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Dgital Electronics lab Experiment 2 for Logic gates

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OBJECTIVES

2. To design a combinational logic circuit with simplest logic gates representation

using Karnaugh Mapping Technique.

EQUIPMENTS/COMPONENTS

2 A multimeter

3 Logic Gate IC : 7400(1pc), 7402(1pc), 7404 (1pc), 7432 (1pc), 7408 (1pc)

4 Light Emitting Diode (2pc)

5 Resistors : 330 (2pc)

6 Switches (4pc)

INTRODUCTION

Theorems of Boolean Algebra are a set of rules used with digital variables and logical

operations to develop, manipulate and simplify logical expressions. Boolean Algebra

provide systematic means for discovering alternative expressions. This lab session will let

you get familiarize with De Morgans and Karnaugh Technique.

De Morgan Theorems

De Morgan's theorem allows large bars in a Boolean expression to be broken up into

smaller bars over individual variables. De Morgan's theorem says that a large bar over

several variables can be broken between the variables if the sign between the variables is

changed.

From the above equation, it is clear that a NAND gate is equal to an OR gate with

inverted inputs and a NOR gate is equal to an AND gate with inverted inputs.

In order to reduce expressions with large bars, the bars must first be broken up. This

means that in some cases, the first step in reducing an expression is to use De Morgan's

theorem. De Morgan's theorem is useful in the implementation of the basic gate

operations using alternative gates, particularly operations involving NAND and NOR

gates.

For this session, you will implement De Morgan Theorem into a given Boolean Equation.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

Karnaugh Maps

Karnaugh Map provides a systematic method for simplifying Boolean expressions. Using

K-Map is very similar to truth table. K-Map can be used for expressions with two, three,

four or five variables.

combinations (2n). As an example:

For 3-variables; number of cells are 23 = 8

The cells in K-Map are arranged so that only one single variable changes between

adjacent cells.

In the experiment, you will be given a design problem. You should be able to interpret

the design problem into a truth table and apply the Karnaugh Map technique to find the

simplest logic expression. Finally, you have to construct and test the circuit.

PROCEDURE

Y = AB B+C

2. Construct the circuit using the diagram you drew in Step 1. Connect toggle switches

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

to inputs A, B & C and an LED to the circuit output, Y. Set the toggle switches to

each input combination listed in Table 2.1, and record the output value observed in

the table.

INPUTS OUTPUT

3. Apply De Morgans laws to remove the top inversion bar by changing the sign. Get

the simplified expression and draw the logic circuit diagram in the space given below:

4. Construct a logic circuit for the simplified expression obtained in step 3 and again

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

INPUTS OUTPUT

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

A jet aircraft employs a system for monitoring the rpm, pressure, and temperature values

of its engines using sensors that operate as follows:

RPM sensor output = 0, only when speed < 4800 rpm

P sensor output = 0, when pressure <220 psi

T sensor output = 0, only when temperature < 200F

Figure 2.1 shows the logic circuit that controls a cockpit warning light for certain

combinations of engine conditions. Assume that a HIGH at output W activates the

warning light:

(b) Determine what engine conditions will give warning to the pilot.

(c) Using K-Map technique to obtain your simplified Boolean equation.

(d) Change this circuit to one using all NAND gates and constructs the circuit.

Figure 2.1

REPORT REQUIREMENT

2. Results of each experiment.

3. Discussions on each operation of the gates.

4. For Activity Part B, include your K-Map table, the simplified Boolean equation,

the circuit diagram, the truth table and the engine conditions.

5. Remarks on any possible failures and measures done to overcome this problem.

6. Conclusion for the experiments.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

EXPERIMENT DATA SHEET

COURSE :___________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT : _________________________________

___ _____

Q1: Logic diagram for Y = A B . B + C

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

Inputs Outputs

Y=

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

Inputs Outputs

Q5: Observation

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

(a)

INPUTS OUTPUT

Truth Table

(b) The engine conditions that will give warning to the pilot:

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

(c) K-Mapping :

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS I

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