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Pathlines over the Arrows Formula One race car Courtesy of Arrows Formula One Team

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Pathlines illustrate the flow around a motorcycle in a cornering position Courtesy of Advantage CFD

FLUENT

the world's leading C F 0

software

FLUENT. For nearly twenty years the name has been synonymous with the world's leading commercial software for solving fluid flow problems. Today, engineers throughout the world use FLUENT to simulate applications ranging from air flow over an aircraft wing to combustion in a furnace, from bubble columns to glass production, from blood flow in an aneurysm to semiconductor manufacturing, from dean room design to wastewater treatment plants.

Well-E.quipped

Based on a numerical technique called computational fluid dynamics, or CFD, FLUENT has a stockpile of state-of-the-art models, standard with every shipment. that allows it to tackle a vast array of problem physics.

Short Learning Curve

With its long-standing reputation of being userfriendly, FLUENT makes it easy for new users to come up to productive speed.

On the cover: (left to right) Flow around a cyclist in a crosswind, courtesy of UKSJ; aircraft engines in thrust reverser mede: strain rate in a stirred tank

Flow emanating from aircraft engines in thrust reverser mode

Pathlines around a thrown American football. colored by velocity magnitude

We Ensure Your Success

The technical support from Fluent is top-notch, from the initial training to the ongoing relationship that develops between customers and Fluent staff. Throughout the years, these important

components - comprehensive models, usability, and technical support - have combined to make FLUENT the CFD software of choice across a broad spectrum of industries.

"Support from Fluent is first-rate and has assisted us often in completing ambitious analyses in support of our commercial units."

Greg P. .Muldowney Applied Fluid Mechanics Mobil Technology Company U.s.A.

Surface mesh on a backward inclined centrifugal fan

Gas-liquid mixture in a stirred tank

FLUENT 6

the next



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Flexible Grid Technology

Released in 200 I. FLUENT 6 offers diversity and flexibility that are unmatched by other commercial CFD codes. At the core of any CFD calculation is a computational grid, used to divide the solution domain into thousands or millions of elements where the problem variables are computed and stored. In FLUENT, this grid can consist of elements in a variety of shapes: quadrilaterals and triangles for 2D simulations. and hexahedrals, prisms. pyramids. and tetrahedra for 3D simulations. These elements, created using GAMBIT, FLUENT's easy-to-use companion pre-processor, form an interlocking network throughout the volume where the fluid flow analysis is to take place.

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Physical Models on an Unstructured Grid While unstructured grids are now commonplace in most CFD software, the beauty of FLUENT 6 is that it stands alone in its diverse offerings of complex physical models in this environment. For example. the flow can contain reactions, a discrete particle or droplet phase, heat transfer with radiation. or mixtures consisting of two or more distinct materials, such as liquids, gases, or a continuum of particulates. The physics required to simulate many of these phenomena pose unique challenges to CFD solver engines, especially in the framework of an unstructured grid. After years of development and rigorous testing, FLUENT 6 is able to offer. with confidence, solutions for these and a host of other challenging applications.

A multi-stage axial compressor Courtesy Volvo Aero Corporation

Parallel 'Power

FLUENT 6 is available on all UNIX, NT, and LlNUX platforms. Parallel processing on multiple nodes of a single machine, or on multiple machines on a network, allows for rapid turnaround on large-scale simulations. Dynamic load balancing, new in FLUENT 6, automatically detects and analyzes parallel performance, and, if necessary, adjusts the distribution of computational cells among the processors. This ensures that a balanced load is being shared by the CPUs at all times.

Performance scaling is nearly linear for clusters of Intel-based computers (top) and for dusters of UNIX workstations and LlNUX PCs (bottom)

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"We are extremely satisfied with FLUENT's stability and performance on our new 150 CPU Linux cluster. Over the 3 years Volvo Aero has been uSing Linux clusters. Fluent has consistently met and exceeded all our expectations. By switching to running FLUENT on Linux clusters we have been able to Increase our computational resources by a foetor of 10."

Peter Emv.in, Ph.D.

Manager,Aero & Thermodynamics Volvo Aero Corporation Sweden

The formation and rise of a vapor bubble in a film boiling simulation

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Multiphase F.lows

Whenever two or more fluids coexist, special physical models are needed to describe their collective behavior, especially if the fluids are acted upon by forces that tend to separate them. The most comprehensive of these is the Eulerian rnultiphase model, which is available in the unstructured mesh environment of FLUENT 6. The model uses separate sets of fluid equations to describe systems of interpenetrating media (phases), which can consist of liquids, gases, and/or particulates. For a phase of particulates, the Eulerian granular multiphase model is available. Based on kinetic theory, this formulation captures the special physics of a continuum of solid particles, including solids pressure, solids temperature, compressibility, and viscosity. Heat and mass transfer between phases is also available, so

Volume fraction of solids in a circulating fluidized bed

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applications such as crystal growth and boiling can be modeled.

Several other multiphase models are also standard in FLUENT:

• the mixture model, an economical approach that has withstood Widespread validation tests for a number of interpenetrating fluid mixtures;

• the volume of fluid (VOF) model, used to track large bubble movement or free surface development - heat transfer with radiation, compressibility,and liquid-solid phase change are all important extensions of this widely used capability;

• the discrete phase model (DPM), a robust and time-tested methodology for multiphase flows with heat transfer and phase change, even in the high mass loading regime.

Temperature contours on a flame surface and contours of vorticity magnitude on the midplane of a gas turbine combustor, simulated with the LES turbulence model

Reacting Flows

Chemical reaction modeling, especially in turbulent conditions, has been a hallmark of FLUENT software since its inception. Over the years. numerous options have made reaction modeling capabilities as varied as the applications they target. The Magnussen model, the mixture fraction/pdf model, the laminar flamelet model, the premixed combustion model, and the surface reaction model are just a few of the options that have been put to work by FLUENT users for gaseous flames, coal and liquid fuel combustion, liquid reactions, and chemical vapor deposition. Despite the breadth of options, reaction modeling has advanced to new heights with FLUENT 6. For example. the eddy dissipation concept, or EDC model, is an important addition that makes it easier to handle difficult reactions in a turbulent environment, especially those with stiff chemistry, i.e. with reaction rates that are strongly dependent on local conditions.

Temperature distribution through the bumer plane of a glass furnace during a coupled calculation of the combustion space and glass melt

Courtesy of Owens Coming

In addition. all reaction models can be used in conjunction with the large eddy simulation, or LES turbulence model. The LES model, a transient formulation in which large and moderately-sized turbulent structures are solved for directly, rather than approximated through time-averaging methods, offers the most general treatment of turbulent flow available in commercial software today. When coupled with chemical reaction modeling, the power to predict flame stabilization and burnout becomes possible.

In addition to the continuous addition of new reacting flow models, methodologies are regularly evaluated that serve to improve the performance of existing models. Advances of this type will continue to playa major role in each new version of FLUENT software.

"FLUENT's enhanced performance now makes It possible to simulate complex geometries, such as bubble columns With internals, in a reasonable amount of time using the Eulerian approach. The ability to use the mixture model in applications where more than two phases are involved offers a much faster alternative to the Eulerian approach in most Industrial problems."

Fabrizio Podenzani CFD Group Leader EniTecnologie Italy

Automated decomposition tools in GfTurbo make for fast. flexible meshing

Pressu re contours on the hub and blade surfaces of an axial compressor stage

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Turbomachinery

FLUENT software has long been a leader in its ability to simulate rotating machinery. The complexity introduced by moving rotors in close proximity to fixed stators first led to the development at Fluent of a time-dependent sliding mesh formulation. This was followed by steady-state approaches, taken from the literature, involving coordinated rotating and stationary reference frames. One of these, the mixing plane model, is popular within the turbomachinery community and has been available in FLUENT for a number of years. Continuing with the tradition, FLUENT 6 delivers additional features that help make turbomachinery modeling easier from start to finish. Along with enhancements to the mixing plane model, non-reflecting boundary conditions have

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been added. These special boundaries allow pressure waves to pass through without spurious reflection. Post-processing features have been added that allow results to be displayed along the meridional. pitchwise, or spanwise coordinate directions.

To simplify problem setup. a new pre-processing product, GfTurbo, is now available. This exciting new software uses familiar terminology and parametric templates to assist in the geometric creation and grid generation of turbomachinery components.

Contours of pressure and streamlines around the exterior surfaces of a PT;Cruiser; the simulation was used to predict sound pressure at the driver's left ear

Courtesy of DoimlerChrysler

Moving and Deformmg Mesh

In-cylinder flows are one example from a class of problems where moving parts define the operation of certain equipment. The moving and deforming mesh capability in FLUENT 6 is a popular choice fora host of applications of this type. To use this model, the initial mesh and boundary conditions for the moving component(s) are specified. During the time-dependent simulation, algorithms are used to move the outer boundaries or internal components according to the prescribed conditions. With each geometric change, a new mesh is automatically constructed. In addition to in-cylinder combustion, applications include valve operation, pumps, and rocket launches.

Turbulent Flows

For years, FLUENT software has defined the cutting edge of turbulence modeling among commercial software products. This highly-focused effort has resulted in a breadth of turbulence models

Periodic flow through an automotive climate control valve, simulated using the moving and deforming mesh model Courlesy of Robert Bosch GmbH

that is unparalleled in other codes. The new k-eo model in FLUENT 6 offers modifications for lowReynolds-number effects, compressibility, and shear flow spreading. It is well suited for modeling planar, round, and radial jets and for wall-bounded and free shear flows, for example. An enhanced wall treatment option blends laminar and turbulent methodologies into one, providing better representation of near-wall pressure gradients and velocity profiles when the near-wall node falls inside the y + buffer zone (3<y + < 10).

Radiation

Radiation can be the most important form of heat transfer, and FLUENT has long had a variety of models that allow engineers to simulate radiation in the most appropriate manner. With FLUENT 6, a new view-factor based surface-to-surface radiation model, ideally suited for environments with non-participating media, has been introduced.

"The most significant new features, especially for users in turbomachinery, are the new 'turbo' post-processing capabilities, which make work a lot easier. AddltionaJly, the new features in turbulence modeling are the result of remarkable technical advances to FLUENT"

Rolls-Royce Germany

Velocity vectors and iso-surfaces of turbulent kinetic energy in a steel tundish

Streamwise vortex shedding off the stem of a very large crude oil carrier

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new technology

Customized Solutions

User-defined functions (UDFs) are a popular option for users wanting to customize FLUENT. Comprehensive documentation featuring a number of tutorials is available, as is full technical support. UDFs can be used to develop specialized models for a broad range of applications. If you do

not want to customize the software yourself, our worldwide team of consultants can help you get the job done. In addition to building meshes and running simulations on our in-house network, they are available to write UDFs that are tailored to your needs.

Surface mesh on the valves, ports, and cylinder cap of a small gasoline engine

Airport blast deflector, designed to protect local traffic from high winds generated during aircraft take-off Courtesy of Hoyfe, Tanner & Assodates. Inc.

Experience the Power of CFD

The long history of meeting customer needs across a breadth of industries, technical support in the hands of some of the most knowledgeable application specialists in the business, a wealth of core competencies, and an ever-expanding ability to solve problems at the forefront of engineering analysis, combine to make FLUENT 6 the leading CFDsoftware· in the world. At Fluent, there is an ongoing commitment to continue to expand the leading-edge capabilities that have always defined this product. Call your local office. See what FLUENT can do for you.

"Over the post SIX years. FLUENT has been our computational ffuid dynamics (CFD) tool of choice within the Print Engine Development Unit at Xerox Corporation. We use the code to solve a wide variety of fluid dynamics and heat transfer problems both at the sub-system and system levels. The robustness of FLUENT CFD allows us to develop concepts into final deSigns with minimal testing and building of prototypes. It is estimated that the cost savings in reducing prototypes and testing alone are a significant percentage of the overall development costs. More important, however, is that FLUENT also provides on in-depth understanding of sub- system interactions within the pnnt engine architecture. These interactions are difficult, and in many cases, impossible to measure uSing lab equipment."

Francesco Zirilli, Ph.D.

Principal Engineer Print Engine Development Unit Xerox Corporation US.A.