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Introduction to Film Studies

Course Syllabus

Academic Year: Semester 1 AY2012-13


Study Year (if applicable): Year 1-2
Course Code: FL8001
Academic Unit: 3AU
Pre-requisite: No

Instructor: Dr. Jihoon Kim


RM02-08, WKWSCI Building
Office hours: 11:00-13:00, Tuesdays by appointment
Email: kimjh@ntu.edu.sg

Tutor: Mr. Loo Zihan


Email: loozihan@ntu.edu.sg

Schedules/Venues
Lectures: Mondays 17:30-21:00 (Executive Seminar Room, 2nd Floor of WKWSCI)
Tutorials: Thursdays 14:00-15:15 (TR1), 16:00-17:15 (TR2)/CS-TR1, 1st Floor of
SCI)

Course Description and Objectives


The course is designed to provide a general introduction to the discipline of film
studies. It is highly recommended as a prerequisite for all film minor elective courses.
Through screenings, readings, discussion, and writing, students will develop a formal
and aesthetic appreciation of film, and acquire a general awareness of film history
and its key movements. The course will also offer basic theoretical approaches to the
various genres of narrative cinema as well as different modes of nonfiction cinema
(documentary and avant-garde film practices), so that students will understand how
cinema has developed globally and locally as art, technology, and social practices
from the late 19th century to the digital age.

Learning Outcomes
The major outcomes of this prerequisite course are:

1) To enable students to be accustomed to the basic vocabulary and terminology of


film form and to develop their skills in doing formal analysis.

2) To offer students a series of basic social, political, and cultural ideas or questions
that key historical movements and generic tendencies of cinema have triggered.

3) To cultivate students ability to gather, interpret and communicate to their peers


the information provided from different kinds of learning material (special readings,
textbook readings, film) about a specific historical film movement,

4) To provide students with an overview of the basic theories, ideas, and methods of
film and media studies. Accordingly, readings and screenings will introduce important
concepts (e.g. realism, authorship, narrative, genre, national cinema), modes of film

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practice, and critical approaches, preparing students to be ready for taking other
advanced elective courses of the minor in the future.

Assigned Texts

All materials are downloadable in PDFs on the course site of edveNTUre with
detailed reference information, except Film Art acquirable in Yunnan Bookstore.

Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction Film, 9th edition
(New York, McGraw-Hill, 2009)
Maria Pramaggiore and Tom Wallis, Film: A Critical Introduction, 3rd edition (New
York and London: Pearson, 2011) - FCI
Bordwell and Thompson, Film History: An Introduction, 3rd edition (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2009) - FH
R.L. Rutsky and Jeffrey Geiger (eds.), Film Analysis (New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 2005) FA
Braudy, Leo and Marshall Cohen (eds.), Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory
Readings, 7th edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) FTC

and other supplementary readings.

Recommended Books

Students are also encouraged to expand their readings beyond the lecture material,
readings, & assigned text. Several recommended books available at the NTU library
are listed below. Please note that this supplementary book list is not exhaustive and
that other relevant critical literature is also available in the library.

Corrigan, Timothy and Patricia White, The Film Experience: An Introduction, 2nd
edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008).
Corrigan, Timothy, Short Guide to Writing about Film, 8th edition (New York:
Longman, 2011).
Hayward, Susan, Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts, 3rd edition (New York and
London: Routledge, 2006).
Cook, Pam (ed.) The Cinema Book, 3rd edition (London: British Film Institute, 2008).
Furstenau, Marc (ed.), Film Theory Reader: Debates & Arguments (New York and
London: Routledge, 2010).
Gibbs, John and Douglas Pye (eds.), Style and Meaning: Studies in the Detailed
Analysis of Film (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2005).
Gomery, Douglas and Clara Pafort-Overduin, Movie History: A Survey, 2nd edition
(New York and London: Routledge, 2011).
Monaco, James, How to Read a Film: Movies, Media, and Beyond, 4th edition (New
York, Oxford University Press, 2009).
Nichols, Bill, Engaging Cinema: An Introduction to Film Studies (New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 2010).
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (ed.), Oxford History of World Cinema (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1997).
Simpson, P., Andrew U., & Shepherdson K.J. (eds.), Film Theory: Critical Concepts
in Media and Cultural Studies (New York and London: Routledge, 2004).
Stam, Robert, Film Theory: An Introduction (London: Blackwell, 2000).

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Course Contents
The course is divided into two themes, Film Form and Film Content respectively.
For the part 1 (Film Form), students will become fluent with the fundamental
vocabulary necessary to analyze various aspects of film form and style including
narrative, mise-en-scne, cinematography, editing, and sound. For the part 2 (Film
Content), students will investigate such critical issues in film theory and history as
ideology, new waves, genre, authorship, industry, technology, and new media. The
overall flow leads from the cinematic mechanism to its social environment, while
each class attempts to look at the entirety of each main films form and content.

The course offers a weekly lecture that includes a film screening. Please note that all
the screenings are part of the lecture time and so attendance to them is mandatory.
Besides the lectures, there are weekly tutorials, in which the students present group
projects to demonstrate their understanding of the films involved in the course and
the assigned readings, discuss the films watched, raise questions or debates on the
material covered in the assigned readings as well as in the lecture(s). Through this
process students will sharpen their critical eye on film and the moving image in
general, and enhance their creative capacity for organizing intuitive interpretation into
convincing criticism.

Main and Suggested Films


1) Main Films: The main films are those that will be screened in the lectures and
analyzed and discussed in the tutorials. The screenings are of course essential to
your ability to benefit from the course. You should be viewing to study and analyze,
rather than as mere entertainment. During the screenings your are required to
switch off all electronic devices.
Studying film is very different from watching film for pleasure. You should observe
and question your own habitual viewing practices and think about how a films style
and techniques produces certain kinds of effects for the viewer. It is desirable to jot
down at least some notes during or immediately after them: our memory of films is
notoriously unreliable!

2) Suggested Films: The suggested films refer to those related to each sessions
main topics and main film. They will also be used for students writing assignments.
Students are encouraged to see as many suggested films as possible individually
and use them to do assignments and extend their knowledge beyond the lecture. All
these are available on DVD in the Universitys libraries, including ACRC. Clips from
these or other relevant films may be shown in class.

Assignment Components

The final grade for the course will be determined as follows:


1. Participation: 10% (class participation: 5%, online postings: 5%)
2. Tutorial Presentation: 20%
3. Mid-term paper: Film Analysis (for Part 1): 25% - Due Date, 8 Oct (Mon)
4. Film Criticism in relation to readings (for Part 2): 15% - Due date, 12 Nov (Mon)
5. Final Examination: 30%

The Continuous Assessment (CA) comprises 70% (component 1 to 4) and the


examination 30% of the final mark. The CA is based on performance in and out of
class and assignments.

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1. Online Postings (5%): Students are strongly encouraged to post your response to
each main film, supplementary film clips (both shown or not shown in the lecture),
and discussion topics intermittently raised by the instructor or tutor. The postings will
be mainly made in the Facebook page of the course, but students will post in the
edveNTUres discussion board if they are willing to write a longer response to the
screened film, or are asked to engage in the discussion topics.

* Assessment Criteria:
- Rather than simply responding to the clips or posts made by the instructors and
other students, students are expected to provide key issues and concepts contained
in the readings or raised in the lecture and tutorial for each week, in relation to the
films that they saw at the class or on other occasions. It is also encouraged for
students to raise any other topic that he/she wants to discuss with others and the
instructors.

Thus the assessment criteria for online postings will be (1) ability to identify key
issues, concepts, and arguments (2) ability to explain the students major ideas and
thoughts (3) the ability to apply the ideas and thoughts to other examples (e.g.
examples from films, or writings by other theorists or critics).

2. Tutorial presentation (20%)


Starting from Week 3, tutorial presentation is an exercise in interpretative, analytical,
and oral skills geared towards cognitive understanding of readings and films. It
should be based on material derived from lectures, main films, and the relevant
chapters from the selected textbook and assigned readings as well as on
independent research undertaken for the assignments (students are thus
encouraged to draw on other films that they think are relevant to the weekly topics).

Each group, which will consist of two students, is required to do at least one
presentation throughout the semester. The presentation will last 20 minutes
(including screening clips), and the group will lead a 10-minute discussion between
other students. The presentation must be accompanied by the submission of a log
report along with other materials for it (such as PowerPoint). The log report should
underline each students contribution and demonstrate his/her understanding of the
concepts and arguments related to the weekly lecture and readings, his/her ability to
analyze the main film and its key scenes, and read it critically, and the capacity to
construct a record of other ideas and experiences for discussion that he/she feels are
pertinent to the weekly topics. A hardcopy of the tutorial presentations must be
submitted to the tutor right after the end of each tutorial.

The format and length of the log report is dependent upon your choice, but you
should provide the full bibliographic details of the article/s being discussed (including
author name and bibliographic details). When quoting from the articles, include the
page number in brackets at the end of the quote. Make sure to indicate when you are
quoting directly from an article by using quotation marks. (It is essential that you
learn to do this correctly in order to avoid plagiarism).

The specific dates of the tutorial presentations will be assigned on a rotational basis
based on choices by lot or on a first-come-first-serve basis during the courses first
tutorial. Advance email requests will not be entertained, as priority will be given to
students who specify their preference during our first tutorial meeting. Students who
miss the first tutorial will be assigned tutorial presentation dates at the instructors
discretion.

You should try to engage with the readings, screening and weekly lecture as well as

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with any extra research you have done. Please do not merely provide a summary of
the readings. You need to think critically about the topic and related concepts. The
content of the tutorial presentation cannot be reused in the two paper/essay
assessments.

It is essential that all of you, whether presenting or not in a specific week, are fully
prepared for it, and come ready to ask questions, raise issues, listen carefully to
others, and reflect upon the perspectives you form on the basis of your studies.

Assessment Criteria
(15% for Presentation and Discussion, 5% for Log Report and Materials)

Student/group are well prepared.


Ability to identify, explain and apply major ideas/concepts.
Ability to identify the main films key scenes and their cinematic forms, to analyze
them critically, and to read their meanings critically.
Ability to raise relevant issues and questions and stimulate students discussion.
Presentation skills: Spoken communication; ability to engage with class; co-
operation with other presenters.

3. Mid-term Paper: Film Analysis (25%)

You will write a mid-term paper on one suggested film from Week 3 to Week 7
according to the theoretical concepts and critical/technical vocabulary acquired in
class. The paper is required to contain a shot-by-shot analysis of at least one scene
or sequence of the chosen film. The main purpose of this exercise is to train you to
observe in detail and to describe accurately how meaning is produced through the
production techniques and formal qualities of film, using the methods and terms
outlined in lectures, readings and tutorials. Follow the instructions presented in the
Chapter 11 (Film Criticism: Sample Analyses) and the Appendix in Film Art. Include
scene segmentations of the film as an appendix, by capturing key screenshots of the
scenes and endowing them with proper numbers. All references must be properly
cited using either MLA (Modern Language Association) Style
(http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/) or Chicago Manual Style
(http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html)

* It is prohibited to select main films shown in the class as well as the films that the
sample essays in the Chapter 11 of Film Art deal with.

The maximum length of the paper is 1,500 words (excluding bibliography, figures,
and captions), and its format is times new roman (12 point), double-space, and 1inch
margin on each side. All the papers should be submitted on hard copy at the lecture
on 8 Oct (Mon).

Assessment Criteria
Detailed observation and description of shots.
Thoughtful description of meaning.
Attention to production techniques/formal qualities of film.
Use of film studies methods and terms.

4. Film Criticism in Relation to Readings (15%)

Students are asked to write a 1,000 word critical review on one of the suggested
films in relation to one weekly topic from Week 8 to Week 12 (namely, Documentary

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and Experimental Film, Film and Ideology, Social Context and Film Style, Film
Genre, and Film Authorship). While students are allowed to cover more than two
films, including the main film screened, their essays arguments and analyses must
focus on a single film that they will choose.
A few illustrative topics for film criticism are as follows:
- Dark Knight and the ideology of terrorism in the Post-911 America
- Ringu and the Specificities of J-Horror
- Social Network and David Finchers authorship

The criticism should not be a journalist film review you can find from newspapers or
online film websites, but a critical essay that will present your research on the
readings of a weekly topic, your key arguments on the film, and your analysis on its
key cinematic elements in order to support the arguments. You are required to cite at
least one article of the course readings, along with other academic sources drawn
from your research. All the reviews should be submitted on soft copy via the
edveNTUres Turin Assignment by 12 Nov (Mon).

* Assessment Criteria
Originality and rigor of argument. (All claims and interpretations must be supported
with detailed argument. This means providing empirical evidence from the films, key
historical facts and a lucid presentation of material. Please avoid presenting
unsubstantiated opinion or value judgments lacking cogent argument)
Evidence of substantial research a wide reading on the topic. (Your research should
include academic sources like refereed journals and books held in the library. Under
no circumstances should you limit your research to Internet sources).
Essays and assignments must reflect an engagement with issues and ideas central
to the course.
Treatment of film as a specific medium. In other words, you must make an effort to
come to terms with the formal (stylistic and technical) as well as the thematic
qualities of the films that you choose to write about. A film is not a book. Your essays
and assignments must highlight this.
Proper punctuation, grammar and sentence structure.
Care in matters of spelling and factual information concerning dates, names and
titles.
Use of proper and consistent academic referencing system in footnotes and
bibliography.

5. Final exam (30%)


An exam will be held at the end of the course (date is TBA). It will be a closed-book
exam. No books, lecture notes, handouts or photocopies are permitted into the exam
hall. The exam will cover all the lectures and readings from Week 1 to 13. The format
and guidelines for the exam will be announced later.

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Course Schedule

Introduction: Film as Art, Cinematic Experiences

Week Lecture Topics Readings/Screening/Suggested Films Tutorial


WK1 Orientation and Chapter 1, Film as Art Division into groups,
13/16 Introduction to the allocations of tutorial
Aug Course La Jete (Chris Marker, 1962, 28 min.) presentations.
Discussion on the
The Purple Rose of Cairo (Woody Allen, films in Week 1.
1985, 82 min.)

Suggested Films:
Sherlock Jr. (Buster Keaton, 1924, 45m),
Rear Window (Alfred Hitchcock, 1954,
112m), Cinema Paradiso (Giuseppe
Tornatore, 1988, 155m)
WK2 No Lecture No Screening Teaching how to
20/23 (This Monday is a conduct film analysis
Aug holiday followed by and write about film
Hari Rara Puasa on 19 (Read Film Arts
Aug (Sun)) Chapter 11
beforehand)

Part 1: Concepts of Film Form

WK3 Mise-en-Scene Chapter 4, The Shot: Mise-en-Scene,


27/30 : Realism and Presentation and
Aug Expressionism Elsaesser, Thomas, Cinema as Window discussion of the
and Frame, Thomas Elsaesser and Malte readings and film in
Hagener, Film Theory: An Introduction Week 3.
through the Senses (New York and
London: Routledge, 2009), pp. 13-34.

Coates, Paul, The Cabinet of Dr.


Caligari (FA 98-117)

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Roberto


Wiene, 1920, 71m)

Suggested Films: Metropolis (Fritz Lang,


1927, 153m), The Rules of the Game
(Jean Renoir, 1939, 106m), Bigger than
Life (Nicholas Ray, 1956, 95m), Red
Desert (Michelangelo Antonioni, 1964,
110m), Edward Scissorhands (Tim
Burton, 1990, 105m, After Life (Koreeda
Hirokazu, 1998, 118m)

WK4 Cinematography: Chapter 5, The Shot: Cinematography Presentation and


3/6 Point-of-view and discussion of the
Sep Camera movement Mulvey, Laura, Visual Pleasure and readings and film in
Narrative Cinema (FTC 833-844) Week 4

Allen, Richard, Vertigo (online text)

Vertigo (Alfred Hitchcock, 1958, 128m)

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Suggested Films:
Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans
(Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, 1926, 95m),
Persona (Ingmar Bergman, 1966, 85m),
2001: A Space Odyssey (Stanley Kubrick,
1968, 141m), Blue Velvet (David Lynch,
1986, 120m), Werckmeister Harmonies
(Bla Tarr, 2000, 145m), Le Fils (Jean-
Pierre and Luc Dardenne, 2002, 101m),
Elephant (Gus van Sant, 2003, 80m)

WK5 Editing: Chapter 6, The Relation of Shot to Shot: Presentation and


10/13 Classical Editing and Editing discussion of the
Sep its Alternatives readings and film in
Bazin, Andr. The Evolution of the Week 5
Language of Cinema (FTC 43-56)

Eisenstein Sergei, excerpts from Film


Form (FTC 15-42)

Man with a Movie Camera (Dziga


Vertov, 1929, excerpt)

Battleship Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein,


1925, 75m)

Suggested films:
Early Summer (Ozu Yasujiro, 1951, 135
m), The Passion of Joan of Arc (Carl
Theodor Dreyer, 1928, 110m), Pierre le
Fou (Jean-luc Godard, 1965, 110m),
Requiem for a Dream (Darren
Aronofsky, 2001, 102m), In the Mood for
Love (Wong Kar-wai, 2003, 98m), The
Social Network (David Fincher, 2010,
120m)

WK6 Narrative Chapter 3, Narrative as a Formal Presentation and


17/20 : Classical and Post- System discussion of the
Sep classical Narrations readings and film in
Bordwell, Thompson, and Janet Staiger, Week 6
The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film
Style and Mode of Production to 1960
(New York and London: Routledge,
1985), pp. 3-41.

Thanouli, Eleftheria, Post-classical


Narration: A New Paradigm in
Contemporary Cinema, New Review of
Film and Television Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3
(Dec 2006), pp. 183-196.

Citizen Kane (Orson Welles, 1941, 119m)

Suggested Films:
Casablanca (Michael Curtiz, 1942, 101m,
Rashomon (Kurosawa Akira, 1950, 88m),
Last Year at Marienbad (Alain Resnais,
1961, 94m) Pulp Fiction (Quentin
Tarantino, 1994, 154m), Run, Lola Run

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(Tom Tykwer, 1998, 81m), Syndromes
and a Century (Apichatpong
Weerasethakul, 2007, 105m)

WK7 Film Sound and Music Chapter 7, Sound in the Cinema Presentation and
24/27 discussion of the
Sep Chion, Michel, Projections of Sound on readings and film in
Image and Phantom Audio-vision, Week 7
Audio-vision: Sound on Screen, trans.
and ed. by Claudia Gorbman (New York:
Columbia University Press, 1994), pp. 3-
24, pp. 123-137.

The Conversation (Francis Ford Coppola,


1974, 110m)

Suggested films:
The Jazz Singer (Alan Crosland, 1927,
88m), The Great Dictator (Charlie
Chaplin, 1940), A Man Escaped (Robert
Bresson, 1956, 100m), Mon Oncle
(Jacques Tati, 1958, 117m), Apocalypse
Now (Francis Ford Coppola, 1979, 153m),
Dancer in the Dark (Lars von Trier,
2000, 140m)
Recess Week (No Class and Tutorials)
WK8 Non-narrative Film Chapter 10, Documentary, Presentation and
8/11 Forms Experimental, and Animated Cinema discussion of the
Oct readings and film in
Nichols, Bill. What Types of Week 11
* Mid-term paper Documentaries Are There? Introduction
Due Date: 8 Oct to Documentary (Bloomington, IN:
(submission on hard Indiana University Press, 2001), pp. 99-
copy at the lecture) 138.

Rees, A. L. Introduction, A History of


Experimental Film and Video, 2nd edition
(New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011),
pp. 1-14.
Meshes of the Afternoon (Maya Deren,
1943, 18 min)

Dont Look Back (D. A. Pennebaker,


1967,96 min.)

Suggested films:
* Documentary: Nanook of the North
(Robert Flaherty, 1922, 79m), Triumph of
the Will (Leni Riefenstahl, 1935, 116m),
Primary (Robert Drew, 1963, 53m),
Fahrenheit 9/11 (Michael Moore, 2004,
122m), Standard Operating Procedure
(Errol Morris, 2008, 116m)

* Experimental film:
Entracte (Ren Clair, 1924, 22m), Un
chien andalou (Luis Buuel, 1929, 10m),
Scorpio Rising (Kenneth Anger, 1963,
30m), (nostalgia) (Hollis Frampton,
1971, 38m), Je tu il elle (Chantal
Akerman, 1976 83m)

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Part 2: Contexts of Film Content

WK9 Film and Ideology FCI chap. 11 Film and Ideology Presentation and
15/18 discussion of the
Oct Kellner, Douglas, "Film, Politics, and readings and film in
Ideology: Reflections on Hollywood Film Week 9
in the Reagan Era," The Velvet Light
Trap, No. 27 (Spring 1991), 9-24.

Chaudhuri, Shohini, Ali: Fear Eats the


Soul (FA pp. 640-959)

Ali: Fear Eats the Soul


(Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1974, 93 m)

Suggested films: The Housemaid (Kim


Ki-yong, 1960, 111m), Thelma and Louise
(Ridley Scott, 1991, 129m), Raise the Red
Lantern (Zhang Yimou, 1991, 122m), Far
from Heaven (Todd Haynes, 2002,
108m), Gran Torino (Clint Eastwood,
2008, 116m), Slumdog Millionaire
(Danny Boyle, 2008, 121m).

WK10 Social Context and FCI chap. 10 Social Context and Film Presentation and
22/25 Film Style Style discussion of the
Oct readings and film in
FH chapter 16 (Neorealism and its Week 10
Context, 1945-1959), chapter 23
(Politically Critical Cinema of the 1960s
and 1970s)

Nowell-smith, Geoffrey, Bicycle Thieves


(FA 422-439)

Bicycle Thieves (Vittorio De Sica, 1948,


93 min.)

Suggested films: Germany Year Zero


(Roberto Rossellini, 1948, 73m), The
Battle of Algiers (Gillo Pontecorvo, 1966,
121m), Memories of Underdevelopment
(Toms Gutirrez Alea, 1968, 94m), La
Chinoise (Jean-Luc Godard, 1968, 93m),
Alice in the Cities (Wim Wenders, 1974,
107m), Xiao Wu (Jia Zhangke, 1997,
108m)

WK11 Film Genre FCI chap. 13 Film Genre Presentation and


29 discussion of the
Oct/1 Neale, Steven, Questions of Genre, Film readings and film in
Nov Genre Reader III, ed. Barry Keith Grant Week 11
(Austin, TX: Univ. of Texas Press, 2003),
pp. 160-184.

Desser, David, Global Noir: Genre Film

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in the Age of Transnationalism, Film
Genre Reader III, pp. 516-536.

The Killer (John Woo, 1989, 110m)

Suggested films:
The Big Sleep (Howard Hawks, 1946,
114m), Written on the Wind (Douglas
Sirk, 1956, 99m), Taxi Driver (Martin
Scorsese, 1976, 113m), Cure (Kiyoshi
Kurosawa, 1997, 115m), Crouching Tiger,
Hidden Dragon (Ang Lee, 2000, 120m),
The Host (Pong Chun-go, 2006, 119m)

WK12 Film Authorship FCI chap. 14 Film Authorship Presentation and


Nov discussion of the
5/9 FH chapter 20, pp. 403-413 (French readings and film in
New Wave), pp. 420-421 (Young Week 12
German Cinema, chapter 27 (Japan,
China, New Cinemas in East Asia), pp.
632-658.

Naficy, Hamid, Close-up (FA 794-813).

Close-up (Abbas Kiarostami, 1989, 98


min.)

Suggested films:
400 Blows (Francois Truffaut, 1959,
99m), 8 (Federico Fellini, 1963,
138m), The Mirror (Andrei Tarkovsky,
1974, 106m), Schindlers List (Steven
Spielberg, 1993, 196m), The River (Cai
Mingliang, 1997, 115m), Cach (Michael
Haneke, 2006, 118m)

WK13 Cinema and New FCI chap. 15, Cinema as Industry Presentation and
Nov Technology: discussion of the
12/15 Industrial Changes Manovich, Lev, What is Cinema? The readings and film in
and New Forms Language of New Media (Cambridge, Week 13
MA: MIT Press, 2001), pp. 287-333.
Film Review Due
Date: Nov 12 Friedberg, Anne, The End of Cinema:
Multimedia and Technological Change,
Reinventing Film Studies, eds. Christine
Gledhill and Linda Williams (London:
Arnold, 2000), pp. 438-452.

Avatar (James Cameron, 2009, 162 min.)

Suggested films:
The Matrix (Andy and Lana Wachowski,
1999, 136m), Beowulf (Robert Zemeckis,
2007, 115m), Waltz with Bashir (Ari
Folman, 2008, 90m), Timecode (Mike
Figgis, 2000, 97m), Russian Ark
(Alexandre Sokurov, 2002, 96m)

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