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Mobile Testing

About the Tutorial


This tutorial will help the audience to learn the different aspect of the up-trending mobile
device testing as well as mobile application testing. You will get familiar with many useful
tools for black-box and white-box testing of a mobile application.

This tutorial also provides a deep insight on mobile device automation testing. Using this
tutorial, you can enable yourself for up-to-date test planning for mobile device and mobile
device application testing. In addition, you shall be able to automate basic test scripts for
mobile device application testing.

Audience
If you are a quality assurance engineer having interest in mobile device testing as well as
mobile device application testing, this tutorial will turn out to be a helping guide.

Prerequisites
A reader should know basic software testing concepts such as test planning, black-box
testing tricks, etc. In addition, it will help a great deal if the reader is familiar with any
scripting languages, for example, JavaScript.

Disclaimer & Copyright


Copyright 2016 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.

All the contents and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point
(I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book can download, read, print, or keep it for his/her
personal use. However, it is strictly prohibited to reuse, retain, print, copy, distribute, or
republish whole or the part of this e-book in any manner for the commercial purpose
without written consent of the publisher.

We strive to produce and update the contents and tutorials of our website accurately and
precisely, however, the contents may contain some inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point
(I) Pvt. Ltd. takes no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness, or completeness of
our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you find any errors on our website or
in this tutorial, please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com.

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Mobile Testing

Table of Contents
About the Tutorial ................................................................................................................................... 1

Audience ................................................................................................................................................. 1

Prerequisites ........................................................................................................................................... 1

Disclaimer & Copyright............................................................................................................................ 1

Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 2

1. MOBILE TESTING OVERVIEW........................................................................................... 6

2. MOBILE PLATFORMS ............................................................................................................. 7

Mobile Operating Systems ...................................................................................................................... 7

3. MOBILE DEVICE TYPES .......................................................................................................... 8

4. NATIVE VS HYBRID VS MOBILEWEB................................................................................. 9

Mobile Web ............................................................................................................................................ 9

Native App ............................................................................................................................................ 10

Hybrid App ............................................................................................................................................ 10

5. DEVICE VS APPLICATION TESTING ................................................................................. 12

Device Testing ....................................................................................................................................... 12

Application Testing ............................................................................................................................... 12

6. MOBILE EMULATOR VS SIMULATOR .............................................................................. 14

7. MOBILE APPLICATION TESTING ...................................................................................... 16

Functional Testing ................................................................................................................................. 16

Compatibility Testing ............................................................................................................................ 16

Localization Testing ............................................................................................................................... 16

Laboratory Testing ................................................................................................................................ 17

Performance Testing ............................................................................................................................. 17

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Mobile Testing

Stress Testing ........................................................................................................................................ 17

Security Testing ..................................................................................................................................... 18

Memory Leakage Testing ...................................................................................................................... 18

Power Consumption Testing ................................................................................................................. 18

Interrupt Testing ................................................................................................................................... 19

Usability Testing .................................................................................................................................... 19

Installation Testing ................................................................................................................................ 20

Uninstallation Testing ........................................................................................................................... 20

Updates Testing .................................................................................................................................... 20

Certification Testing .............................................................................................................................. 21

8. MOBILE UI TESTING ............................................................................................................. 22

Screen Orientation / Resolution ............................................................................................................ 22

Available Tools ...................................................................................................................................... 23

Touch Screens ....................................................................................................................................... 26

Soft & Hard Keys ................................................................................................................................... 26

9. MOBILE DEVICE TESTING PLANNING AND TOOLS.................................................. 28

Preparing to Perform Mobile Device Testing ......................................................................................... 28

Device Management Tools .................................................................................................................... 28

10. MOBILE DEVICE TESTING HARDWARE PERSPECTIVE .......................................... 31

Hardware Components ......................................................................................................................... 31

UDID for iOS .......................................................................................................................................... 34

Provision Profile for iOS ........................................................................................................................ 34

Device Options & Preferences ............................................................................................................... 35

11. MOBILE DEVICE TESTING TYPES .................................................................................. 36

Network Connections ............................................................................................................................ 36

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Mobile Testing

SD Card Interactions .............................................................................................................................. 36

Bluetooth Testing .................................................................................................................................. 38

Wi-Fi Testing ......................................................................................................................................... 38

Localization & Globalization .................................................................................................................. 40

Database Testing ................................................................................................................................... 41

Recovery Testing ................................................................................................................................... 41

Concurrency Testing .............................................................................................................................. 42

Usability Testing .................................................................................................................................... 42

12. TESTING FRAMEWORKS OVERVIEW ........................................................................... 44

13. ANDROID TESTING FRAMEWORKS ................................................................................. 45

14. IOS TESTING FRAMEWORKS ............................................................................................. 46

15. ROBOTIUM TESTING FRAMEWORK ................................................................................ 47

Benefits of Robotium ............................................................................................................................ 47

Drawbacks of Robotium ........................................................................................................................ 47

How to Use Robotium ........................................................................................................................... 48

Test an App with Robotium ................................................................................................................... 51

16. SELENDROID TESTING FRAMEWORK ............................................................................ 54

Benefits of Selendroid ........................................................................................................................... 54

Drawbacks of Selendroid ....................................................................................................................... 54

How to Use Selendroid .......................................................................................................................... 54

Test an App with Robotium ................................................................................................................... 56

17. APPIUM TESTING FRAMEWORK ...................................................................................... 60

Advantages of Appium .......................................................................................................................... 60

Drawbacks of Appium ........................................................................................................................... 60

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Test an App with Appium ...................................................................................................................... 64

18. ZUCCHINI TESTING FRAMEWORK ................................................................................... 67

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1. Mobile Testing Overview Mobile Testing

Before we start the actual tutorial, lets have some fun. Take a look at the following list.
You can easily relate to these essential chores that we invariably have to face in todays
busy and hectic lifestyle:

I want to pay my electricity bill.


I need to communicate with my manager and submit my reports urgently.
I want to buy new clothes for my kid, but I don't have the time to go to a store.
Oh...it's 10 PM; I am running late for my flight. Where is my cab?
I have been in this city for the first time; which hotel should I book?

Now answer yourself. What do you need to perform these activities in a fraction of second?
The answer would be:

A smartphone,
Internet connectivity, and
A mobile app to do the job.

This makes us realize the importance of a mobile app in todays era. Everything is being
done in a smart way through your smart phone. Each day, we get to know about a new
app or tool being launched to ease our life.

There is one well-known incidence about Gowalla. Millions of people enjoyed this location-
based social network that started in 2007 and shuttered down five years later. Multiple
problems blocked Gowalla from reaching mass appeal. One of the prime reasons that
surfaced was Checking in was not that user friendly.

To have a successful mobile app, we need to understand that developing a nice mobile
app is not the only requirement. A mobile app needs to be tested thoroughly in order to
get the likability of users. After all, it is the user experience makes any software successful.

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2. Mobile Platforms Mobile Testing

Before jumping on to mobile testing, it's advisable to understand the basics of mobile
platforms. It mainly includes the operating system of the mobile, type of the device, and
type of the mobile app. Having sufficient knowledge about each of these will help us
conduct robust test planning in the long run.

Mobile Operating Systems


The following table gives an overview of some of the popular mobile operating systems
available in market:

Popularity (Low, Latest available


Operating System Developed by
Medium, High) version

Lollipop, Android 5.0-


Android Google Inc High
5.1

iOS Apple Inc High iOS 8.X

Blackberry Blackberry Ltd Low Blackberry 10.2.1

Windows Microsoft Inc Medium Windows 10 Mobile

Symbian
Symbian Low Discontinued
Foundation

Based on some generic survey, the usage of different operating systems in the market can
be depicted as shown below.

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3. Mobile Device Types Mobile Testing

Mobile devices are typically handheld computers. They have many variants based on their
characteristics such as physical dimension, hardware and software capability, what are
they meant for, etc.

Take a look at the following table. It differentiates tablets, e-book readers, and
smartphones based on their characteristics.

Device Tablets E-book Readers Smartphones

Tablets are portable E-book readersalso A smartphone is a


computer devices. called e-readersare powerful mobile
Unlike traditional similar to tablet phone that is
What it is computers, they dont computers, except designed to run a
have keyboards or they are mainly variety of applications
mouse, however the designed for reading in addition to
entire screen is touch e-books (digital, providing phone
sensitive. downloadable books). service.

Almost all the jobs


which we can do with Web browsing,
Used for Reading e-books watching videos,
traditional computers or
desktops. reading e-books, and
playing games

Amazon Kindle, Sony smartphones,


Example Samsung Tablets Samsung
Barnes & Noble Nook.
smartphones, Apple
iPhone.

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4. Native vs Hybrid vs MobileWeb Mobile Testing

A critical factor that you have to consider while doing test planning is checking the Mobile
Application type. You will mainly come across three types of mobile applications: Mobile
Web, Native App, and Hybrid App. The classification is based on the development efforts
and App redistribution strategy. Let's understand each of them in detail.

Mobile Web
Web apps are not real applications; they are actually websites that open in your
smartphone with the help of a web browser. Mobile websites have the broadest audience
of all the primary types of applications.

Example: http://www.tutorialspoint.com/

Benefits :

o Easy access.

o Easy Development: Developing responsive design and restructuring the


content to be properly displayed on a smaller screen/hardware will make any
desktop website mobile friendly.

o Easy update: Just update in one location and all the users automatically have
access to the latest version of the site.

o No installation required, as compared to native or hybrid app.

Downside :

o Mobile websites cannot use some of the features. For example, access to the
file system and local resources isnt available in websites.

o Many existing websites dont support offline capabilities.

o Users wont have the apps icon on their home screen as a constant reminder.
The website needs to be opened in a web browser only.

o While native and hybrid apps appear on the App Store and Google Play, web
apps wont. So redistribution is not that sensible.

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Native App
A native app is developed specifically for one platform. It can be installed through an
application store (such as Google Play Store or Apples App Store)

Example: Whatsapp, Facebook

Benefits :

o Native Apps live on the device and are accessed through icons on the device
home screen.

o They can take full advantage of all the device features they can use the
camera, the GPS, the accelerometer, the compass, the list of contacts, and
so on. They can also incorporate gestures (either standard operating-
system gestures or new, and app-defined gestures).

o Native apps can use the devices notification system and can work offline.

o Publishers can make use of push-notifications, alerting users every time a


new piece of content is published or when their attention is required.

o Native Apps maintain UI design of each operating system, thus they offer
the best user experience. For example, a Native App can have a left-aligned
header in Android and a center-aligned header in iOS.

o Redistribution is easy, as it is found in app store.

Downside :
o High cost for building the app : Native apps developed for one platform will
not run on another platform. An App built for Android will not run on iOS.
We need to build a different App altogether for iOS. Because of this reason,
we need to maintain multiple versions of the App.

o Even though you might publish native Apps, youll want to keep the mobile
website well maintained, as mobile brings more traffic. So maintenance is
higher.

Hybrid App
Hybrid Apps are a way to expose content from existing websites in App format. They can
be well described as a mixture of Web App and Native App.

Example : Instagram, Wikipedia

Benefits :

o Developing a Hybrid App is cheaper than developing a Native App. It can be


built for cross-platforms, i.e., reduced cost for App development.

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Mobile Testing

o Maintenance is simple, as there are not many versions to be maintained.


o It can take advantage of a few features available in the device.
o It can be found in the App Store, which makes the distribution easy.
o It has a browser embedded within the app only.

Downside :

o Graphics are less accustomed with the operating system as compared to Native
Apps.

o Hybrid Apps are slower than Native Apps.

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5. Device vs Application Testing Mobile Testing

Device Testing
This type of testing is generally being done to ensure the quality of a mobile device. Testing
includes hardware and software testing for a mobile. We will discuss here the different
types of testing which are generally being carried out on a mobile devices.

Unit Testing
Unit testing is a test phase when portions of a mobile device development are tested,
usually by the developer. It may contain hardware testing, software testing, and
mechanical testing.

Factory Testing
Factory testing is a kind of sanity check on mobile devices. It is conducted automatically
to verify that there are no defects brought by the manufacturing or assembling. It mainly
includes the following testing:

Mobile application testing


Hardware testing
Battery (charging) testing
Signal receiving
Network testing
Protocol testing
Mobile games testing
Mobile software compatibility testing

Certification Testing
Certification testing is the check before a mobile device goes to the market.

Application Testing
Mobile application testing is a process by which application a software developed for
handheld mobile devices is tested for its functionality, usability, and consistency. There
are different types of testing which can be performed on a mobile device. For example,

Functional Testing
Laboratory Testing
Performance Testing
Memory Leakage Testing
Interrupt Testing

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Mobile Testing

Usability testing
Installation testing
Certification Testing
Security Testing

Key Points
Device testing is generally being carried out to check the mobile device itself,
whereas Mobile application testing involves testing of an application which will be
running on the chosen device.

When we call it device testing, hardware testing becomes a part of it. In case of
mobile application testing, it depends, i.e., if the application under test requires
hardware integration, then hardware testing will be involved.

Automation is possible for Mobile Device testing as well as for Mobile application
testing.

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6. Mobile Emulator vs Simulator Mobile Testing

One thing is self-explanatory in case of mobile testing. To perform mobile testing, you
need a mobile device. This is to access that how our product will work and look like on a
given mobile set.

Suppose we are developing an application for flight ticket booking system. Once the
product is entirely developed, as a part of mobile testing, we need to check if the
application is working as expected with all the majorly used devices like Android phones,
iOS, Blackberry phones, and other different types of tablets and iPads.

To do this kind of check, we need to acquire each such device and then we can check if
the application behaves as per expectation. Yes you thought right, as a product owner one
will defiantly find this very expensive to procure such a large number of mobile devices
and carry out testing. So is there any smart alternate available?

The solution to this problem is to use Mobile Simulators and Mobile Emulators. These are
primarily software programs designed to provide simulation for important features of a
smartphone. They are very similar in nature, so sometimes, they are used
interchangeably.

Lets compare how testing on an Emulator/Simulator is different from testing on a real


device:

Real Device Emulator / Simulator

Getting real devices will cost It is almost free, we just need to


Price
you a lot. download and install them

It is slower as compared to actual


It has faster processing;
Processing devices. It has observed less latency
however network latency may
Speed than real devices connected to the local
be normal.
network or in the cloud.

It provides step-by-step debugging of an


Debugging Debugging is not that easy. application. Also, it provides an efficient
way for capturing screenshots.

Web-app Web applications can be tested


Testing a web application is much easier.
Testing in a normal way.

It cannot simulate all types of user


Testing on a real device has a
interactions; hence it may lead to false
Reliability major advantage that it
results sometimes. So it scores low
always gives accurate results.
when it comes to reliability.

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Mobile Testing

A simulator/emulator cannot mimic the following features:

Mobile device battery


Mobile devices camera
Difficult to mimic interruptions like incoming calls and SMS.
Not so much realistic simulation for mobile device memory usage.

Let us now understand more about mobile simulators and mobile emulators. There are
specific differences between the two. The following table lists the major difference between
a simulator and an emulator.

Emulator Simulator

- Mobile device software - Internal behavior of the device.


What it
- Mobile device hardware - It does not mimic hardware.
mimics
- Mobile operating system

It is generally provided by the


It is generally provided by the
How to get it device manufacturer or some other
device manufacturer.
company.

Internal It is written in machine-level


It is written in high-level language.
structure assembly language.

It is not suitable for debugging


Debugging It is more suitable for debugging.
purpose.

Emulators are really slow.


Emulating the actual hardware
Performance Faster than emulators.
usually makes the software run
slower than it would natively.

Example Googles Android SDK Apples iOS Simulator

So, what is the best choice for mobile testing? Best practice indicates that, while actual
development is in progress, we should use an emulator or a simulator. Before finalizing
the product, there should be a sanity check with chosen real devices. For example, there
is a huge number of Android smartphone users, so the smart choice is to have a sanity
check for the latest Android device and regression can be conducted over simulators.

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7. Mobile Application Testing Mobile Testing

A simple definition of mobile application testing would go like this Mobile application
testing is a process by which an application software developed for handheld mobile
devices is tested for its functionality, usability, and consistency. Mobile application testing
can be automated or manual type of testing.

Note: For better understanding, we shall assume that we are testing a mobile application
for online flight ticket booking system.

Functional Testing
Functional testing is the most basic test for any application to ensure that it is working as
per the defined requirements. Similar to other user-interface based applications, mobile
applications require a number of human interactions in user scenarios.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that flight availability is displayed for a chosen source destination on a


selected date only.

Verify that past dates are not included in the search results.

Compatibility Testing
Compatibility testing has got the highest stack when it comes to mobile application testing.
The purpose of a mobile app compatibility test, in general, is to ensure an apps key
functions behave as expected on a specific device. The compatibility itself should only take
a few minutes, and can be planned well in advance.

It is not going to be an easy task, deciding on which mobile devices compatibility tests
should be performed (as testing with all available devices is merely impossible). So
prepare a test matrix with every possible combination and get it prioritized by the client.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that flight search is performed successfully with Android device.


Verify that flight search is performed successfully for Apple iPad.

Localization Testing
Nowadays, most of the apps are designed for global use and it is very important to care
about regional trails like languages, time zones, etc. Its important to validate the apps
functionality when someone changes the time zone. It has to be taken into consideration
that sometimes western designs may not work with the audience from eastern countries
or vice-versa.

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Mobile Testing

Example test scenarios:

Verify that there is no UI or data truncation issue when we use the mobile app with
different languages (or say, non-English language).

Verify that time zone changes are handled gracefully for your mobile application.

Laboratory Testing
Laboratory testing, usually carried out by network carriers, is done by simulating the
complete wireless network. This test is performed to find out any glitches when a mobile
application uses voice and/or data connection to perform some functions.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that there is no glitch while a customer is having voice chat with the support
staff.

Performance Testing
Mobile performance test covers client application performance, server performance, and
network performance. It is important to make sure that the performance test scenarios
cover all those areas. With the help of performance testing tools, it is not difficult to identify
the existing networks, servers, and server-side application bottlenecks, given the
predefined loads and transaction mix.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that flight available check takes only a reasonable amount of time.

Verify that while flight availability is being checked, the mobile operates normally
and does not hang.

Stress Testing
Stress testing is a must to find exceptions, hangs, and deadlocks that may go unnoticed
during functional and user interface testing. Here is a list of some of the criteria for stress
testing:

Load your application with as much data as possible to try to reach its breaking
point.

Perform the same operations over and over again.

Perform the repeated operations at varying speeds very quickly or very slowly.

Leave your application running for a long period of time, both interacting with the
device and just letting it sit idle, or performing some automatic task that takes a
long time, for example, a slideshow.

Randomly send screen taps and keystrokes to your application.

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Have multiple applications running on your device so that you can switch between
your application and other device applications often.

Example test scenarios:

Check 1000 users are accessing the mobile app to search for domestic flights.
Check 1000 users are accessing the mobile app to search for international flights.

Security Testing
Vulnerabilities to hacking, authentication, and authorization policies, data security, session
management and other security standards should be verified as a part of mobile app
security testing. Applications should encrypt user name and passwords when
authenticating the user over a network.

One way to test security related scenarios is to route your mobiles data through a proxy
server like OWASP Zed Attack Proxy and look for vulnerabilities.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that the application does not get operated with same user credentials on two
different mobile devices.

Verify that a session automatically gets expired if it remains inactive for more than
15 minutes.

Memory Leakage Testing


Mobile devices have very limited memory as compared to other computers, and mobile
operating systems have a default behavior to terminate applications that are using
excessive memory and causing a poor user experience.

Memory testing is exceptionally important for mobile applications to ensure that each
application maintains optimized memory usage throughout the user journey. It is
recommended that we conduct memory testing on the actual target device, since the
system architecture is different from an emulator to an actual device.

Example test scenarios:

Do flight availability checks ten times and note down increasing memory usage for
each check.

Keep the application running for ten minutes and observe if memory usage remains
stable.

Power Consumption Testing


There are several types of batteries used in different mobile devices (i.e. nickel cadmium/
lithium ion/ Nickel metal hybrid). While we focus on power consumption testing, we are

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Mobile Testing

required to measure the state of the battery at each activity level. It will give us a better
understanding of power consumption by an individual application.

Power Consumption test can be done manually; also there are some free tools available
in the market such as Trepn Profiler, Power Tutor, and Nokia Energy Profiler. These are
applications which can display the real-time power consumption on a smartphone or
tablet.

Example test scenarios:

Use the mobile app to search for flight availability, and check the power
consumption remains minimal.

Keep the mobile app in ideal condition; verify that there is no power consumption
when there is no activity happening for the app.

Interrupt Testing
An application, while functioning, may face several interruptions like incoming calls or
network coverage outage and recovery. This can again be distinguished for:

Incoming and Outgoing SMS and MMS


Incoming and Outgoing calls
Incoming Notifications
Battery Removal
Cable Insertion and Removal for data transfer

Example test scenarios:

Verify that flight availability check gets paused and resumed back after receiving
an incoming call.

Verify that the user can reject a call while using the App and again resume the
same App thereafter.

Usability Testing
Usability testing evaluates the application based on the following three criteria for the
target audience:

Efficiency: The accuracy and completeness with which specified users can achieve
specified goals in a particular environment.

Effectiveness: The resources expended in relation to the accuracy and


completeness of goals achieved.

Satisfaction: The comfort and acceptability of the work system to its users and
other people affected by its use.

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It is very important to get usability testing in place from the early stage of the application
design, and it should not be done only when the application is completed. Usability testing
requires heavy involvement of users, and the output might affect the application design,
which is very difficult to change in the later stages of the project.

Example test scenarios:

Flight availability check should be on the home page.


Sponsored advertisement should not be displayed in the middle of the content.

Installation Testing
Installation testing verifies that the installation process goes smoothly without the user
having to face any difficulty.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that the installation process is smooth and does not take long.
Verify that the installation is successful through enterprise app store.

Uninstallation Testing
The basics of uninstallation testing can be summarized in one line as Uninstallation should
sweep out data related to the App in just one go.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that all the application related files are removed successfully after
uninstallation.

If it is an App which stores media files (like Whatsapp or Facebook), retain the files
even after the uninstallation of the App.

Updates Testing
We need to be very much cautious about mobile app updates. People frequently complain
about applications not working satisfactorily after an update. So it is very important that
under the update testing, we qualify that the App will work as it was working previously.
In a nutshell, it should not break anything. Mobile application updates can take place in
two ways Automatic update and Manual update.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that the application works successfully after automatic update.


Verify that the update progress is displayed properly.

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Mobile Testing

Certification Testing
To get a certificate of compliance, each mobile device needs to be tested against the
guidelines set by different mobile platforms.

Example test scenarios:

Verify that the application adheres to the policy of iOS phones when installed on
iPhone.

Verify that the application adheres to the policy of Android phones when installed
on Android.

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8. Mobile UI Testing Mobile Testing

Suppose we are using a mobile application, and interestingly, you experience the following
situation:

Button alignment is missing.


Text is getting trimmed.
Calendar control is getting cut.

Indeed this is an unpleasant experience for any of the users. To make sure that we provide
excellent experience to our users, Mobile UI Testing is highly recommended.

The first area to explore in your test plan is the user interface. It is your job as the tester
to confirm that your application meets certain expectations, such as:

Overall color scheme/theme of the device


Style and color of icons
Progress indicators when pages are loading
Menus and how they are invoked and the typical items they contain
Overall responsiveness of applications on this device

Lets discuss more on the basics of Mobile UI Testing.

Screen Orientation / Resolution


Web content needs to look and feel great across a wide variety of devices and network
conditions. It's generally a good idea to test your webpage under the commonly used
screen resolutions so that you can be sure that your page is usable.

If you have a multi-column layout, you may also want to check that your columns align
correctly and are still viewable when your visitor has a lower resolution. It is also important
to know the standard screen resolutions:

640 480
800 600
1024 768
1280 800
1366 768
1400 900
1680 1050

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Available Tools
There are quite a few tools available in the market to make mobile UI testing smoother
and simpler. For example:

Google chrome extension


Screenfly
Browser Stack

Lets understand a little more about these tools and their usefulness.

Google chrome extension


Its a free feature available with Google chrome web browser. We have given here a step-
by-step explanation of how to test mobile web with Google Chrome Extension:

Step 1: Open the website under testing in Google Chrome Web browser.

Step 2: Press F12. It will open the Developer tool window, as shown in the following
screenshot.

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Mobile Testing

Step 3: Click the mobile device like icon. Refer the following screenshot.

Step 4: Select the mobile device with which you want to test the website. You can choose
the different available devices in order to do the UI verification.

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Mobile Testing

Screenfly
Screenfly is a free and easy-to-use tool. To use this, you just need to type in
http://quirktools.com/screenfly/ in your web browser. You will see the following screen.

Enter the website under test and click Go. Select the mobile device in which you want to
view the website.

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Mobile Testing

BrowserStack
Its another great tool for performing mobile UI testing. It provides wonderful results.
Although it is a paid tool, you can avail a free trail by registering on
https://www.browserstack.com/ with a valid email address.

Touch Screens

Multi-Touch vs. Single Touch Screens


If your device and application support multi-touch features, like the pinch-to-zoom effect
on iPhone, then make sure to include lots of test cases involving touching the screen in
more than one place simultaneously, especially while typing on the soft keyboard.

Long Touch vs. Short Touch


While there is no concept of a double-click on touch screen devices (although there could
be, if specifically implemented in your application), some devices, like Android
smartphones, distinguish between long touches and short touches. Pressing and holding
an item will bring up a context menu in the middle of the screen, while short-clicking the
same item will automatically perform the first action in that context menu.

Button Size and Position


Ensure that buttons and icons are large enough and far enough from the edges of the
screen to be easily clicked by a large fingertip.

Soft & Hard Keys

Soft Keyboards
Often, there are various special cases and corner cases that are important to the end-
users.

Does the soft keyboard automatically appear if the user's main action is to enter
some text?

Does the first layer of the soft keyboard include shortcut "@" and ".com" keys if
the highlighted field is for entering email addresses?

Can the soft keyboard be dismissed and re-displayed easily?

Can the soft and hard keyboards be used interchangeably (if the device has both)?

Hard Keys
Make sure to include a lot of testing around the use of the device's available hard keys
such as Start, Home, Menu, and Back. These should all interact with your application
similarly to how they interact with the device's native applications.

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Mobile Testing

Trackballs, Track wheels & Touchpads


If your device doesn't have a touch screen, it is even more important to verify that the
screen navigation is as painless as possible for the user. In these cases, the user may rely
on a trackball, track wheel, or touchpad to move from object to object.

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9. Mobile Device Testing Planning and Tools Mobile Testing

Testing mobile devices such as phones, tablets, and eReaders requires special equipment
and methodology. Since traditional desktop screen-capture software cannot adequately
capture touch interactions, usability practitioners have been using strategically placed
cameras to record usability test interactions on these mobile devices.

Preparing to Perform Mobile Device Testing


The methodologies and devices to facilitate usability testing on phones, tablets, and
eReaders continue to develop. When planning mobile device testing, you should keep in
mind the following points:

Your timeframe and budget. Having a good understanding of the timeframe and
the budget will help you determine which processes and equipment will work best
based your needs.

The physical setup of the space and how you will capture the test. This
may range from a lower-fidelity arrangement to using a specialized platform and
camera device and/or maybe using an eye-tracking software.

Your target audience and devices. Use web analytics to check how many mobile
users visit the site, which device they use, and their operating
system. Understanding this information will help you to know which devices to
test.

Another important aspect to cover after test planning is test device management. In a
large organization, handling mobile device testing needs a smart way to secure
organizations confidential data. To do this, you will need a security software. In the
following section, we will understand more on device management tools.

Device Management Tools


Mobile device management (MDM) is a type of security software used in IT to monitor,
manage, and secure employees' mobile devices that are deployed across multiple mobile
service providers and across multiple mobile operating systems being used in the
organization.

MDM is often combined with additional security services and tools such as Mobile
Application Management to create a complete mobile device and security Enterprise
Mobility Management solution.

There are many tools available in market to do this job. The following table provides an
overview of some of the popular tools and their features.

28
Mobile Testing

IBM MobileIron
Products BlackBerry MDM Citrix MDM Dell MDM SOTI MDM
MDM MDM

2.3
Android 2.3+ Yes Yes Yes through Yes
current

4.0
iOS 5.0+ Yes Yes Yes through Yes
current

Windows No for BES10 (WP 7 through


Yes Yes Yes Yes
Phone 8+ for BES12) current

10
Yes, BBOS, (through
BlackBerry Yes No Yes No
BlackBerry 10 ActiveSync
)

Symbian No Yes No Yes No No

Windows
No Yes Yes Yes 8.1 RT/Pro Yes
OS

Lion,
Coming
Mac OSX No Yes Yes Mountain Yes
soon
Lion

Office Windows
Windows 365, Mobile,
Other No None None
Mobile Gmail, CE,
Lotus Embedded

Configure/
disable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
WiFi

Configure
VPN/Proxy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
/Gateway

Yes, device
Device
Yes Yes type Yes Yes Yes
Encryption
dependent

Yes, device
Email
Encryption
Yes Yes type Yes Yes Yes
dependent

Multifactor
authenticat Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
ion

29
Mobile Testing

Yes with
Malware
detection
No No No Yes partner Yes
integration

Yes with
Firewall Yes No No Yes partner Yes
integration

Separate
User Data
from Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Corporate
Data

30
10. Mobile Device Testing Hardware Perspective Mobile Testing

Before we move ahead with actual mobile device testing, it is very important to have an
insight into the mobile device hardware architecture. This will help us in better test
planning when we actually jump into mobile device/mobile device application testing. Lets
take a look at the different characteristics of mobile device hardware.

Hardware Components
If you take any cellphone, mostly it will comprise of the following parts.

Circuit Board
It can be regarded as the brain of the phone that controls all its activities.

Touch screen display


Touchscreens are a vital component of smartphones. Touchscreens recognize where on
the screen you have placed your finger or stylus and communicates the co-ordinates to
the phone CPU accordingly.

There are two popular types of touchscreens:

Resistive Touchscreen: It has two layers (separated by a miniscule gap) which


form an overlay over the screen. When a finger is placed on any point on the screen,
the two form a contact and the co-ordinates are obtained. These are relatively
inexpensive and are rightly found on most budget phones. The downside is that a
certain amount of pressure is required to register a touch. As time goes by, some
degree of damage does occur to the screen.

Capacitive Touchscreen: It has the entire screen coated with a capacitive


substance which holds a certain amount of electrical charge. When a conducting
object like a finger is placed on the screen, there is a change in capacitance on that
point and thus the coordinates are obtained. Capacitive touchscreens dont respond
well in cold climates where the human finger doesnt cause a change in capacitance,

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Mobile Testing

thus a stylus is recommended for such scenarios. Then there are multi-touch
touchscreens wherein almost all fingers can be pinpointed accurately. This has
led to an increase in the number of gestures that one can perform on a touchscreen.

Memory Card
Memory cards come in different sizes and capacities. They are used widely as a data
storage device to store digital information.

SIM Card
A SIM card provides personal mobility so that the user can have access to all subscribed
services irrespective of both the location of the terminal and the use of a specific terminal.
You need to insert the SIM card into another GSM cellular phone to receive calls at that
phone, make calls from that phone, or receive other subscribed services.

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Mobile Testing

Battery
Smartphones run on a variety of different batteries depending on the phones
manufacturer, its dimensions and features. For those who depend heavily on their
smartphones, it is important that the batteries are as long lasting as possible. This
eliminates the need to recharge them frequently, and makes it less likely that they will
run out of charge when they are most needed.

33
Mobile Testing

UDID for iOS


Each iPhone or iPod Touch has a Unique Device Identifier (UDID), which is a sequence of
40 letters and numbers that is specific to your device. It's like a serial number but much
harder to guess. It will look something like this:
2b6f0cc904d137be2e1730235f5664094b831186.

How to find you UUID?


1. Connect your iOS device to your computer.
2. Open iTunes.
3. In iTunes, click on the devices name under Devices in the column on the left.
4. Click once on the serial number of the device in the windows main section.
5. The serial number should then change to the devices UDID.

Provision Profile for iOS


A provisioning profile is a collection of digital entities that uniquely ties developers and
devices to an authorized iPhone Development Team and enables a device to be used for
testing. A Development Provisioning Profile must be installed on each device on which you
wish to run your application code.

How to create a provision profile for iOS?


1. Run Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or Safari.

2. In the iOS Dev. Center, click Certificates, Identifiers & Profiles.

34
Mobile Testing

3. In the iOS Apps panel, click Provisioning Profiles.

4. Click +.

5. Select iOS App Development and click Continue.

6. Select an App ID to associate with the provisioning profile and click Continue.

7. To be able to use one development provisioning profile across multiple apps, select
a wildcard App ID, if available.

8. Select one or more certificates for development to include in the provisioning


profile and click Continue.

9. Only certificates for development are listed.

10. Select one or more devices to include in the provisioning profile and click Continue.

11. Enter a name for the profile and click Generate.

12. (Optional) Click Download to download the provisioning profile.

How to add your provisioning profile in AppBuilder?


1. Click the cogwheel icon and select Options.

2. Select iOS Provisioning Profiles.

3. Click Import.

4. Browse to the location where the mobile provision file for your provisioning profile
is stored, select it and confirm the import.

Device Options & Preferences


You can specify a device preference (Mobile or All) for any text, dynamic search, image,
or display ad.

If an ad group has both mobile-preferred and regular ads, only mobile-preferred ads serve
on mobile devices, and only regular ads serve on computers and tablets.

In the type list, select Ads and Extensions and choose the type of ad youd like to update.
Select one or more ads. Under "Device preference" on the edit panel, select Mobile or All.

35
11. Mobile Device Testing Types Mobile Testing

Lets look into the details of different types of testing that we can perform on the mobile
devices.

Network Connections
The following table provides a checklist of network connection tests that can be performed
for a mobile device.

# Description
Does the app behave according to specification if connected to the internet
1
through Wi-Fi?
Does the app behave according to specification if connected to the internet
2
through 3G?
Does the app behave according to specification if connected to the internet
3
through 2G?
4 Does the app behave according to specification of the app is out of network reach?

Does the app resume working when it gets back into the network reach from
5
outside reach of the network?

6 Update transactions are processed correctly after re-establishing connection.

Does the app still work correctly when tethering or otherwise connected to
7
another device?

8 What happens if the app switches between networks (Wi-Fi, 3G, 2G)?

Does the app use standard network ports (Mail: 25, 143, 465, 993 or 995 HTTP:
9 80 or 443 SFTP: 22) to connect to remote services, as some providers block
certain ports.

SD Card Interactions
The following table provides a checklist of checking premiere functions of the SD card
interaction with a mobile phone.

# Description
1. Can the app be installed on the device?
2. Does the app behave as designed/desired if there is an incoming call?
3. Does the app behave as designed/desired if there is an incoming SMS?
4. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the charger is connected?

5. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the charger is disconnected?

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Mobile Testing

6. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device goes to sleeping mode

Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device resumes from sleeping
7.
mode

8. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device resumes from lock screen?

9. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is tilted?

10. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is shaken?

Does the app behave as designed/desired if a local message is coming from


11.
another app (think of: calendar reminders, to-do task etc.)?

Does the app behave as designed/desired if a push message is coming from


12. another app (think of: twitter mentions, Whatsapp message, wordfeud invitation,
etc.).

Does the app interact with the GPS sensor correctly (switch on/off, retrieve GPS
13.
data)?
14. Is the functionality of all the buttons or keys on the device defined for this app?
Verify that buttons or keys which have no defined function have no unexpected
15.
behaviour on the app when activating.
In case theres a true back button available on the device does the back button
16.
take the user to the previous screen?
In case theres a true menu button available on the device, does the menu
17.
button show the apps menu?
In case theres a true home button available on the device, does the home
18.
button get the user back to the home screen of the device?
In case theres a true search button available on the device, does this get the
19.
user to some form of search within the app?
20. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the Battery low message is pushed
Does the app behave as designed/desired if the sound on the device is turned
21.
off?
22. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is in airplane mode?
23. Can the app be de-installed from the device?
24. Does the application function as expected after re-installation?
25. Can the app be found in the app store? (Check after go-live)
Can the app switch to different apps on the device through multitasking as
26.
designed/desired?
27. Are all touch screen positions (buttons) working when a screen protector is used.

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Mobile Testing

Bluetooth Testing
Bluetooth devices can communicate only within the radius of the 10 meters. Such devices
can be keyboards, the mouse, wireless headphones, etc. The following table provides a
checklist of Bluetooth tests that can be performed:

# Description
1. User can able to search all available devices on the range
Both data and voice transmissions can be sent through the use of short range
2.
networks.
Both data and voice transmissions can be received through the use of short range
3.
networks.
4. User can able to disconnect any time.

5. While closing Bluetooth ask to disconnect the present connections.

6. Bluetooth maximum range is 10 meters.

Through mobile phone, you can send pictures, videos, exchange business cards
7.
and also transfer files to your PC.

(Device paired) this is a message used to confirm that a user has successfully
8.
paired two Bluetooth devices.

9. Non-discoverable mode, a device that will not respond to discovery requests.

10. Non-discoverable mode, a device that will not respond to discovery requests.

Non-pairable mode, a device that will not accept pairing is said to be in non-
11.
pairable mode.

Passkey, a passkey is a user-defined password needed to connect to a device


12. from any other device. It is strongly advised to use passkeys wherever possible
to avoid unauthorized access to your Bluetooth devices.

Authentication - The process of verifying the identity of the other end of a


13. communications link. In Bluetooth technology this is achieved by the
authentication process based on passkeys and pairing.
Devices not found, this is an error message which may appear if a search for
14.
other devices in range does not find anything.
Idle Mode, a device is in idle mode when it has no established links with other
15.
devices. In this mode a device may discover other devices.
Known Device testing, a device which is already known about by another device.
16. Either the devices have been paired in the past or some information of the known
devices is stored.

Wi-Fi Testing
Testing your mobile phone WiFi connection is a great way to make sure your Internet is
operating at the speed promised by your service provider, but you arent limited to running
those tests on your desktop computer. Mobile phone WiFi testing is a perfect way to test

38
Mobile Testing

the power of your WiFi signal at various places in your home or office. Given below is the
Wifi testing checklist for a mobile device.

# Description
Does the app behave according to specification if connected to the internet through
1
Wi-Fi?
2 Does the app behave according to specification of the app is out of network reach?

Does the app resume working when it gets back into network reach from outside
3
reach of the network?

4 What happens if the app switches between networks (Wi-Fi, 3G, 2G)

Does the app use standard network ports (Mail: 25, 143, 465, 993 or 995 HTTP:
5 80 or 443 SFTP: 22) to connect to remote services, as some providers block certain
ports.

How to Run a Mobile Phone WiFi Speed Test on your Smartphone


Running a WiFi speed test on your smartphone is a simple task. Most convenient are the
speed tests that run in your smartphones mobile web browser. Just follow the simple on-
screen prompts to begin the test. If the online test doesnt save your results, take a
screenshot after the finished test to provide a history.

Some tests are available as apps for both the iOS and Android platforms. To use these,
download the app you want. Then follow the instructions to run the test and save your
result.

Tools to Perform Speed Test


Speed Test SpeedSmart WiFi & Mobile Network Speedtest : It is compatible with
Apple iPhone and iPad. It is a paid application. SpeedSmart is the ultimate iOS speed test
utility for evaluating your cellular (3G, 4G, and LTE) and Wi-Fi connection on all your iOS
devices. A global server network and a smart speed test method ensure accurate results.

39
Mobile Testing

WiFi Speed Test: It is compatible with Android phones. It is a paid tool. With this tool,
you can test the speed of your local (LAN) network. Testing can be done on wireless (WiFi)
or wired network.

Localization & Globalization


Please see the checklist below to have an idea about localization and globalization testing
for a mobile device.

# Description
1 Text is translated.
Translations meet the standards of native speakers with respect to grammar and
2
accuracy of terminology.
Dialog boxes are properly resized and dialog text is hyphenated according to the
3
rules of the user interface language.

4 Translated dialog boxes, status bars, toolbars, and menus fit on the screen at
different resolutions. They do not wrap and are not cut off.
5 Menu and dialog accelerators are unique.
Visual layout is consistent with the native edition's layout. For example, dialog
6
elements are in the proper tab order.

40
Mobile Testing

Database Testing
There are different ways you can store data in Mobile Apps. In case of Android, you may
choose to store your data over server, shared Preferences or SQLite.

SQLite is a lightweight database which is commonly used in Android and other operating
systems as well. In order to view data in SQLite, you may need to root the device or you
can use emulators for testing. There are some tools in Android Playstore which would help
you extract data from this database.

The following types of tests should form a part of your mobile database testing:
Database validation testing

Database integration testing

Database performance testing

Procedure and function testing

Trigger testing

CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations testing to make sure they will work


on the database

Testing that the database changes are shown correctly on the UI of the app

Search and indexing function testing

Recovery Testing
Recovery testing is used to ensure that operations can be continued after a disaster.
Recovery testing not only verifies the recovery process, but also the effectiveness of the
component parts of that process.

Recovery testing is the activity of testing how well an application is able to recover from
crashes, hardware failures, and other similar problems. Given below is the checklist for
Recoverability testing.

# Description

1 Adequate backup data is preserved.

2 Backup data is stored in a secure location.

3 Recovery procedures are documented.

4 All media file has been recovered from the restore point

5 All contacts have been recovered


6 All the applications has been restored successfully

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Mobile Testing

Concurrency Testing
We generally take the help of concurrent testing to make sure that multiple users can
concurrently access a program at the same time. While applying concurrency testing for a
mobile device, as such there will be only single user. So it eliminates the need of
concurrency testing for a mobile device.

Usability Testing
Generally you get a rig where mobile phone and a web cam can be adjusted to record the
usability assessment session.

There are tools available like http://www.applause.com/. They provide a targeted group
of survey participants who are handpicked to test your app. What separates Applause from
other such services is that you can have a consultation with an expert at Applause, who
then chooses the ideal participants based on the consultation.

Given below is the general checklist for GUI testing.

# Description
1. Can
1 the app be installed on the device?
2. Does the app behave as designed/desired if there is an incoming call?
3. Does the app behave as designed/desired if there is an incoming SMS?
4. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the charger is connected?

5. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the charger is disconnected?

6. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device goes to sleeping mode

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Mobile Testing

Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device resumes from sleeping
7.
mode

8. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device resumes from lock screen?

9. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is tilted?

10. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is shaken?

Does the app behave as designed/desired if a local message is coming from


11.
another app (think of: calendar reminders, to-do task etc.).

Does the app behave as designed/desired if a push message is coming from


12.
another app (think of: twitter mentions, Whatsapp message, etc.).

Does the app interact with the GPS sensor correctly (switch on/off, retrieve GPS
13.
data)?
14. Is the functionality of all the buttons or keys on the device defined for this app?
Verify that buttons or keys which have no defined function have no unexpected
15.
behaviour on the app when activating.
In case theres a true back button available on the device does the back button
16.
take the user to the previous screen?
In case theres a true menu button available on the device, does the menu button
17.
show the apps menu?
In case theres a true home button available on the device, does the home button
18.
get the user back to the home screen of the device?
In case theres a true search button available on the device, does this get the
19.
user to some form of search within the app?
20. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the Battery low message is pushed
21. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the sound on the device is turned off?
22. Does the app behave as designed/desired if the device is in airplane mode?
23. Can the app be de-installed from the device?
24. Does the application function as expected after re-installation?
25. Can the app be found in the app store? (Check after go-live)
Can the app switch to different apps on the device through multitasking as
26.
designed/desired?
27. Are all touch screen positions (buttons) working when a screen protector is used.

43
12. Testing Frameworks Overview Mobile Testing

A testing framework or more specifically a testing automation framework is an


execution environment to perform automated tests. It is the overall system in which
the tests will be automated. It is defined as the set of assumptions, concepts, and practices
that constitute a work platform or support for automated testing.

A testing framework is responsible for:

Defining the format in which to express expectations


Creating a mechanism to hook into or drive the application under test
Executing the tests and reporting the results

Framework Architecture
The general architecture of a testing framework is as follows:

For mobile testing automation, we need a good mobile automation testing framework. On
the top of that framework, we can build our test cases. Mobile automation testing
frameworks can be segregated by the operating system of the mobile device. In the
following chapters, we will discuss two types of mobile testing frameworks: Android testing
frameworks and iOS testing frameworks.

44
13. Android Testing Frameworks Mobile Testing

There are many Android testing frameworks available in the market. Lets take a look at
the top 5 on the stack.

Robotium: Robotium is an open-source test framework for developing functional,


system and acceptance test scenarios. It is very similar to Selenium.

UIAutomator: UIAutomator is a test framework by Google that provides advance


UI testing of native Android apps and games. It has a Java library containing API
to create functional UI tests and also an execution engine to run the tests.

Appium: Appium is an open-source test automation framework to test native


and hybrid apps and mobile web apps. Appium library functions inside the
framework make calls to the Appium server running in the background which
operates the connected device.

Calabash: Calabash is a functional testing framework that can be used for both
iOS and Android functional testing. On paper, it must be one of the easiest
frameworks to use and even non-developers should be able to create functional
tests using it.

Selendroid: Selendroid is a relatively new kid on the block and can be used to
functionally test your Android applications. Apparently, if you are used to Selenium,
Selendroid should be an easy way to use your knowledge to create your functional
tests for Android.

45
14. iOS Testing Frameworks Mobile Testing

Like Android testing frameworks, there are many iOS testing frameworks available in the
market. Here we will talk about a few popular ones.

Appium: Appium is an open-source test automation framework to test native


and hybrid apps and mobile web apps. Appium library functions inside the
framework make calls to the Appium server running in background which operates
the connected device.

Calabash: Calabash is a functional testing framework that can be used for both
iOS and Android functional testing. On paper, it must be one of the easiest
frameworks to use and even non-developers should be able to create functional
tests using it.

Zucchini: Zucchini is an open-source visual functional testing framework for iOS


applications based on Apple UIAutomation.

UI Automation: For your more typical functional tests (or black-box tests), in
which youre going to write code that simulates an end-user navigating your app,
there is UI Automation. UI Automation is provided by Apple and is the Apple-
sanctioned way of performing iOS functional testing.

FRANK BDD for iOS: If you want to do end-to-end testing in iOS and wish you
could use BDD and Cucumber, no worries theres a tool called Frank that will
allow you to create acceptance tests and requirements using Cucumber.

Comparison between different testing frameworks

46
15. Robotium Testing Framework Mobile Testing

Robotium is an open-source test framework for writing automatic gray-box testing cases
for Android applications. With the support of Robotium, test case developers can write
function, system and acceptance test scenarios, spanning multiple Android activities.

Robotium can be used both for testing applications where the source code is available and
applications where only the APK file is available.

Benefits of Robotium
Easy to write, shorter code. Minimal time needed to write solid test cases.

You can develop powerful test cases, with minimal knowledge of the application
under test.

The framework handles multiple Android activities automatically. Readability of test


cases is greatly improved, compared to standard instrumentation tests.

Automatic timing and delays.

Automatically follows current Activity

Automatically finds Views .

Automatically makes its own decisions (ex: When to scroll, etc.)

No modification to Android platform.

Test execution is fast

Test cases are more robust due to the run-time binding to GUI components.

Integrates smoothly with Maven or Ant.

Drawbacks of Robotium
Robotium cannot handle Flash or Web components.

It handles only one application at a time.

It cannot simulate clicking on soft keyboard using Robotium (need to use


enterText() to enter text into an EditText field)

Robotium cannot interact with Status Bar Notifications that is, pull down the
Notification area and click on a specified Notification.

Can be a bit slow, especially running on older devices.

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Mobile Testing

How to Use Robotium


1. The prerequisites to use Robotium is Java SDK (minimum 1.6). If you dont have Java
installed on your system, then follow the steps given below.

Download JDK and JRE from

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

Accept license agreement.

Install JDK and JRE.

Set environment variable as shown in the screenshot below.

2. Download Android Studio from http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html (It will


take time because of the size of the file)
Double click the exe and run the installer
Continue with all default options
Set the ANDROID_HOME

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Mobile Testing

3. Install Android images and tools.


Click on SDK Manager :

Select the necessary package. For example, if we are building an App for Android
4.4.2, then make sure the following packages are checked under the Tools section:

o Android SDK Tools rev 22.6.3


o Android Platform-tools rev 19.0.1
o Android SDK Build-tools rev 19.1

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Mobile Testing

4. Create Android Virtual Devices.

Open Android Studio and click AVD Manager in the toolbar. AVDs allow us to test
and run our Android apps.

Use the following settings for a Nexus5 AVD:

o Device: Nexus 5 (4.95, 1080 x 1920; xxhdpi)


o Target: Google APIs x86 (Google Inc.) - API Level 19
o (Make sure you select the target with Google APIs in the name.)
o CPU: Intel Atom (x86)
o Check the box for Use Host GPU
o Click OK

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Mobile Testing

You should now see the AVD you created in the AVD Manager, where you can start
it, delete it, or create another one!

5. Robotium Jar file: Download Robotium Jar file from


https://github.com/RobotiumTech/robotium/wiki/Downloads

Test an App with Robotium


To test an App with Robotium, follow the steps given below:

Step 1: Create a test Project in the Android Studio named as RobotiumTest.

Choose all the default options until you reach to the main page.

Step 2: Copy the Robotium jar file into the Lib folder of the project.

Step 3: Add the dependency in build.gradle file under src folder.

androidTestCompile 'com.jayway.android.robotium:robotium-solo-5.5.3'

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Mobile Testing

Step 4: Sync the Gradle.

Step 5: Create the Test class as follows:

package com.example;

import com.robotium.solo.Solo;
import android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class MyTestClass extends


ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<TestActivity>{

private Solo solo;

public MyTestClass() {
super(TestActivity.class);
}

public void setUp() throws Exception {


solo = new Solo(getInstrumentation(), getActivity());
}

public void testCase() throws Exception {


String vResult="TestExample";
EditText vEditText = (EditText) solo.getView(R.id.edit1);
solo.clearEditText(vEditText);
solo.enterText(vEditText,"TestExample");
solo.clickOnButton("Submit");

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Mobile Testing

assertTrue(solo.searchText(vResult));
TextView textField = (TextView) solo.getView(R.id.txt1);
//Assert to verify result with visible value
assertEquals(vResult, textField.getText().toString());
}

@Override
public void tearDown() throws Exception {
solo.finishOpenedActivities();
}
}

Step 6: Save all changes. Make sure no errors are present.

Step 7: Now, run the test case. If the test case is successful, you should see the following
output!

53
16. Selendroid Testing Framework Mobile Testing

Selendroid is a test automation framework for testing Android native and hybrid
applications. Selendroid tests are written using the Selenium Webdriver client API.

Benefits of Selendroid
Fully compatible with JSON Wire Protocol/Selenium 3 Ready.
No modification of app under test required in order to automate it.
Testing the mobile web using built in Android driver webview app.
Same concept for automating native or hybrid apps.
UI elements can be found by different locator types.
Gestures are supported: Advanced User Interactions API.
Existing Emulators are started automatically.
Selendroid supports hot plugging of hardware devices.
Full integration as a node into Selenium Grid for scaling and parallel testing.
Multiple Android target API support (10 to 19).
Built in Inspector to simplify test case development.
Selendroid can be extended at runtime with your own extensions.
Selendroid can interact with multiple Android devices (emulators or hardware
devices) at the same time.

Drawbacks of Selendroid
The drawback of this tool is that it is quite slow and on some machines with less than 4GB
RAM, it is unusable.

How to Use Selendroid


1. The prerequisites to use Robotium is Java SDK (minimum 1.6). If you dont have Java
installed on your system, then follow the steps given below.

Download JDK and JRE from

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

Accept license agreement.

Install JDK and JRE.

Set environment variable as shown in the screenshot below.

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Mobile Testing

2. Download Android Studio from http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html (It will


take time because of the size of the file)

Double click the exe and run the installer


Continue with all default options
Set the ANDROID_HOME

3. Download Selenium jar files and test application from http://selendroid.io/

Download selenium jar file and test app


Place it into any folder i.e. D:\SelendroidJars

4. Physical device with USB cable.

Make sure that the device is attached to the workstation with USB cable.
Make sure the USB debugging mode (under setttings -> Developer options) is
enabled.

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Test an App with Robotium


To test an App using Robotium, follow the steps given below:

Step 1: Install Eclipse.

Step 2: Create a Java project.

Step 3: Add the downloaded Selendroid jar file to the newly created project.

Step 4: Add the downloaded Selenium jar files to the newly created project.

Step 5: Configure testNG in the Eclipse.

Step 6: Connect the mobile devices with the system using USB cable. Set the USB
debugging mode from the developers options under settings.

Step 7: Run the Selendroid server. Open command prompt and write the following code
and hit Enter:

java -jar selendroid-standalone-0.17.0-with-dependencies.jar -app selendroid-


test-app-0.17.0.apk

Selendroid-standalone will start an http server on port 4444 and will scan all Android
virtual devices (avd) that the user has created (~/.android/avd/).

Open the web browser and navigate to: http://localhost:4444/wd/hub/status.

Step 8: Create a Java Project; add Selendroid Standalone libraries, Selenium jars, and
JUnit libraries in the build path.

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Step 9: Create package under the Java project.

Step 10: Create a class under the package and write the following code.

package selTest;

import io.selendroid.SelendroidDriver;
import io.selendroid.common.SelendroidCapabilities;
import io.selendroid.standalone.SelendroidConfiguration;
import io.selendroid.standalone.SelendroidLauncher;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.AfterSuite;
import org.testng.annotations.BeforeSuite;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class SelendroidTest {

private WebDriver driver ;

@BeforeSuite
public void setUp() throws Exception
{
SelendroidConfiguration config = new SelendroidConfiguration();
config.addSupportedApp("selendroid-test-app-0.9.0.apk");
SelendroidLauncher selendroidServer = new SelendroidLauncher(config);
selendroidServer.launchSelendroid();

SelendroidCapabilities caps = new


SelendroidCapabilities("io.selendroid.testapp:0.9.0");
driver = new SelendroidDriver(caps);
}

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@Test
public void selendroidTest() throws Exception
{
WebElement inputField = driver.findElement(By.id("my_text_field"));
Assert.assertEquals("true", inputField.getAttribute("enabled"));
inputField.sendKeys("Selendroid");

Assert.assertEquals("Selendroid", inputField.getText());

WebElement button = driver.findElement(By.id("buttonTest"));


button.click();

button = driver.findElement(By.id("button2"));
button.click();

Thread.sleep(5000);

button = driver.findElement(By.id("startUserRegistration"));
button.click();

Thread.sleep(10000);

WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.id("label_username"));


String text = element.getText();
System.out.println(text);
element = driver.findElement(By.id("inputUsername"));
element.sendKeys("bob");

element = driver.findElement(By.id("inputEmail"));
element.sendKeys("test@gmail.com");

element = driver.findElement(By.id("inputPassword"));
element.clear();

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element.sendKeys("test1233");

element = driver.findElement(By.id("inputName"));
element.clear();
element.sendKeys("My Name ");

element = driver.findElement(By.id("input_preferedProgrammingLanguage"));
element.click();

element = driver.findElement(By.id("text1"));
element.click();

element = driver.findElement(By.id("input_adds"));
element.click();

element = driver.findElement(By.id("btnRegisterUser"));
element.click();

element = driver.findElement(By.id("buttonRegisterUser"));
element.click();
}

@AfterSuite
public void tearDown(){
driver.quit();
}
}

Step 11: Run the class with testNG run configuration.

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17. Appium Testing Framework Mobile Testing

Appium is an open-source test automation framework for testing native and hybrid apps
and mobile web apps. It drives iOS and Android apps using the WebDriver protocol.

Advantages of Appium
Its free and (mostly) open source.
It has a very well supported and active Google group.
Its in the Selenium 3 spec so should be future proof.
It supports both Android and iOS.
It does not require anything to be installed on the device no server or code
changes required.

Drawbacks of Appium
No support for intelligent waits.
On iOS, you can only execute one test at a time per Mac.
Limited support for gestures.
Limited support for Android < 4.1

How to Use Appium


1. The prerequisites to use Appium is Java SDK (minimum 1.6). If you dont have Java
installed on your system, then follow the steps given below.

Download JDK and JRE from

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

Accept license agreement.

Install JDK and JRE.

Set environment variable as shown in the screenshot below.

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Mobile Testing

2. Download Android Studio from http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html (It will


take time because of the size of the file)

Double click the exe and run the installer


Continue with all default options
Set the ANDROID_HOME

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Mobile Testing

3. Install Android images and tools.

Click on SDK Manager:

Select the necessary package. For example, if we are building an App for Android
4.4.2, then make sure the following packages are checked under the Tools section:

o Android SDK Tools rev 22.6.3


o Android Platform-tools rev 19.0.1
o Android SDK Build-tools rev 19.1

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Mobile Testing

4. Create Android Virtual Devices

Open Android Studio and click AVD Manager in the toolbar. AVDs allow us to test
and run our Android apps.

Use the following settings for a Nexus5 AVD:

o Device: Nexus 5 (4.95, 1080 x 1920; xxhdpi)


o Target: Google APIs x86 (Google Inc.) - API Level 19
o Make sure you select the target with Google APIs in the name.
o CPU: Intel Atom (x86)
o Check the box for Use Host GPU
o Click OK.

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Mobile Testing

You should now see the AVD you created in the AVD Manager, where you can start
it, delete it, or create another one!

5. Download Appium jar files from http://appium.io/

Test an App with Appium


To test an App with Appium, follow the steps given below:

Step 1: Create a test Project in the Android Studio named as RobotiumTest.

Choose all the default options until you reach to the main page.

Step 2: Add the Appium jars into your project. Click Project -> App -> copy all the jars in
lib. Select the copied jars except Selenium, Java client and Junit Jar, then right-click on it
and click on "Add as Library".

Step 3: Click on build.gradle in the App. You will see all the libraries added, as shown in
the following screenshot.

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Step 4: Now create a Java class as shown below:

AppiumDriver driver;
@Before
public void testCaseSetup()throws Exception
{
//service.start();
//reader.readFile();
DesiredCapabilities cap=new DesiredCapabilities();
cap.setCapability(MobileCapabilityType.PLATFORM_NAME,"Android");
cap.setCapability(MobileCapabilityType.DEVICE_NAME, "Android device");
cap.setCapability(MobileCapabilityType.NEW_COMMAND_TIMEOUT, "4000");
cap.setCapability(MobileCapabilityType.APP, "c://apk//sample.apk");
driver = new AndroidDriver<MobileElement>("http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub",cap);

@Test
public void testcase1()throws Exception
{
driver.findElementByID("Example").click();
Asser.assertTrue(driver.findElementByID("Example").isDisplayed));
}

@After
public void testCaseTearDown()
{
driver.quit();
}

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Step 5: Running the Test case.

Click on build variant and select Unit Testing.


Start the Appium server with the specific port "4444".

o Download the Appium for Windows from here


o Double click on the .exe and install Appium.
o Click on the icon to up the UI.
o Change the port if required, as shown below.

o Click the Play button to start the server.

Connect the device with USB debugging on or start an emulator.


Right-click the test class and click on "Run".

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18. Zucchini Testing Framework Mobile Testing

Zucchini is a new testing framework that uses a BDD-style domain-specific language


(DSL). One of its focus areas is simplifying the acceptance tests written with Selenium.

It is not a replacement for JBehave or the Robot Framework, as you will see later on. Here,
we will give you a glimpse of Zucchinis concepts by describing an example step by step.

How to install Zucchini


The prerequisites to install Zucchini is XCode 4.2. In addition, a few command line tools
are required such as brew update && brew install imagemagick && brew install coffee-
script.

How to Use Zucchini


1. gem install zucchini-ios

Zucchini doesn't involve making any modifications to your application code. You
might as well keep your Zucchini tests in a separate project.

2. Start by creating a project scaffold:

zucchini generate --project /path/to/my_project

3. Create a feature scaffold for your first feature:

zucchini generate --feature /path/to/my_project/features/my_feature

4. Start hacking by modifying features/my_feature/feature.zucchini and


features/support/screens/welcome.coffee.

Alternatively, check out the zucchini-demo project featuring an easy to explore


Zucchini setup around Apple's CoreDataBooks sample.

Running on the device


1. Add your device to features/support/config.yml.

The udidetect utility comes in handy if you plan to add devices from time to time:
udidetect -z.

ZUCCHINI_DEVICE="My Device" zucchini run /path/to/my_feature

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2. Running on the iOS Simulator. We strongly encourage you to run your Zucchini
features on real hardware. However, you can run them on the iOS Simulator, if you
must.
First off, modify your features/support/config.yml to include a full path
to your compiled app. For example,

app:/Users/vaskas/Library/Developer/Xcode/DerivedData/CoreDataBooks-
ebeqiuqksrwwoscupvxuzjzrdfjz/Build/Products/Debug-
iphonesimulator/CoreDataBooks.app

Secondly, add an 'iOS Simulator' entry to the devices section (no UDID
needed) and make sure you provide the actual value for 'screen' based on
your iOS Simulator settings:

3. Run it like:

ZUCCHINI_DEVICE="iOS Simulator" zucchini run /path/to/my_feature

Result Display

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