion through a stagnant gas film
Average concentration

Flux (evaporation rate)

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/91

Determination of diffusivity
The diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 is being determined
by observing the steady-state evaporation of carbon
tetrachloride into a tube containing oxygen. The distance
between the CC14 liquid level and the top of the tube is z2
z1 = 17.1 cm. The total pressure on the system is 755 mm Hg,
and the temperature is 0 C. The vapor pressure of CC14 at
that temperature is 33.0 mm Hg. The cross-sectional area of
the diffusion tube is 0.82 cm2. It is found that 0.0208 cm3 of
CCI4 evaporate in a 10-hour period after steady state has been
attained. What is the diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 ?

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/92
Determination of diffusivity

Evaporation rate of CCl4

Molar flux of CCl4

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/93

Determination of diffusivity

Diffusivity

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/94
Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/95

Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction


Mass balance

One mole B diffuses back for every two moles A


(NBz = -NA/2)

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/96
Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction
(instantaneous reaction)
Mass balance

Boundary conditions

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/97

Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction


(instantaneous reaction)
Concentration profile

Flux

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/98
Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction
(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)

Mass balance

Boundary conditions

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/99

Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction


(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)
Concentration profile

Flux

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/100
Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

RA = - k a cA

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/101

Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

r
..(1)
r+r
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/102
Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

NA = - DA dcA/dr, DA = effective diffusivity


Equation (1) becomes

Boundary condition
cA = cAs at r = R
dcA/dr = 0 at r = 0 (symmetrical)
TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/103

Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

Concentration profile

Molar flow at surface r = R

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/104
Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

Molar flow without diffusion resistance

Effectiveness factor : Was/WA0

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/105

Homework III

CO2 is being absorbed from a gas in a small experimental wetted-wall


tower as shown in the figure. The absorbing fluid is water, which is
moving down the tower with an average velocity of 17.7 cm/s. CO2 is
only slightly soluble in water, so that the viscosity of the water is
unaffected. Furthermore, the diffusion of CO2 takes place so slowly in
the liquid film that CO2 will not penetrate very far into the film (the
penetration distance will be small in comparison with the film
thickness). What is the absorption rate in g-moles/hr, if the liquid-
phase diffusivity of the CO2-water system is 1.5 x 10-5 cm2/s, and if the
solubility (saturation concentration) of CO2 in water is 0.04 g-mole per
liter (these are at the experimental temperature). The dimensions of the
tower are given in the figure.

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/106
A solid sphere of naphthalene (A) with a radius of 2.5 mm is
surrounded by still air (B) at 300 K and 1 atm. Take the surface
temperature of naphthalene is 300 K and its vapor pressure at this
temperature as 0.104 mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene vapor in air
at 318 K is 6.92 10-6 m2/s. On assuming ideal gas behavior, determine
the rate at which naphthalene evaporates

TK5102
13 August 2011 DGA/107