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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

LAB 2: BOOLEAN THEOREMS

OBJECTIVES

1. To implement DeMorgan's theorems in circuit simplification.


2. To design a combinational logic circuit with simplest logic gates representation
using Karnaugh Mapping Technique.

EQUIPMENTS/COMPONENTS

1 A DC power supply capable of 5V DC output


2 A multimeter
3 Logic Gate IC : 7400(1pc), 7402(1pc), 7404 (1pc), 7432 (1pc), 7408 (1pc)
4 Light Emitting Diode (2pc)
5 Resistors : 330 (2pc)
6 Switches (4pc)

INTRODUCTION

Theorems of Boolean Algebra are a set of rules used with digital variables and logical
operations to develop, manipulate and simplify logical expressions. Boolean Algebra
provide systematic means for discovering alternative expressions. This lab session will let
you get familiarize with De Morgans and Karnaugh Technique.

De Morgan Theorems
De Morgan's theorem allows large bars in a Boolean expression to be broken up into
smaller bars over individual variables. De Morgan's theorem says that a large bar over
several variables can be broken between the variables if the sign between the variables is
changed.

From the above equation, it is clear that a NAND gate is equal to an OR gate with
inverted inputs and a NOR gate is equal to an AND gate with inverted inputs.

In order to reduce expressions with large bars, the bars must first be broken up. This
means that in some cases, the first step in reducing an expression is to use De Morgan's
theorem. De Morgan's theorem is useful in the implementation of the basic gate
operations using alternative gates, particularly operations involving NAND and NOR
gates.

For this session, you will implement De Morgan Theorem into a given Boolean Equation.
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

Karnaugh Maps
Karnaugh Map provides a systematic method for simplifying Boolean expressions. Using
K-Map is very similar to truth table. K-Map can be used for expressions with two, three,
four or five variables.

Number of cells in a K-Map is equivalent to the number of possible input variable


combinations (2n). As an example:
For 3-variables; number of cells are 23 = 8

The cells in K-Map are arranged so that only one single variable changes between
adjacent cells.

In the experiment, you will be given a design problem. You should be able to interpret
the design problem into a truth table and apply the Karnaugh Map technique to find the
simplest logic expression. Finally, you have to construct and test the circuit.

PROCEDURE

PART A : Simplification using De Morgan's theorems

1. Draw a logic diagram for the equation :

Y = AB B+C

2. Construct the circuit using the diagram you drew in Step 1. Connect toggle switches
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

to inputs A, B & C and an LED to the circuit output, Y. Set the toggle switches to
each input combination listed in Table 2.1, and record the output value observed in
the table.

INPUTS OUTPUT

Table 2.1 : Step 1 Circuit Operation

3. Apply De Morgans laws to remove the top inversion bar by changing the sign. Get
the simplified expression and draw the logic circuit diagram in the space given below:

4. Construct a logic circuit for the simplified expression obtained in step 3 and again
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

complete the truth table in Table 2.2.

INPUTS OUTPUT

Table 2.2 : Step 3 Circuit Operation

5. Write your observation based on the results.

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PART B: Design Problem using Karnaugh Mapping Technique

A jet aircraft employs a system for monitoring the rpm, pressure, and temperature values
of its engines using sensors that operate as follows:
RPM sensor output = 0, only when speed < 4800 rpm
P sensor output = 0, when pressure <220 psi
T sensor output = 0, only when temperature < 200F

Figure 2.1 shows the logic circuit that controls a cockpit warning light for certain
combinations of engine conditions. Assume that a HIGH at output W activates the
warning light:

(a) Create your truth Table with appropriate input-output combinations


(b) Determine what engine conditions will give warning to the pilot.
(c) Using K-Map technique to obtain your simplified Boolean equation.
(d) Change this circuit to one using all NAND gates and constructs the circuit.

Figure 2.1

REPORT REQUIREMENT

The lab report should include the following:

1. Summary of each experiment done.


2. Results of each experiment.
3. Discussions on each operation of the gates.
4. For Activity Part B, include your K-Map table, the simplified Boolean equation,
the circuit diagram, the truth table and the engine conditions.
5. Remarks on any possible failures and measures done to overcome this problem.
6. Conclusion for the experiments.
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EKT 121 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I


EXPERIMENT DATA SHEET

NAME :____________________________________ METRIC NO.:____________


COURSE :___________________________________________
LAB EXPERIMENT : _________________________________

PART A : Simplification Using De Morgan Theorem

___ _____
Q1: Logic diagram for Y = A B . B + C
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Inputs Outputs

Table 2.1 : Step 1 Circuit Operation

Q3(a): Simplified Boolean equation

Y=

INSTRUCTORS SIGNATURE: ________________________________


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Q3(b): Simplified logic diagram

Inputs Outputs

Table 2.2 : Step 3 Circuit Operation

Q5: Observation
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________________________________________________________________________
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PART B : Karnaugh Map Design Method

(a)

INPUTS OUTPUT

Truth Table

(b) The engine conditions that will give warning to the pilot:

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(c) K-Mapping :

Simplified Boolean equation:

(d) Logic Circuit Diagram using all NAND gates


DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

INSTRUCTORS SIGNATURE: ________________________________