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AMENDMENTS TO THE REVISED PENAL CODE PURSUANT TO REPUBLIC ACT NO.

10951

By: Kring Kring Sendin

2016-0008

Act No. 3815 Republic Act No. 10951


Article 9. Grave felonies, less grave felonies and light Article 9. Grave felonies, less grave felonies, and light
felonies. - Grave felonies are those to which the law felonies.- Grave felonies are those to which the law
attaches the capital punishment or penalties which in attaches the capital punishment or penalties which in
any of their periods are afflictive, in accordance with any of their periods are afflictive, in accordance with
Art. 25 of this Code. Art. 25 of this Code.
Less grave felonies are those which the law punishes Less grave felonies are those which the law punishes
with penalties which in their maximum period are with penalties which in their maximum period are
correctional, in accordance with the above-mentioned correctional, in accordance with the above-mentioned
Art.. article.
Light felonies are those infractions of law for the Light felonies are those infractions of law for the
commission of which a penalty of arrest menor or a fine commission of which a penalty of arresto menor or a
not exceeding 200 pesos or both; is provided. fine not exceeding Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) or
both; is provided.

Article 26. When afflictive, correctional, or light Article 26. When afflictive, correctional, or light
penalty. - A fine, whether imposed as a single of as an penalty. - A fine, whether imposed as a single of as an
alternative penalty, shall be considered an afflictive alternative penalty, shall be considered an afflictive
penalty, if it exceeds 6,000 pesos; a correctional penalty, if it exceeds One million two hundred
penalty, if it does not exceed 6,000 pesos but is not less thousand pesos (P1,200,000.00); a correctional
than 200 pesos; and a light penalty if it less than 200 penalty, if it does not exceed One million two hundred
pesos. thousand pesos (P1,200,000) but is not less than Forty
thousand pesos (P40,000); and a light penalty if it be
less than Forty thousand pesos (P40,000).
Article 114. Treason. - Any person who, owing Article 114. Treason. - Any Filipino citizen who, levies
allegiance to (the United States or) the Government of war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies,
the Philippine Islands, not being a foreigner, levies war giving them aid or comfort within the Philippine or
against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them elsewhere, shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to
aid or comfort within the Philippine Islands or death and shall pay a fine not to exceed Four Million
elsewhere, shall be punished by reclusion temporal to Pesos (P4,000,000).
death and shall pay a fine not to exceed P20,000 pesos. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two (2) witnesses at least to the same
testimony of two witnesses at least to the same overt overt act or on confession of the accused in open court.
act or on confession of the accused in open court. Likewise, an alien, residing in the Philippines, who
Likewise, an alien, residing in the Philippine Islands, commits acts of treason as defined in paragraph 1 of
who commits acts of treason as defined in paragraph 1 this Article shall be punished by reclusion temporal to
of this Article shall be punished by prision mayor to death and shall pay a fine not to exceed Four Million
death and shall pay a fine not to exceed P20,000 pesos. Pesos (P4,000,000).

Article 115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit Article 115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit
treason; Penalty. - The conspiracy or proposal to treason; Penalty. - The conspiracy or proposal to
commit the crime of treason shall be punished commit the crime of treason shall be punished
respectively, by prision mayor and a fine not respectively, by prision mayor and a fine not
exceeding P10,000 pesos, and prision correccional and exceeding Two million pesos (P2,000,000), and prision
a fine not exceeding P5,000 pesos. correccional and a fine not exceeding One million
pesos (P1,000,000).

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Article 129. Search warrants maliciously obtained and Article 129. Search warrants maliciously obtained and
abuse in the service of those legally obtained. - In abuse in the service of those legally obtained. - In
addition to the liability attaching to the offender for the addition to the liability attaching to the offender for the
commission of any other offense, the penalty of arresto commission of any other offense, the penalty of arresto
mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in
its minimum period and a fine not exceeding P1,000 its minimum period and a fine not Two Hundred
pesos shall be imposed upon any public officer or Thousand Pesos (P200,000) shall be imposed upon any
employee who shall procure a search warrant without public officer or employee who shall procure a search
just cause, or, having legally procured the same, shall warrant without just cause, or, having legally procured
exceed his authority or use unnecessary severity in the same, shall exceed his authority or use unnecessary
executing the same. severity in executing the same.
Article 136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup Article 136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup
d'etat, rebellion or insurrection. - The conspiracy and d'etat, rebellion or insurrection. - The conspiracy and
proposal to commit coup d'etat shall be punished by proposal to commit coup d'etat shall be punished by
prision mayor in minimum period and a fine which shall prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine which
not exceed eight thousand pesos (P8,000.00). shall not exceed One million pesos (P1,000,000).
The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or
insurrection shall be punished respectively, by prision insurrection shall be punished respectively, by prision
correccional in its maximum period and a fine which correccional in its maximum period and a fine which
shall not exceed five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) and shall not One million pesos (P1,000,000) and by prision
by prision correccional in its medium period and a fine correccional in its medium period and a fine not
not exceeding two thousand pesos (P2,000.00). (As exceeding Four Hundred Thousand Pesos (P400,000).
amended by R.A. 6968, approved October 24, 1990).
Article 140. Penalty for sedition. - The leader of a Article 140. Penalty for sedition. - The leader of a
sedition shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its sedition shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its
minimum period and a fine not exceeding 10,000 minimum period and a fine not exceeding Two million
pesos. pesos (P2,000,000),
Other persons participating therein shall suffer the Other persons participating therein shall suffer the
penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period
and a fine not exceeding 5,000 pesos. (Reinstated by and a fine not exceeding One million pesos
E.O. No. 187). (P1,000,000).
Article 141. Conspiracy to commit sedition. - Persons Article 141. Conspiracy to commit sedition. - Persons
conspiring to commit the crime of sedition shall be conspiring to commit the crime of sedition shall be
punished by prision correccional in its medium period punished by prision correccional in its medium period
and a fine not exceeding 2,000 pesos. (Reinstated by and a fine not exceeding Four Hundred Thousand
E.O. No. 187). Pesos (P400,000).
Article 142. Inciting to sedition. - The penalty of prision Article 142. Inciting to sedition. - The penalty of prision
correccional in its maximum period and a fine not correccional in its maximum period and a fine not
exceeding 2,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any exceeding Four Hundred Thousand Pesos (P400,000)
person who, without taking any direct part in the crime shall be imposed upon any person who, without taking
of sedition, should incite others to the accomplishment any direct part in the crime of sedition, should incite
of any of the acts which constitute sedition, by means others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which
of speeches, proclamations, writings, emblems, constitute sedition, by means of speeches,
cartoons, banners, or other representations tending to proclamations, writings, emblems, cartoons, banners,
the same end, or upon any person or persons who shall or other representations tending to the same end, or
utter seditious words or speeches, write, publish, or upon any person or persons who shall utter seditious
circulate scurrilous libels against the (Government of words or speeches, write, publish, or circulate
the United States or the Government of the scurrilous libels against the Government or any of the
Commonwealth of the Philippines) or any of the duly duly constituted authorities thereof, or which tend to
constituted authorities thereof, or which tend to disturb or obstruct any lawful officer in executing the
disturb or obstruct any lawful officer in executing the functions of his office, or which tend to instigate others
functions of his office, or which tend to instigate others to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes, or

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to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes, or which suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies or riots,
which suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies or riots, or which lead or tend to stir up the people against the
or which lead or tend to stir up the people against the lawful authorities or to disturb the peace of the
lawful authorities or to disturb the peace of the community, the safety and order of the Government,
community, the safety and order of the Government, or who shall knowingly conceal such evil practices.
or who shall knowingly conceal such evil practices.
(Reinstated by E.O. No. 187).
Article 143. Act tending to prevent the meeting of the Article 143. Act tending to prevent the meeting of the
Assembly and similar bodies. - The penalty of prision Congress and similar bodies. - The penalty of prision
correccional or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, correccional or a fine ranging Forty thousand pesos
or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, by (P40,000) to Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000)
force or fraud, prevents the meeting of the National or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, by
Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) or of any of its force or fraud, prevents the meeting of the Congress or
committees or subcommittees, constitutional of any of its committees or subcommittees,
commissions or committees or divisions thereof, or of Constitutional
any provincial board or city or municipal council or Commissions or committees or divisions thereof, or of
board. (Reinstated by E.O. No. 187). any provincial board or city or municipal council or
board.
Article 144. Disturbance of proceedings. - The penalty Article 144. Disturbance of proceedings. - The penalty
of arresto mayor or a fine from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall of arresto mayor or a fine Forty thousand pesos
be imposed upon any person who disturbs the (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000)
meetings of the National Assembly (Congress of the shall be imposed upon any person who disturbs the
Philippines) or of any of its committees or meetings of the Congress or of any of its committees or
subcommittees, constitutional commissions or subcommittees, Constitutional Commissions or
committees or divisions thereof, or of any provincial committees or divisions thereof, or of any provincial
board or city or municipal council or board, or in the board or city or municipal council or board, or in the
presence of any such bodies should behave in such presence of any such bodies should behave in such
manner as to interrupt its proceedings or to impair the manner as to interrupt its proceedings or to impair the
respect due it. (Reinstated by E.O. No. 187). respect due it.
Article 147. Illegal associations. - The penalty of prision Article 147. Illegal associations. - The penalty of prision
correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a
fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon fine not exceeding Two hundred thousand pesos
the founders, directors, and presidents of associations (P200,000) shall be imposed upon the founders,
totally or partially organized for the purpose of directors, and presidents of associations totally or
committing any of the crimes punishable under this partially organized for the purpose of committing any
Code or for some purpose contrary to public morals. of the crimes punishable under this Code or for some
Mere members of said associations shall suffer the purpose contrary to public morals. Mere members of
penalty of arresto mayor. (Reinstated by E.O. No. 187). said associations shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor.
Article 148. Direct assaults. - Any person or persons Article 148. Direct assaults. - Any person or persons
who, without a public uprising, shall employ force or who, without a public uprising, shall employ force or
intimidation for the attainment of any of the purpose intimidation for the attainment of any of the purpose
enumerated in defining the crimes of rebellion and enumerated in defining the crimes of rebellion and
sedition, or shall attack, employ force, or seriously sedition, or shall attack, employ force, or seriously
intimidate or resist any person in authority or any of his intimidate or resist any person in authority or any of his
agents, while engaged in the performance of official agents, while engaged in the performance of official
duties, or on occasion of such performance, shall suffer duties, or on occasion of such performance, shall suffer
the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and
maximum periods and a fine not exceeding P1,000 maximum periods and a fine not exceeding Two
pesos, when the assault is committed with a weapon or hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), when the assault
when the offender is a public officer or employee, or is committed with a weapon or when the offender is a
when the offender lays hands upon a person in public officer or employee, or when the offender lays

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authority. If none of these circumstances be present, hands upon a person in authority. If none of these
the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum circumstances be present, the penalty of prision
period and a fine not exceeding P500 pesos shall be correccional in its minimum period and a fine not One
imposed. hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed.
Article 149. Indirect assaults. - The penalty of prision Article 149. Indirect assaults. - The penalty of prision
correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a
fine not exceeding P500 pesos shall be imposed upon fine not exceeding One hundred thousand pesos
any person who shall make use of force or intimidation (P100,000) shall be imposed upon any person who shall
upon any person coming to the aid of the authorities or make use of force or intimidation upon any person
their agents on occasion of the commission of any of coming to the aid of the authorities or their agents on
the crimes defined in the next preceding article. occasion of the commission of any of the crimes
defined in the next preceding article.
Article 150. Disobedience to summons issued by the Article 150. Disobedience to summons issued by the
National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees,
by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees,
subcommittees or divisions. - The penalty of arresto subcommittees or divisions. - The penalty of arresto
mayor or a fine ranging from two hundred to one mayor or a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos
thousand pesos, or both such fine and imprisonment (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000),
shall be imposed upon any person who, having been or both such fine and imprisonment shall be imposed
duly summoned to attend as a witness before the upon any person who, having been duly summoned to
National Assembly, (Congress), its special or standing attend as a witness before the Congress, its special or
committees and subcommittees, the Constitutional standing committees and subcommittees, the
Commissions and its committees, subcommittees, or Constitutional Commissions and its committees,
divisions, or before any commission or committee subcommittees, or divisions, or before any commission
chairman or member authorized to summon witnesses, or committee chairman or member authorized to
refuses, without legal excuse, to obey such summons, summon witnesses, refuses, without legal excuse, to
or being present before any such legislative or obey such summons, or being present before any such
constitutional body or official, refuses to be sworn or legislative or constitutional body or official, refuses to
placed under affirmation or to answer any legal inquiry be sworn or placed under affirmation or to answer any
or to produce any books, papers, documents, or legal inquiry or to produce any books, papers,
records in his possession, when required by them to do documents, or records in his possession, when required
so in the exercise of their functions. The same penalty by them to do so in the exercise of their functions. The
shall be imposed upon any person who shall restrain same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who
another from attending as a witness, or who shall shall restrain another from attending as a witness, or
induce disobedience to a summon or refusal to be who shall induce disobedience to a summon or refusal
sworn by any such body or official. to be sworn by any such body or official.
Article 151. Resistance and disobedience to a person in Article 151. Resistance and disobedience to a person in
authority or the agents of such person. - The penalty authority or the agents of such person. - The penalty
of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding One
shall be imposed upon any person who not being hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
included in the provisions of the preceding articles shall upon any person who not being included in the
resist or seriously disobey any person in authority, or provisions of the preceding articles shall resist or
the agents of such person, while engaged in the seriously disobey any person in authority, or the agents
performance of official duties. of such person, while engaged in the performance of
When the disobedience to an agent of a person in official duties.
authority is not of a serious nature, the penalty When the disobedience to an agent of a person in
of arresto menoror a fine ranging from 10 to P100 authority is not of a serious nature, the penalty
pesos shall be imposed upon the offender. of arresto meno ror a fine ranging from Two thousand
pesos to Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000) shall be
imposed upon the offender.
Article 153. Tumults and other disturbance of public Article 153. Tumults and other disturbance of public
orders; Tumultuous disturbance or interruption liable to orders; Tumultuous disturbance or interruption liable to

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cause disturbance. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its cause disturbance. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its
medium period to prision correccional in its minimum medium period to prision correccional in its minimum
period and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be period and a fine not exceeding Two hundred
imposed upon any person who shall cause any serious thousand pesos (P200,000) shall be imposed upon any
disturbance in a public place, office, or establishment, person who shall cause any serious disturbance in a
or shall interrupt or disturb public performances, public place, office, or establishment, or shall interrupt
functions or gatherings, or peaceful meetings, if the act or disturb public performances, functions or
is not included in the provisions of Articles 131 and 132. gatherings, or peaceful meetings, if the act is not
The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed included in the provisions of Articles 131 and 132.
upon persons causing any disturbance or interruption The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed
of a tumultuous character. upon persons causing any disturbance or interruption
The disturbance or interruption shall be deemed to be of a tumultuous character.
tumultuous if caused by more than three persons who The disturbance or interruption shall be deemed to be
are armed or provided with means of violence. tumultuous if caused by more than (3) three persons
The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon who are armed or provided with means of violence.
any person who in any meeting, association, or public The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon
place, shall make any outcry tending to incite rebellion any person who in any meeting, association, or public
or sedition or in such place shall display placards or place, shall make any outcry tending to incite rebellion
emblems which provoke a disturbance of the public or sedition or in such place shall display placards or
order. emblems which provoke a disturbance of the public
The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not to order.
exceed P200 pesos shall be imposed upon these The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not to
persons who in violation of the provisions contained in exceed Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) shall be
the last clause of Article 85, shall bury with pomp the imposed upon these persons who in violation of the
body of a person who has been legally executed. provisions contained in the last clause of Article 85,
shall bury with pomp the body of a person who has
been legally executed.
Article 154. Unlawful use of means of publication and Article 154. Unlawful use of means of publication and
unlawful utterances. - The penalty of arresto unlawful utterances. - The penalty of arresto
mayor and a fine ranging from P200 to P1,000 pesos mayor and a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos
shall be imposed upon: (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000)
1. Any person who by means of printing, lithography, or shall be imposed upon:
any other means of publication shall publish or cause to 1. Any person who by means of printing, lithography, or
be published as news any false news which may any other means of publication shall publish or cause to
endanger the public order, or cause damage to the be published as news any false news which may
interest or credit of the State; endanger the public order, or cause damage to the
2. Any person who by the same means, or by words, interest or credit of the State;
utterances or speeches shall encourage disobedience 2. Any person who by the same means, or by words,
to the law or to the constituted authorities or praise, utterances or speeches shall encourage disobedience
justify, or extol any act punished by law; to the law or to the constituted authorities or praise,
3. Any person who shall maliciously publish or cause to justify, or extol any act punished by law;
be published any official resolution or document 3. Any person who shall maliciously publish or cause to
without proper authority, or before they have been be published any official resolution or document
published officially; or without proper authority, or before they have been
4. Any person who shall print, publish, or distribute or published officially; or
cause to be printed, published, or distributed books, 4. Any person who shall print, publish, or distribute or
pamphlets, periodicals, or leaflets which do not bear cause to be printed, published, or distributed books,
the real printer's name, or which are classified as pamphlets, periodicals, or leaflets which do not bear
anonymous. the real printer's name, or which are classified as
anonymous.

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Article 155. Alarms and scandals. - The penalty Article 155. Alarms and scandals. - The penalty
of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding P200 pesos of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Forty
shall be imposed upon: thousand pesos (P40,000) shall be imposed upon:
1. Any person who within any town or public place, 1. Any person who within any town or public place,
shall discharge any firearm, rocket, firecracker, or other shall discharge any firearm, rocket, firecracker, or other
explosives calculated to cause alarm or danger; explosives calculated to cause alarm or danger;
2. Any person who shall instigate or take an active part 2. Any person who shall instigate or take an active part
in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to
another or prejudicial to public tranquility; another or prejudicial to public tranquility;
3. Any person who, while wandering about at night or 3. Any person who, while wandering about at night or
while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements, while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements,
shall disturb the public peace; or shall disturb the public peace; or
4. Any person who, while intoxicated or otherwise, shall 4. Any person who, while intoxicated or otherwise, shall
cause any disturbance or scandal in public places, cause any disturbance or scandal in public places:
provided that the circumstances of the case shall not Provided, That the circumstances of the case shall not
make the provisions of Article 153 applicable. make the provisions of Article 153 applicable.

Article 163. Making and importing and uttering false Article 163. Making and importing and uttering false
coins. - Any person who makes, imports, or utters, false coins. - Any person who makes, imports, or utters, false
coins, in connivance with counterfeiters, or importers, coins, in connivance with counterfeiters, or importers,
shall suffer: shall suffer:
1. Prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods 1. Prision correcional in its minimum and medium
and a fine not to exceed P10,000 pesos, if the periods and a fine not to Four hundred thousand pesos
counterfeited coin be silver coin of the Philippines or (P400,000), if the counterfeited coins be any of the
coin of the Central Bank of the Philippines of ten coinage of the Philippines.
centavo denomination or above. 2. Prision correccional in its minimum and medium
2. Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine of not to exceed to Two hundred
periods and a fine of not to exceed P2,000 pesos, if the thousand pesos (P200,000), if the counterfeited coin
counterfeited coins be any of the minor coinage of the be currency of a foreign country.
Philippines or of the Central Bank of the Philippines
below ten-centavo denomination.
3. Prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine
not to exceed P1,000 pesos, if the counterfeited coin be
currency of a foreign country. (As amended by R.A. No.
4202, approved June 19, 1965).
Article 164. Mutilation of coins; Importation and Article 164. Mutilation of coins; Importation and
utterance of mutilated coins. - The penalty of prision utterance of mutilated coins. - The penalty of prision
correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to
exceed P2,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person exceed Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000) shall
who shall mutilate coins of the legal currency of the be imposed upon any person who shall mutilate coins
United States or of the Philippine Islands or import or of the legal currency of the Philippines or import or
utter mutilated current coins, or in connivance with utter mutilated current coins, or in connivance with
mutilators or importers. mutilators or importers.
Article 166. Forging treasury or bank notes on other Article 166. Forging treasury or bank notes on other
documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering
such false or forged notes and documents. - The forging such false or forged notes and documents. - The forging
or falsification of treasury or bank notes or certificates or falsification of treasury or bank notes or certificates
or other obligations and securities payable to bearer or other obligations and securities payable to bearer
and the importation and uttering in connivance with and the importation and uttering in connivance with
forgers or importers of such false or forged obligations forgers or importers of such false or forged obligations
or notes, shall be punished as follows: or notes, shall be punished as follows:

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1. By reclusion temporal in its minimum period and a 1. By reclusion temporal in its minimum period and a
fine not to exceed P10,000 pesos, if the document fine not to exceed Two million pesos (P2,000,000), if
which has been falsified, counterfeited, or altered, is an the document which has been falsified, counterfeited,
obligations or security of the United States or of the or altered, is an obligations or security of the
Philippines Islands. Philippines.
The word "obligation or security of the United States or The words "obligation or security of the Philippines"
of the Philippine Islands" shall be held to mean all shall mean all bonds, certificates of indebtedness,
bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national bank national bank notes, Philippine notes, treasury notes,
notes, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, checks, or
checks, or drafts for money, drawn by or upon drafts for money, drawn by or upon authorized officers
authorized officers of the United States or of the of the Philippines, and other representatives of value,
Philippine Islands, and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, which have been or may be
of whatever denomination, which have been or may be issued under any act of Congress.
issued under any act of the Congress of the United 2. By prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine
States or of the Philippine Legislature. not to exceed One million pesos (P1,000,000), if the
2. By prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine falsified or altered document is a circulating note issued
not to exceed P5,000 pesos, if the falsified or altered by any banking association duly authorized by law to
document is a circulating note issued by any banking issue the same.
association duly authorized by law to issue the same. 3. By prision mayor in its medium period and a fine not
3. By prision mayor in its medium period and a fine not to exceed One million pesos (P1,000,000), if the
to exceed P5,000 pesos, if the falsified or counterfeited falsified or counterfeited document was issued by a
document was issued by a foreign government. foreign government.
4. By prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not 4. By prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not
to exceed P2,000 pesos, when the forged or altered to exceed Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000),
document is a circulating note or bill issued by a foreign when the forged or altered document is a circulating
bank duly authorized therefor. note or bill issued by a foreign bank duly authorized
therefor.

Article 167. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering Article 167. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering
instruments not payable to bearer. - Any person who instruments not payable to bearer. - Any person who
shall forge, import or utter, in connivance with the shall forge, import or utter, in connivance with the
forgers or importers, any instrument payable to order forgers or importers, any instrument payable to order
or other document of credit not payable to bearer, shall or other document of credit not payable to bearer, shall
suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its
medium and maximum periods and a fine not medium and maximum periods and a fine not
exceeding P6,000 pesos. exceeding One million two hundred thousand pesos
(P1,200,000).
Article 170. Falsification of legislative documents. - The Article 170. Falsification of legislative documents. - The
penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period
and a fine not exceeding P6,000 pesos shall be imposed and a fine not exceeding One million two hundred
upon any person who, without proper authority thousand pesos (P1,200,000) shall be imposed upon
therefor alters any bill, resolution, or ordinance any person who, without proper authority therefor
enacted or approved or pending approval by either alters any bill, resolution, or ordinance enacted or
House of the Legislature or any provincial board or approved or pending approval by either House of the
municipal council. Congress or any provincial board or municipal council.
Article 171. Falsification by public officer, employee or Article 171. Falsification by public officer, employee or
notary or ecclesiastic minister. - The penalty of prision notary or ecclesiastic minister. - The penalty of prision
mayor and a fine not to exceed P5,000 pesos shall be mayor and a fine not to exceed One million pesos
imposed upon any public officer, employee, or notary (P1,000,000) shall be imposed upon any public officer,
who, taking advantage of his official position, shall employee, or notary who, taking advantage of his
falsify a document by committing any of the following official position, shall falsify a document by committing
acts: any of the following acts:

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1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, 1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting,
signature or rubric; signature or rubric;
2. Causing it to appear that persons have participated 2. Causing it to appear that persons have participated
in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so
participate; participate;
3. Attributing to persons who have participated in an 3. Attributing to persons who have participated in an
act or proceeding statements other than those in fact act or proceeding statements other than those in fact
made by them; made by them;
4. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts; 4. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;
5. Altering true dates; 5. Altering true dates;
6. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine 6. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine
document which changes its meaning; document which changes its meaning;
7. Issuing in an authenticated form a document 7. Issuing in an authenticated form a document
purporting to be a copy of an original document when purporting to be a copy of an original document when
no such original exists, or including in such a copy a no such original exists, or including in such a copy a
statement contrary to, or different from, that of the statement contrary to, or different from, that of the
genuine original; or genuine original; or
8. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the 8. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the
issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official book. issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official book.
The same penalty shall be imposed upon any The same penalty shall be imposed upon any
ecclesiastical minister who shall commit any of the ecclesiastical minister who shall commit any of the
offenses enumerated in the preceding paragraphs of offenses enumerated in the preceding paragraphs of
this article, with respect to any record or document of this article, with respect to any record or document of
such character that its falsification may affect the civil such character that its falsification may affect the civil
status of persons. status of persons.

Article 172. Falsification by private individual and use Article 172. Falsification by private individual and use
of falsified documents. - The penalty of prision of falsified documents. - The penalty of prision
correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a
fine of not more than P5,000 pesos shall be imposed fine of not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000)
upon: shall be imposed upon:
1. Any private individual who shall commit any of the 1. Any private individual who shall commit any of the
falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article
in any public or official document or letter of exchange in any public or official document or letter of exchange
or any other kind of commercial document; and or any other kind of commercial document;
2. Any person who, to the damage of a third party, or 2. Any person who, to the damage of a third party, or
with the intent to cause such damage, shall in any with the intent to cause such damage, shall in any
private document commit any of the acts of falsification private document commit any of the acts of falsification
enumerated in the next preceding article. enumerated in the next preceding article;
Any person who shall knowingly introduce in evidence 3.Any person who shall knowingly introduce in
in any judicial proceeding or to the damage of another evidence in any judicial proceeding or to the damage of
or who, with the intent to cause such damage, shall use another or who, with the intent to cause such damage,
any of the false documents embraced in the next shall use any of the false documents embraced in the
preceding article, or in any of the foregoing next preceding article, or in any of the foregoing
subdivisions of this article, shall be punished by the subdivisions of this article, shall be punished by the
penalty next lower in degree. penalty next lower in degree.

Article 174. False medical certificates, false certificates Article 174. False medical certificates, false certificates
of merits or service, etc. - The penalties of arresto of merits or service, etc. - The penalties of arresto
mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in
its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P1,000 its minimum period and a fine not to exceed Two
pesos shall be imposed upon:

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1. Any physician or surgeon who, in connection, with hundred thousand pesos (P200,000) shall be imposed
the practice of his profession, shall issue a false upon:
certificate; and 1. Any physician or surgeon who, in connection, with
2. Any public officer who shall issue a false certificate of the practice of his profession, shall issue a false
merit of service, good conduct or similar circumstances. certificate; and
The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon 2. Any public officer who shall issue a false certificate of
any private person who shall falsify a certificate falling merit of service, good conduct or similar circumstances.
within the classes mentioned in the two preceding The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon
subdivisions. any private person who shall falsify a certificate falling
within the classes mentioned in the two (2) preceding
subdivisions.
Article 176. Manufacturing and possession of Article 176. Manufacturing and possession of
instruments or implements for falsification. - The instruments or implements for falsification. - The
penalty of prison correctional in its medium and penalty of prison correctional in its medium and
maximum periods and a fine not to exceed P10,000 maximum periods and a fine not to exceed One million
pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall pesos (P1,000,000) shall be imposed upon any person
make or introduce into the Philippine Islands any who shall make or introduce into the Philippines any
stamps, dies, marks, or other instruments or stamps, dies, marks, or other instruments or
implements intended to be used in the commission of implements intended to be used in the commission of
the offenses of counterfeiting or falsification the offenses of counterfeiting or falsification
mentioned in the preceding sections of this Chapter. mentioned in the preceding sections of this Chapter.
Any person who, with the intention of using them, shall Any person who, with the intention of using them, shall
have in his possession any of the instruments or have in his possession any of the instruments or
implements mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, implements mentioned in the preceding paragraphs,
shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that
provided therein. provided therein.

Article 178. Using fictitious name and concealing true Article 178. Using fictitious name and concealing true
name. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not to name. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not to
exceed 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person exceed One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
who shall publicly use a fictitious name for the purpose be imposed upon any person who shall publicly use a
of concealing a crime, evading the execution of a fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime,
judgment or causing damage. evading the execution of a judgment or causing
Any person who conceals his true name and other damage.
personal circumstances shall be punished by arresto Any person who conceals his true name and other
menor or a fine not to exceed 200 pesos. personal circumstances shall be punished by arresto
menor or a fine not to exceed Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000).

Article 180. False testimony against a defendant. - Any Article 180. False testimony against a defendant. - Any
person who shall give false testimony against the person who shall give false testimony against the
defendant in any criminal case shall suffer: defendant in any criminal case shall suffer:
1. The penalty of reclusion temporal, if the defendant 1. The penalty of reclusion temporal, if the defendant
in said case shall have been sentenced to death; in said case shall have been sentenced to death;
2. The penalty of prision mayor, if the defendant shall 2. The penalty of prision mayor, if the defendant shall
have been sentenced to reclusion temporal or reclusion have been sentenced to reclusion temporal or reclusion
perpetua; perpetua;
3. The penalty of prision correccional, if the defendant 3. The penalty of prision correccional, if the defendant
shall have been sentenced to any other afflictive shall have been sentenced to any other afflictive
penalty; and penalty; and

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4. The penalty of arresto mayor, if the defendant shall 4. The penalty of arresto mayor, if the defendant shall
have been sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine, have been sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine,
or shall have been acquitted. or shall have been acquitted.
In cases provided in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this article In cases provided in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this article
the offender shall further suffer a fine not to exceed the offender shall further suffer a fine not to Two
1,000 pesos. hundred thousand pesos (P200,000)
Article 181. False testimony favorable to the Article 181. False testimony favorable to the
defendants. - Any person who shall give false testimony defendants. - Any person who shall give false testimony
in favor of the defendant in a criminal case, shall suffer in favor of the defendant in a criminal case, shall suffer
the penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period the penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period
to prision correccional in its minimum period a fine not to prision correccional in its minimum period a fine not
to exceed 1,000 pesos, if the prosecution is for a felony to exceed Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), if
punishable by an afflictive penalty, and the penalty the prosecution is for a felony punishable by an
of arresto mayor in any other case. afflictive penalty, and the penalty of arresto mayor in
any other case.
Article 182. False testimony in civil cases. - Any person Article 182. False testimony in civil cases. - Any person
found guilty of false testimony in a civil case shall suffer found guilty of false testimony in a civil case shall suffer
the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum
period and a fine not to exceed 6,000 pesos, if the period and a fine not to exceed One million two
amount in controversy shall exceed 5,000 pesos, and hundred thousand pesos (P1,200,000), if the amount
the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to in controversy shall exceed One million pesos
prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine (P1,000,000), and the penalty of arresto mayor in its
not to exceed 1,000 pesos, if the amount in controversy maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum
shall not exceed said amount or cannot be estimated. period and a fine not to exceed Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000), if the amount in controversy shall
not exceed said amount or cannot be estimated.

Article 187. Importation and disposition of falsely Article 187. Importation and disposition of falsely
marked articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or marked articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or
other precious metals or their alloys. - The penalty of other precious metals or their alloys. - The penalty of
prision correccional or a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 prision correccional or a fine ranging from Forty
pesos, or both, shall be imposed on any person who thousand pesos (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand
shall knowingly import or sell or dispose of any article pesos (P200,000), or both, shall be imposed on any
or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious person who shall knowingly import or sell or dispose of
metals, or their alloys, with stamps, brands, or marks any article or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other
which fail to indicate the actual fineness or quality of precious metals, or their alloys, with stamps, brands, or
said metals or alloys. marks which fail to indicate the actual fineness or
Any stamp, brand, label, or mark shall be deemed to fail quality of said metals or alloys.
to indicate the actual fineness of the article on which it Any stamp, brand, label, or mark shall be deemed to fail
is engraved, printed, stamped, labeled or attached, to indicate the actual fineness of the article on which it
when the rest of the article shows that the quality or is engraved, printed, stamped, labeled or attached,
fineness thereof is less by more than one-half karat, if when the rest of the article shows that the quality or
made of gold, and less by more than four one- fineness thereof is less by more than one-half karat, if
thousandth, if made of silver, than what is shown by made of gold, and less by more than four one-
said stamp, brand, label or mark. But in case of watch thousandth, if made of silver, than what is shown by
cases and flatware made of gold, the actual fineness of said stamp, brand, label or mark. But in case of watch
such gold shall not be less by more than three one- cases and flatware made of gold, the actual fineness of
thousandth than the fineness indicated by said stamp, such gold shall not be less by more than three one-
brand, label, or mark. thousandth than the fineness indicated by said stamp,
brand, label, or mark.

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Article 201. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications Article 201. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications
and exhibitions and indecent shows. - The penalty of and exhibitions and indecent shows. - The penalty of
prision mayor or a fine ranging from six thousand to prision mayor or a fine ranging from Twenty thousand
twelve thousand pesos, or both such imprisonment and pesos (P20,000) to Two hundred thousand
fine, shall be imposed upon: pesos(P200,000), or both such imprisonment and fine,
(1) Those who shall publicly expound or proclaim shall be imposed upon:
doctrines openly contrary to public morals; (1) Those who shall publicly expound or proclaim
(2) (a) the authors of obscene literature, published with doctrines openly contrary to public morals;
their knowledge in any form; the editors publishing (2) (a) the authors of obscene literature, published with
such literature; and the owners/operators of the their knowledge in any form; the editors publishing
establishment selling the same; such literature; and the owners/operators of the
(b) Those who, in theaters, fairs, cinematographs or any establishment selling the same;
other place, exhibit, indecent or immoral plays, scenes, (b) Those who, in theaters, fairs, cinematographs or any
acts or shows, whether live or in film, which are other place, exhibit, indecent or immoral plays, scenes,
prescribed by virtue hereof, shall include those which acts or shows, whether live or in film, which are
(1) glorify criminals or condone crimes; (2) serve no prescribed by virtue hereof, shall include those which
other purpose but to satisfy the market for violence, (1) glorify criminals or condone crimes; (2) serve no
lust or pornography; (3) offend any race or religion; (4) other purpose but to satisfy the market for violence,
tend to abet traffic in and use of prohibited drugs; and lust or pornography; (3) offend any race or religion; (4)
(5) are contrary to law, public order, morals, and good tend to abet traffic in and use of prohibited drugs; and
customs, established policies, lawful orders, decrees (5) are contrary to law, public order, morals, and good
and edicts; customs, established policies, lawful orders, decrees
(3) Those who shall sell, give away or exhibit films, and edicts;
prints, engravings, sculpture or literature which are (3) Those who shall sell, give away or exhibit films,
offensive to morals. (As amended by PD Nos. 960 and prints, engravings, sculpture or literature which are
969). offensive to morals.

Article 202. Vagrants and prostitutes; Penalty. - The Article 202. Prostitutes; Penalty. For the purpose of
following are vagrants: this article, women who, for money or profit,
1. Any person having no apparent means of habitually indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious
subsistence, who has the physical ability to work and conduct, are deemed to be prostitutes.
who neglects to apply himself or herself to some lawful Any person found guilty of any of the offenses covered
calling; by this article shall be punished by arresto menor or a
2. Any person found loitering about public or semi- fine not exceeding Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000),
public buildings or places or trampling or wandering and in case of recidivism, by arresto mayor in its
about the country or the streets without visible means medium period to prision correccional in its minimum
of support; period or a fine ranging from Twenty thousand pesos
3. Any idle or dissolute person who ledges in houses of (P20,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000),
ill fame; ruffians or pimps and those who habitually or both, in the discretion of the court.
associate with prostitutes;
4. Any person who, not being included in the provisions
of other articles of this Code, shall be found loitering in
any inhabited or uninhabited place belonging to
another without any lawful or justifiable purpose;
5. Prostitutes.

Article 209. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or Article 209. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or
solicitor. - Revelation of secrets. - In addition to the solicitor. - Revelation of secrets. - In addition to the
proper administrative action, the penalty of prision proper administrative action, the penalty of prision
correccional in its minimum period, or a fine ranging correccional in its minimum period, or a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to Two hundred
upon any attorney-at-law or solicitor ( procurador thousand pesos (P200,000), or both, shall be imposed

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judicial) who, by any malicious breach of professional upon any attorney-at-law or solicitor ( procurador
duty or of inexcusable negligence or ignorance, shall judicial) who, by any malicious breach of professional
prejudice his client, or reveal any of the secrets of the duty or of inexcusable negligence or ignorance, shall
latter learned by him in his professional capacity. prejudice his client, or reveal any of the secrets of the
The same penalty shall be imposed upon an attorney- latter learned by him in his professional capacity.
at-law or solicitor (procurador judicial) who, having The same penalty shall be imposed upon an attorney-
undertaken the defense of a client or having received at-law or any person duly authorized to represent
confidential information from said client in a case, shall and/or assist a party to a case who, having undertaken
undertake the defense of the opposing party in the the defense of a client or having received confidential
same case, without the consent of his first client. information from said client in a case, shall undertake
the defense of the opposing party in the same case,
without the consent of his first client.

Article 213. Frauds against the public treasury and Article 213. Frauds against the public treasury and
similar offenses. - The penalty of prision correccional in similar offenses. - The penalty of prision correccional in
its medium period to prision mayor in its minimum its medium period to prision mayor in its minimum
period, or a fine ranging from 200 to 10,000 pesos, or period, or a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos
both, shall be imposed upon any public officer who: (P40,000) to Two million pesos (P2,000,000), or both,
1. In his official capacity, in dealing with any person shall be imposed upon any public officer who:
with regard to furnishing supplies, the making of 1. In his official capacity, in dealing with any person
contracts, or the adjustment or settlement of accounts with regard to furnishing supplies, the making of
relating to public property or funds, shall enter into an contracts, or the adjustment or settlement of accounts
agreement with any interested party or speculator or relating to public property or funds, shall enter into an
make use of any other scheme, to defraud the agreement with any interested party or speculator or
Government; make use of any other scheme, to defraud the
2. Being entrusted with the collection of taxes, licenses, Government;
fees and other imposts, shall be guilty or any of the 2. Being entrusted with the collection of taxes, licenses,
following acts or omissions: fees and other imposts, shall be guilty or any of the
(a) Demanding, directly, or indirectly, the payment of following acts or omissions:
sums different from or larger than those authorized by (a) Demanding, directly, or indirectly, the payment of
law. sums different from or larger than those authorized by
(b) Failing voluntarily to issue a receipt, as provided by law.
law, for any sum of money collected by him officially. (b) Failing voluntarily to issue a receipt, as provided by
(c) Collecting or receiving, directly or indirectly, by way law, for any sum of money collected by him officially.
of payment or otherwise things or objects of a nature (c) Collecting or receiving, directly or indirectly, by way
different from that provided by law. of payment or otherwise things or objects of a nature
When the culprit is an officer or employee of the different from that provided by law.
Bureau of Internal Revenue or the Bureau of Customs, When the culprit is an officer or employee of the
the provisions of the Administrative Code shall be Bureau of Internal Revenue or the Bureau of Customs,
applied. the provisions of the Administrative Code shall be
applied.

Article 215. Prohibited transactions. - The penalty of Article 215. Prohibited transactions. - The penalty of
prision correccional in its maximum period or a fine prision correccional in its maximum period or a fine
ranging from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, shall be ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to Two
imposed upon any appointive public officer who, hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), or both, shall be
during his incumbency, shall directly or indirectly imposed upon any appointive public officer who,
become interested in any transaction of exchange or during his incumbency, shall directly or indirectly
speculation within the territory subject to his become interested in any transaction of exchange or
jurisdiction. speculation within the territory subject to his
jurisdiction.

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Article 216. Possession of prohibited interest by a public Article 216. Possession of prohibited interest by a public
officer. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium officer. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium
period to prision correccional in its minimum period, or period to prision correccional in its minimum period, or
a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, shall be a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to
imposed upon a public officer who directly or indirectly, Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), or both,
shall become interested in any contract or business in shall be imposed upon a public officer who directly or
which it is his official duty to intervene. indirectly, shall become interested in any contract or
This provisions is applicable to experts, arbitrators and business in which it is his official duty to intervene.
private accountants who, in like manner, shall take part This provisions is applicable to experts, arbitrators and
in any contract or transaction connected with the private accountants who, in like manner, shall take part
estate or property in appraisal, distribution or in any contract or transaction connected with the
adjudication of which they shall have acted, and to the estate or property in appraisal, distribution or
guardians and executors with respect to the property adjudication of which they shall have acted, and to the
belonging to their wards or estate. guardians and executors with respect to the property
belonging to their wards or estate.

Article 217. Malversation of public funds or property; Article 217. Malversation of public funds or property;
Presumption of malversation. - Any public officer who, Presumption of malversation. - Any public officer who,
by reason of the duties of his office, is accountable for by reason of the duties of his office, is accountable for
public funds or property, shall appropriate the same or public funds or property, shall appropriate the same or
shall take or misappropriate or shall consent, through shall take or misappropriate or shall consent, through
abandonment or negligence, shall permit any other abandonment or negligence, shall permit any other
person to take such public funds, or property, wholly or person to take such public funds, or property, wholly or
partially, or shall otherwise be guilty of the partially, or shall otherwise be guilty of the
misappropriation or malversation of such funds or misappropriation or malversation of such funds or
property, shall suffer: property, shall suffer:
1. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and 1. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and
maximum periods, if the amount involved in the maximum periods, if the amount involved in the
misappropriation or malversation does not exceed two misappropriation or malversation does not exceed
hundred pesos. Forty thousand pesos (P40,000).
2. The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and 2. The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and
medium periods, if the amount involved is more than medium periods, if the amount involved is more than
two hundred pesos but does not exceed six thousand Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) but does not exceed
pesos. One million two hundred thousand pesos
3. The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period (P1,200,000).
to reclusion temporal in its minimum period, if the 3. The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period
amount involved is more than six thousand pesos but is to reclusion temporal in its minimum period, if the
less than twelve thousand pesos. amount involved is more than One million two
4. The penalty of reclusion temporal, in its medium and hundred thousand pesos (P1,200,000) but does not
maximum periods, if the amount involved is more than exceed Two million four hundred thousand pesos
twelve thousand pesos but is less than twenty-two (P2,400,000).
thousand pesos. If the amount exceeds the latter, the 4. The penalty of reclusion temporal, in its medium and
penalty shall be reclusion temporal in its maximum maximum periods, if the amount involved is more than
period to reclusion perpetua. Two million four hundred thousand pesos
In all cases, persons guilty of malversation shall also (P2,400,000) but is less than Four million four hundred
suffer the penalty of perpetual special disqualification thousand pesos (P4,400,000).
and a fine equal to the amount of the funds malversed 5. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum
or equal to the total value of the property embezzled. period, if the amount involved is more than Four
The failure of a public officer to have duly forthcoming million four hundred thousand pesos (P4,400,000) but
any public funds or property with which he is does not exceed Eight million eight hundred thousand
chargeable, upon demand by any duly authorized pesos (P8,800,000). If the amount exceeds the latter,
officer, shall be prima facie evidence that he has put the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua.

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such missing funds or property to personal use. (As In all cases, persons guilty of malversation shall also
amended by RA 1060). suffer the penalty of perpetual special disqualification
and a fine equal to the amount of the funds malversed
or equal to the total value of the property embezzled.
The failure of a public officer to have duly forthcoming
any public funds or property with which he is
chargeable, upon demand by any duly authorized
officer, shall be prima facie evidence that he has put
such missing funds or property to personal uses.

Article 218. Failure of accountable officer to render Article 218. Failure of accountable officer to render
accounts. - Any public officer, whether in the service or accounts. - Any public officer, whether in the service or
separated therefrom by resignation or any other cause, separated therefrom by resignation or any other cause,
who is required by law or regulation to render account who is required by law or regulation to render account
to the Insular Auditor, or to a provincial auditor and to the Commission on Audit, or to a provincial auditor
who fails to do so for a period of two months after such and who fails to do so for a period of (2) two months
accounts should be rendered, shall be punished by after such accounts should be rendered, shall be
prision correccional in its minimum period, or by a fine punished by prision correccional in its minimum period,
ranging from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both. or by a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000) to One million two hundred thousand pesos
(P1,200,000), or both.

Article 219. Failure of a responsible public officer to Article 219. Failure of a responsible public officer to
render accounts before leaving the country. - Any public render accounts before leaving the country. - Any public
officer who unlawfully leaves or attempts to leave the officer who unlawfully leaves or attempts to leave the
Philippine Islands without securing a certificate from Philippines without securing a certificate from the
the Insular Auditor showing that his accounts have Commission on Audit showing that his accounts have
been finally settled, shall be punished by arresto been finally settled, shall be punished by arresto
mayor, or a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 pesos or mayor, or a fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos
both. (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000)
or both.
Article 221. Failure to make delivery of public funds or Article 221. Failure to make delivery of public funds or
property. - Any public officer under obligation to make property. - Any public officer under obligation to make
payment from Government funds in his possession, payment from Government funds in his possession,
who shall fail to make such payment, shall be punished who shall fail to make such payment, shall be punished
by arresto mayor and a fine from 5 to 25 per cent of the by arresto mayor and a fine from five (5) to twenty (25)
sum which he failed to pay. per cent of the sum which he failed to pay.
This provision shall apply to any public officer who, This provision shall apply to any public officer who,
being ordered by competent authority to deliver any being ordered by competent authority to deliver any
property in his custody or under his administration, property in his custody or under his administration,
shall refuse to make such delivery. shall refuse to make such delivery.
The fine shall be graduated in such case by the value of The fine shall be graduated in such case by the value of
the thing, provided that it shall not less than 50 pesos. the thing, provided that it shall not less than Ten
thousand pesos (P10,000).

Article 226. Removal, concealment or destruction of Article 226. Removal, concealment or destruction of
documents. - Any public officer who shall remove, documents. - Any public officer who shall remove,
destroy or conceal documents or papers officially destroy or conceal documents or papers officially
entrusted to him, shall suffer: entrusted to him, shall suffer:
1. The penalty of prision mayor and a fine not exceeding 1. The penalty of prision mayor and a fine not exceeding
1,000 pesos, whenever serious damage shall have been Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), whenever
caused thereby to a third party or to the public interest.

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2. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum serious damage shall have been caused thereby to a
and medium period and a fine not exceeding 1,000 third party or to the public interest.
pesos, whenever the damage to a third party or to the 2. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum
public interest shall not have been serious. and medium period and a fine not exceeding Two
In either case, the additional penalty of temporary hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), whenever the
special disqualification in its maximum period to damage to a third party or to the public interest shall
perpetual disqualification shall be imposed. not have been serious.
In either case, the additional penalty of temporary
special disqualification in its maximum period to
perpetual disqualification shall be imposed.

Article 227. Officer breaking seal. - Any public Article 227. Officer breaking seal. - Any public
officer charged with the custody of papers or officer charged with the custody of papers or
property sealed by proper authority, who shall property sealed by proper authority, who shall
break the seals or permit them to be broken, shall break the seals or permit them to be broken, shall
suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its
minimum and medium periods, temporary special minimum and medium periods, temporary special
disqualification and a fine not exceeding 2,000 disqualification and a fine not exceeding Four
pesos. hundred thousand pesos (P400,000).

Article 228. Opening of closed documents. - Any public Article 228. Opening of closed documents. - Any public
officer not included in the provisions of the next officer not included in the provisions of the next
preceding article who, without proper authority, shall preceding article who, without proper authority, shall
open or shall permit to be opened any closed papers, open or shall permit to be opened any closed papers,
documents or objects entrusted to his custody, shall documents or objects entrusted to his custody, shall
suffer the penalties or arresto mayor, temporary suffer the penalties or arresto mayor, temporary
special disqualification and a fine of not exceeding special disqualification and a fine of not exceeding
2,000 pesos. Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000).

Article 229. Revelation of secrets by an officer. - Any Article 229. Revelation of secrets by an officer. - Any
public officer who shall reveal any secret known to him public officer who shall reveal any secret known to him
by reason of his official capacity, or shall wrongfully by reason of his official capacity, or shall wrongfully
deliver papers or copies of papers of which he may have deliver papers or copies of papers of which he may have
charge and which should not be published, shall suffer charge and which should not be published, shall suffer
the penalties of prision correccional in its medium and the penalties of prision correccional in its medium and
maximum periods, perpetual special disqualification maximum periods, perpetual special disqualification
and a fine not exceeding 2,000 pesos if the revelation and a fine not exceeding Four hundred thousand
of such secrets or the delivery of such papers shall have pesos (P400,000) if the revelation of such secrets or
caused serious damage to the public interest; the delivery of such papers shall have caused serious
otherwise, the penalties of prision correccional in its damage to the public interest; otherwise, the penalties
minimum period, temporary special disqualification of prision correccional in its minimum period,
and a fine not exceeding 50 pesos shall be imposed. temporary special disqualification and a fine not
exceeding One hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000)
shall be imposed.

Article 230. Public officer revealing secrets of private Article 230. Public officer revealing secrets of private
individual. - Any public officer to whom the secrets of individual. - Any public officer to whom the secrets of
any private individual shall become known by reason of any private individual shall become known by reason of
his office who shall reveal such secrets, shall suffer the his office who shall reveal such secrets, shall suffer the
penalties of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding penalties of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding
1,000 pesos. 1,000 pesos.

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Article 231. Open disobedience. - Any judicial or Article 231. Open disobedience. - Any judicial or
executive officer who shall openly refuse to execute the executive officer who shall openly refuse to execute the
judgment, decision or order of any superior authority judgment, decision or order of any superior authority
made within the scope of the jurisdiction of the latter made within the scope of the jurisdiction of the latter
and issued with all the legal formalities, shall suffer the and issued with all the legal formalities, shall suffer the
penalties of arresto mayor in its medium period to penalties of arresto mayor in its medium period to
prision correccional in its minimum period, temporary prision correccional in its minimum period, temporary
special disqualification in its maximum period and a special disqualification in its maximum period and a
fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos. fine not exceeding Two hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000).

Article 233. Refusal of assistance. - The penalties Article 233. Refusal of assistance. - The penalties
of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision
correccional in its minimum period, perpetual special correccional in its minimum period, perpetual special
disqualification and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos, disqualification and a fine not exceeding Two
shall be imposed upon a public officer who, upon hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), shall be
demand from competent authority, shall fail to lend his imposed upon a public officer who, upon demand from
cooperation towards the administration of justice or competent authority, shall fail to lend his cooperation
other public service, if such failure shall result in serious towards the administration of justice or other public
damage to the public interest, or to a third party; service, if such failure shall result in serious damage to
otherwise, arresto mayor in its medium and maximum the public interest, or to a third party;
periods and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be otherwise, arresto mayor in its medium and maximum
imposed. periods and a fine not exceeding One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed.
Article 234. Refusal to discharge elective office. - The Article 234. Refusal to discharge elective office. - The
penalty of arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding 1,000 penalty of arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding Two
pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), or both,
having been elected by popular election to a public shall be imposed upon any person who, having been
office, shall refuse without legal motive to be sworn in elected by popular election to a public office, shall
or to discharge the duties of said office. refuse without legal motive to be sworn in or to
discharge the duties of said office.

Article 235. Maltreatment of prisoners. - The penalty Article 235. Maltreatment of prisoners. - The penalty
of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision
correccional in its minimum period, in addition to his correccional in its minimum period, in addition to his
liability for the physical injuries or damage caused, shall liability for the physical injuries or damage caused, shall
be imposed upon any public officer or employee who be imposed upon any public officer or employee who
shall overdo himself in the correction or handling of a shall overdo himself in the correction or handling of a
prisoner or detention prisoner under his charge, by the prisoner or detention prisoner under his charge, by the
imposition of punishment not authorized by the imposition of punishment not authorized by the
regulations, or by inflicting such punishment in a cruel regulations, or by inflicting such punishment in a cruel
and humiliating manner. and humiliating manner.
If the purpose of the maltreatment is to extort a If the purpose of the maltreatment is to extort a
confession, or to obtain some information from the confession, or to obtain some information from the
prisoner, the offender shall be punished by prision prisoner, the offender shall be punished by prision
correccional in its minimum period, temporary special correccional in its minimum period, temporary special
disqualification and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos, in disqualification and a fine not exceeding One
addition to his liability for the physical injuries or hundred thousand pesos (P100,000), in addition
damage caused. to his liability for the physical injuries or damage
caused.
Article 236. Anticipation of duties of a public office. - Article 236. Anticipation of duties of a public office. -
Any person who shall assume the performance of the Any person who shall assume the performance of the

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duties and powers of any public officer or employment duties and powers of any public officer or employment
without first being sworn in or having given the bond without first being sworn in or having given the bond
required by law, shall be suspended from such office or required by law, shall be suspended from such office or
employment until he shall have complied with the employment until he shall have complied with the
respective formalities and shall be fined from 200 to respective formalities and shall be fined from Forty
500 pesos. thousand pesos (P40,000) to One hundred thousand
pesos (P100,000).
Article 237. Prolonging performance of duties and Article 237. Prolonging performance of duties and
powers. - Any public officer shall continue to exercise powers. - Any public officer shall continue to exercise
the duties and powers of his office, employment or the duties and powers of his office, employment or
commission, beyond the period provided by law, commission, beyond the period provided by law,
regulation or special provisions applicable to the case, regulation or special provisions applicable to the case,
shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its
minimum period, special temporary disqualification in minimum period, special temporary disqualification in
its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos. its minimum period and a fine not exceeding One
hundred thousand pesos (P100,000).
Article 239. Usurpation of legislative powers. - The Article 239. Usurpation of legislative powers. - The
penalties of prision correccional in its minimum period, penalties of prision correccional in its minimum period,
temporary special disqualification and a fine not temporary special disqualification and a fine not
exceeding 1,000 pesos, shall be imposed upon any exceeding Two hundred thousand pesos
public officer who shall encroach upon the powers of (P200,000), shall be imposed upon any public officer
the legislative branch of the Government, either by who shall encroach upon the powers of the legislative
making general rules or regulations beyond the scope branch of the Government, either by making general
of his authority, or by attempting to repeal a law or rules or regulations beyond the scope of his authority,
suspending the execution thereof. or by attempting to repeal a law or suspending the
execution thereof.
Article 242. Disobeying request for disqualification. - Article 242. Disobeying request for disqualification. -
Any public officer who, before the question of Any public officer who, before the question of
jurisdiction is decided, shall continue any proceeding jurisdiction is decided, shall continue any proceeding
after having been lawfully required to refrain from so after having been lawfully required to refrain from so
doing, shall be punished by arresto mayor and a fine doing, shall be punished by arresto mayor and a fine
not exceeding 500 pesos. not exceeding One hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000).
Article 243. Orders or requests by executive officers to Article 243. Orders or requests by executive officers to
any judicial authority. - Any executive officer who shall any judicial authority. - Any executive officer who shall
address any order or suggestion to any judicial address any order or suggestion to any judicial
authority with respect to any case or business coming authority with respect to any case or business coming
within the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of justice within the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of justice
shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos. exceeding One hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000).
Article 244. Unlawful appointments. - Any public Article 244. Unlawful appointments. - Any public
officer who shall knowingly nominate or appoint to officer who shall knowingly nominate or appoint to
any public office any person lacking the legal any public office any person lacking the legal
qualifications therefor, shall suffer the penalty qualifications therefor, shall suffer the penalty
of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 1,000 of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding Two
pesos. hundred thousand pesos (P200,000).
Article 259. Abortion practiced by a physician or
Article 259. Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing of abortives. - The penalties
midwife and dispensing of abortives. - The penalties provided in Article 256 shall be imposed in its maximum
provided in Article 256 shall be imposed in its maximum period, respectively, upon any physician or midwife
period, respectively, upon any physician or midwife who, taking advantage of their scientific knowledge or
who, taking advantage of their scientific knowledge or
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skill, shall cause an abortion or assist in causing the skill, shall cause an abortion or assist in causing the
same. same.
Any pharmacist who, without the proper prescription Any pharmacist who, without the proper prescription
from a physician, shall dispense any abortive shall from a physician, shall dispense any abortive shall
suffer arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 1,000 suffer arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding One
pesos. hundred thousand pesos (P100,000).
Article 265. Less serious physical injuries. - Any person Article 265. Less serious physical injuries. - Any person
who shall inflict upon another physical injuries not who shall inflict upon another physical injuries not
described in the preceding articles, but which shall described in the preceding articles, but which shall
incapacitate the offended party for labor for ten days incapacitate the offended party for labor for ten (10)
or more, or shall require medical assistance for the days or more, or shall require medical assistance for the
same period, shall be guilty of less serious physical same period, shall be guilty of less serious physical
injuries and shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. injuries and shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor.
Whenever less serious physical injuries shall have been
inflicted with the manifest intent to kill or offend the Whenever less serious physical injuries shall have been
injured person, or under circumstances adding inflicted with the manifest intent to kill or offend the
ignominy to the offense in addition to the penalty injured person, or under circumstances adding
of arresto mayor, a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall ignominy to the offense in addition to the penalty
be imposed. of arresto mayor, a fine not exceeding Fifty thousand
Any less serious physical injuries inflicted upon the pesos (P50,000) shall be imposed.
offender's parents, ascendants, guardians, curators,
teachers, or persons of rank, or persons in authority, Any less serious physical injuries inflicted upon the
shall be punished by prision correccional in its offender's parents, ascendants, guardians, curators,
minimum and medium periods, provided that, in the teachers, or persons of rank, or persons in authority,
case of persons in authority, the deed does not shall be punished by prision correccional in its
constitute the crime of assault upon such person. minimum and medium periods, provided that, in the
case of persons in authority, the deed does not
constitute the crime of assault upon such person.
Article 266. Slight physical injuries and maltreatment. - Article 266. Slight physical injuries and maltreatment. -
The crime of slight physical injuries shall be punished: The crime of slight physical injuries shall be punished:
1. By arresto menor when the offender has inflicted 1. By arresto menor when the offender has inflicted
physical injuries which shall incapacitate the offended physical injuries which shall incapacitate the offended
party for labor from one to nine days, or shall require party for labor from one (1) to nine (9) days, or shall
medical attendance during the same period. require medical attendance during the same period.
2. By arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 20 pesos 2. By arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Forty
and censure when the offender has caused physical thousand pesos (P40,000) and censure when the
injuries which do not prevent the offended party from offender has caused physical injuries which do not
engaging in his habitual work nor require medical prevent the offended party from engaging in his
assistance. habitual work nor require medical assistance.
3. By arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not 3. By arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not
exceeding 50 pesos when the offender shall ill-treat exceeding Five thousand pesos (P5,000)
another by deed without causing any injury. when the offender shall ill-treat another by deed
without causing any injury.
Article 268. Slight illegal detention. - The penalty of Article 268. Slight illegal detention. - The penalty of
reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any private reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any private
individual who shall commit the crimes described in the individual who shall commit the crimes described in the
next preceding article without the attendance of any of next preceding article without the attendance of any of
circumstances enumerated therein. circumstances enumerated therein.
The same penalty shall be incurred by anyone who shall The same penalty shall be incurred by anyone who shall
furnish the place for the perpetration of the crime. furnish the place for the perpetration of the crime.
If the offender shall voluntarily release the person so If the offender shall voluntarily release the person so
kidnapped or detained within three days from the kidnapped or detained within three (3) days from the

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commencement of the detention, without having commencement of the detention, without having
attained the purpose intended, and before the attained the purpose intended, and before the
institution of criminal proceedings against him, the institution of criminal proceedings against him, the
penalty shall be prision mayor in its minimum and penalty shall be prision mayor in its minimum and
medium periods and a fine not exceeding seven medium periods and a fine not exceeding One hundred
hundred pesos. thousand pesos (P100,000).

Article 269. Unlawful arrest. - The penalty of arresto Article 269. Unlawful arrest. - The penalty of arresto
mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be mayor and a fine not exceeding One hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who, in any case other than pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed upon any person
those authorized by law, or without reasonable ground who, in any case other than those authorized by law, or
therefor, shall arrest or detain another for the purpose without reasonable ground therefor, shall arrest or
of delivering him to the proper authorities. detain another for the purpose of delivering him to the
proper authorities.
Article 271. Inducing a minor to abandon his home. - Article 271. Inducing a minor to abandon his home. -
The penalty of prision correccional and a fine not The penalty of prision correccional and a fine not
exceeding seven hundred pesos shall be imposed upon exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000)
anyone who shall induce a minor to abandon the home shall be imposed upon anyone who shall induce a minor
of his parent or guardians or the persons entrusted with to abandon the home of his parent or guardians or the
his custody. persons entrusted with his custody.
If the person committing any of the crimes covered by If the person committing any of the crimes covered by
the two preceding articles shall be the father or the the two (2) preceding articles shall be the father or the
mother of the minor, the penalty shall be arresto mother of the minor, the penalty shall be arresto
mayor or a fine not exceeding three hundred pesos, or mayor or a fine not exceeding Forty thousand pesos
both. (P40,000), or both.

Article 276. Abandoning a minor. - The penalty Article 276. Abandoning a minor. - The penalty
of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos of arresto mayor and a fine not One hundred thousand
shall be imposed upon any one who shall abandon a pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed upon any one who
child under seven years of age, the custody of which is shall abandon a child under seven (7) years of age, the
incumbent upon him. custody of which is incumbent upon him.
When the death of the minor shall result from such When the death of the minor shall result from such
abandonment, the culprit shall be punished by prision abandonment, the culprit shall be punished by prision
correccional in its medium and maximum periods; but correccional in its medium and maximum periods; but
if the life of the minor shall have been in danger only, if the life of the minor shall have been in danger only,
the penalty shall be prision correccional in its minimum the penalty shall be prision correccional in its minimum
and medium periods. and medium periods.
The provisions contained in the two preceding The provisions contained in the two (2) preceding
paragraphs shall not prevent the imposition of the paragraphs shall not prevent the imposition of the
penalty provided for the act committed, when the penalty provided for the act committed, when the
same shall constitute a more serious offense. same shall constitute a more serious offense.

Article 277. Abandonment of minor by person Article 277. Abandonment of minor by person
entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents. - entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents. -
The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding
500 pesos shall be imposed upon anyone who, having One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be
charge of the rearing or education of a minor, shall imposed upon anyone who, having charge of the
deliver said minor to a public institution or other rearing or education of a minor, shall deliver said minor
persons, without the consent of the one who entrusted to a public institution or other persons, without the
such child to his care or in the absence of the latter, consent of the one who entrusted such child to his care
without the consent of the proper authorities. or in the absence of the latter, without the consent of
the proper authorities.

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The same penalty shall be imposed upon the parents The same penalty shall be imposed upon the parents
who shall neglect their children by not giving them the who shall neglect their children by not giving them the
education which their station in life require and education which their station in life require and
financial conditions permit. financial conditions permit.

Article 278. Exploitation of minors. - The penalty of Article 278. Exploitation of minors. - The penalty of
prision correccional in its minimum and medium prision correccional in its minimum and medium
periods and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be periods and a fine not exceeding One hundred
imposed upon: thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed upon:
1. Any person who shall cause any boy or girl under 1. Any person who shall cause any boy or girl under
sixteen years of age to perform any dangerous feat of sixteen (16) years of age to perform any dangerous feat
balancing, physical strength, or contortion. of balancing, physical strength, or contortion.
2. Any person who, being an acrobat, gymnast, rope- 2. Any person who, being an acrobat, gymnast, rope-
walker, diver, wild-animal tamer or circus manager or walker, diver, wild-animal tamer or circus manager or
engaged in a similar calling, shall employ in exhibitions engaged in a similar calling, shall employ in exhibitions
of these kinds children under sixteen years of age who of these kinds children under sixteen (16) years of age
are not his children or descendants. who are not his children or descendants.
3. Any person engaged in any of the callings 3. Any person engaged in any of the callings
enumerated in the next paragraph preceding who shall enumerated in the next paragraph preceding who shall
employ any descendant of his under twelve years of employ any descendant of his under twelve (12) years
age in such dangerous exhibitions. of age in such dangerous exhibitions.
4. Any ascendant, guardian, teacher or person 4. Any ascendant, guardian, teacher or person
entrusted in any capacity with the care of a child under entrusted in any capacity with the care of a child under
sixteen years of age, who shall deliver such child sixteen (16) years of age, who shall deliver such child
gratuitously to any person following any of the callings gratuitously to any person following any of the callings
enumerated in paragraph 2 hereof, or to any habitual enumerated in paragraph 2 hereof, or to any habitual
vagrant or beggar. vagrant or beggar.
If the delivery shall have been made in consideration of If the delivery shall have been made in consideration of
any price, compensation, or promise, the penalty shall any price, compensation, or promise, the penalty shall
in every case be imposed in its maximum period. in every case be imposed in its maximum period.
In either case, the guardian or curator convicted shall In either case, the guardian or curator convicted shall
also be removed from office as guardian or curator; and also be removed from office as guardian or curator; and
in the case of the parents of the child, they may be in the case of the parents of the child, they may be
deprived, temporarily or perpetually, in the discretion deprived, temporarily or perpetually, in the discretion
of the court, of their parental authority. of the court, of their parental authority.
5. Any person who shall induce any child under sixteen 5. Any person who shall induce any child under sixteen
years of age to abandon the home of its ascendants, (16) years of age to abandon the home of its
guardians, curators, or teachers to follow any person ascendants, guardians, curators, or teachers to follow
engaged in any of the callings mentioned in paragraph any person engaged in any of the callings mentioned in
2 hereof, or to accompany any habitual vagrant or paragraph 2 hereof, or to accompany any habitual
beggar. vagrant or beggar.
Article 280. Qualified trespass to dwelling. - Any private Article 280. Qualified trespass to dwelling. - Any
person who shall enter the dwelling of another against private person who shall enter the dwelling of another
the latter's will shall be punished by arresto mayor and against the latter's will shall be punished by arresto
a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos. mayor and a fine not exceeding Two hundred
If the offense be committed by means of violence or thousand pesos (P200,000).
intimidation, the penalty shall be prision correccional in If the offense be committed by means of violence or
its medium and maximum periods and a fine not intimidation, the penalty shall be prision correccional
exceeding 1,000 pesos. in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not
The provisions of this article shall not be applicable to exceeding Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000).
any person who shall enter another's dwelling for the The provisions of this article shall not be applicable to
purpose of preventing some serious harm to himself, any person who shall enter another's dwelling for the

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the occupants of the dwelling or a third person, nor purpose of preventing some serious harm to himself,
shall it be applicable to any person who shall enter a the occupants of the dwelling or a third person, nor
dwelling for the purpose of rendering some service to shall it be applicable to any person who shall enter a
humanity or justice, nor to anyone who shall enter dwelling for the purpose of rendering some service to
cafes, taverns, inn and other public houses, while the humanity or justice, nor to anyone who shall enter
same are open. cafes, taverns, inn and other public houses, while the
same are open.
Article 281. Other forms of trespass. - The penalty Article 281. Other forms of trespass. - The penalty
of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Forty
both, shall be imposed upon any person who shall enter thousand pesos (P40,000), or both, shall be imposed
the closed premises or the fenced estate of another, upon any person who shall enter the closed premises
while either or them are uninhabited, if the prohibition or the fenced estate of another, while either or both
to enter be manifest and the trespasser has not secured of them are uninhabited, if the prohibition to enter be
the permission of the owner or the caretaker thereof. manifest and the trespasser has not secured the
permission of the owner or the caretaker thereof.
Article 282. Grave threats. - Any person who shall Article 282. Grave threats. - Any person who shall
threaten another with the infliction upon the person, threaten another with the infliction upon the person,
honor or property of the latter or of his family of any honor or property of the latter or of his family of any
wrong amounting to a crime, shall suffer: wrong amounting to a crime, shall suffer:
1. The penalty next lower in degree than that 1. The penalty next lower in degree than that
prescribed by law for the crime be threatened to prescribed by law for the crime be threatened to
commit, if the offender shall have made the threat commit, if the offender shall have made the threat
demanding money or imposing any other condition, demanding money or imposing any other condition,
even though not unlawful, and said offender shall have even though not unlawful, and said offender shall have
attained his purpose. If the offender shall not have attained his purpose. If the offender shall not have
attained his purpose, the penalty lower by two degrees attained his purpose, the penalty lower by two (2)
shall be imposed. degrees shall be imposed.
If the threat be made in writing or through a If the threat be made in writing or through a
middleman, the penalty shall be imposed in its middleman, the penalty shall be imposed in its
maximum period. maximum period.
2. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not 2. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos, if the threat shall not have been exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000), if
made subject to a condition. the threat shall not have been made subject to a
condition.
Article 285. Other light threats. - The penalty of arresto Article 285. Other light threats. - The penalty
menor in its minimum period or a fine not exceeding of arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not
200 pesos shall be imposed upon: exceeding Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) shall be
1. Any person who, without being included in the imposed upon:
provisions of the next preceding article, shall threaten 1. Any person who, without being included in the
another with a weapon or draw such weapon in a provisions of the next preceding article, shall threaten
quarrel, unless it be in lawful self-defense. another with a weapon or draw such weapon in a
2. Any person who, in the heat of anger, shall orally quarrel, unless it be in lawful self-defense.
threaten another with some harm not constituting a 2. Any person who, in the heat of anger, shall orally
crime, and who by subsequent acts show that he did threaten another with some harm not constituting a
not persist in the idea involved in his threat, provided crime, and who by subsequent acts show that he did
that the circumstances of the offense shall not bring it not persist in the idea involved in his threat, provided
within the provisions of Article 282 of this Code. that the circumstances of the offense shall not bring it
3. Any person who shall orally threaten to do another within the provisions of Article 282 of this Code.
any harm not constituting a felony. 3. Any person who shall orally threaten to do another
any harm not constituting a felony.
Article 286. Grave coercions. - The penalty of arresto Article 286. Grave coercions. - The penalty of arresto
mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be mayor and a fine not exceeding One hundred

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imposed upon any person who, without authority of thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed upon any
law, shall, by means of violence, prevent another from person who, without authority of law, shall, by means
doing something not prohibited by law, or compel him of violence, prevent another from doing something
to do something against his will, whether it be right or not prohibited by law, or compel him to do something
wrong. against his will, whether it be right or wrong.
If the coercion be committed for the purpose of If the coercion be committed for the purpose of
compelling another to perform any religious act or to compelling another to perform any religious act or to
prevent him from so doing, the penalty next higher in prevent him from so doing, the penalty next higher in
degree shall be imposed. degree shall be imposed.
Article 287. Light coercions. - Any person who, by Article 287. Light coercions. - Any person who, by
means of violence, shall seize anything belonging to his means of violence, shall seize anything belonging to his
debtor for the purpose of applying the same to the debtor for the purpose of applying the same to the
payment of the debt, shall suffer the penalty of arresto payment of the debt, shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor in its minimum period and a fine equivalent to mayor in its minimum period and a fine equivalent to
the value of the thing, but in no case less than 75 pesos. the value of the thing, but in no case less than Fifteen
Any other coercions or unjust vexations shall be thousand pesos (P15,000).
punished by arresto menor or a fine ranging from 5 Any other coercions or unjust vexations shall be
pesos to 200 pesos, or both. punished by arresto menor or a fine ranging from One
thousand pesos (P1,000) to Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000), or both.
Article 288. Other similar coercions; (Compulsory Article 288. Other similar coercions; (Compulsory
purchase of merchandise and payment of wages by purchase of merchandise and payment of wages by
means of tokens.) - The penalty of arresto mayor or a means of tokens.) - The penalty of arresto mayor or a
fine ranging from 200 to 500 pesos, or both, shall be fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to
imposed upon any person, agent or officer, of any One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000), or both,
association or corporation who shall force or compel, shall be imposed upon any person, agent or officer, of
directly or indirectly, or shall knowingly permit any any association or corporation who shall force or
laborer or employee employed by him or by such firm compel, directly or indirectly, or shall knowingly
or corporation to be forced or compelled, to purchase permit any laborer or employee employed by him or
merchandise or commodities of any kind. by such firm or corporation to be forced or compelled,
The same penalties shall be imposed upon any person to purchase merchandise or commodities of any kind.
who shall pay the wages due a laborer or employee The same penalties shall be imposed upon any person
employed by him, by means of tokens or objects other who shall pay the wages due a laborer or employee
than the legal tender currency of the laborer or employed by him, by means of tokens or objects other
employee. than the legal tender currency of the laborer or
employee.
Article 289. Formation, maintenance and prohibition of Article 289. Formation, maintenance and prohibition of
combination of capital or labor through violence or combination of capital or labor through violence or
threats. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not threats. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 300 pesos shall be imposed upon any person Sixty thousand pesos (P60,000) shall be imposed upon
who, for the purpose of organizing, maintaining or any person who, for the purpose of organizing,
preventing coalitions or capital or labor, strike of maintaining or preventing coalitions or capital or labor,
laborers or lock-out of employees, shall employ strike of laborers or lock-out of employees, shall
violence or threats in such a degree as to compel or employ violence or threats in such a degree as to
force the laborers or employers in the free and legal compel or force the laborers or employers in the free
exercise of their industry or work, if the act shall not and legal exercise of their industry or work, if the act
constitute a more serious offense in accordance with shall not constitute a more serious offense in
the provisions of this Code. accordance with the provisions of this Code.
Article 290. Discovering secrets through seizure of Article 290. Discovering secrets through seizure of
correspondence. - The penalty of prision correccional in correspondence. - The penalty of prision correccional
its minimum and medium periods and a fine not in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any private exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000)

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individual who in order to discover the secrets of shall be imposed upon any private individual who in
another, shall seize his papers or letters and reveal the order to discover the secrets of another, shall seize his
contents thereof. papers or letters and reveal the contents thereof.
If the offender shall not reveal such secrets, the penalty If the offender shall not reveal such secrets, the
shall be arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 penalty shall be arresto mayor and a fine not
pesos. exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000).
The provision shall not be applicable to parents, The provision shall not be applicable to parents,
guardians, or persons entrusted with the custody of guardians, or persons entrusted with the custody of
minors with respect to the papers or letters of the minors with respect to the papers or letters of the
children or minors placed under their care or study, nor children or minors placed under their care or study, nor
to spouses with respect to the papers or letters of to spouses with respect to the papers or letters of
either of them. either of them.
Article 291. Revealing secrets with abuse of office. - The Article 291. Revealing secrets with abuse of office. - The
penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding One
pesos shall be imposed upon any manager, employee, hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
or servant who, in such capacity, shall learn the secrets upon any manager, employee, or servant who, in such
of his principal or master and shall reveal such secrets. capacity, shall learn the secrets of his principal or
master and shall reveal such secrets.
Article 292. Revelation of industrial secrets. - The Article 292. Revelation of industrial secrets. - The
penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and
medium periods and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos medium periods and a fine not exceeding One hundred
shall be imposed upon the person in charge, employee thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed upon the
or workman of any manufacturing or industrial person in charge, employee or workman of any
establishment who, to the prejudice of the owner manufacturing or industrial establishment who, to the
thereof, shall reveal the secrets of the industry of the prejudice of the owner thereof, shall reveal the secrets
latter. of the industry of the latter.
Article 299. Robbery in an inhabited house or public Article 299. Robbery in an inhabited house or public
building or edifice devoted to worship. - Any armed building or edifice devoted to worship. - Any armed
person who shall commit robbery in an inhabited person who shall commit robbery in an inhabited
house or public building or edifice devoted to religious house or public building or edifice devoted to religious
worship, shall be punished by reclusion temporal, if worship, shall be punished by reclusion temporal, if
the value of the property taken shall exceed 250 the value of the property taken shall exceed Fifty
pesos, and if: thousand pesos (P50,000), and if:

(a) The malefactors shall enter the house or building in (a) The malefactors shall enter the house or building in
which the robbery was which the robbery was committed, by any of the
following means:
committed, by any of the following means:
1. Through an opening not intended for entrance or
1. Through a opening not intended for entrance or egress.
egress.
2. By breaking any wall, roof, or floor or breaking any
2. By breaking any wall, roof, or floor or breaking any door or window.
door or window.
3. By using false keys, picklocks or similar tools.
3. By using false keys, picklocks or similar tools.
4. By using any fictitious name or pretending the
4. By using any fictitious name or pretending the exercise of public authority.
exercise of public authority.
Or if -

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Or if - (b) The robbery be committed under any of the
following circumstances:
(b) The robbery be committed under any of the
following circumstances: 1. By the breaking of doors, wardrobes, chests, or any
other kind of locked or sealed furniture or receptacle;
1. By the breaking of doors, wardrobes, chests, or any
other kind of locked or sealed furniture or receptacle; 2. By taking such furniture or objects to be broken or
forced open outside the place of the robbery.
2. By taking such furniture or objects to be broken or
forced open outside the place of the robbery. When the offenders do not carry arms, and the value
of the property taken exceeds Fifty thousand pesos
When the offenders do not carry arms, and the value (P50,000), the penalty next lower in degree shall be
of the property taken exceeds 250 pesos, the penalty imposed.
next lower in degree shall be imposed.
The same rule shall be applied when the offenders are
The same rule shall be applied when the offenders are armed, but the value of the property taken does not
armed, but the value of the property taken does not exceed Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000).
exceed 250 pesos.
When said offenders do not carry arms and the value
of the property taken does not exceed Fifty thousand
When said offenders do not carry arms and the value
pesos (P50,000), they shall suffer the penalty
of the property taken does not exceed 250 pesos, they
prescribed in the two (2) next preceding paragraphs,
shall suffer the penalty prescribed in the two next
in its minimum period.
preceding paragraphs, in its minimum period.
If the robbery be committed in one of the
dependencies of an inhabited house, public building, or
If the robbery be committed in one of the
building dedicated to religious worship, the penalties
dependencies of an inhabited house, public building, or
next lower in degree than those prescribed in this
building dedicated to religious worship, the penalties
article shall be imposed.
next lower in degree than those prescribed in this
article shall be imposed.
Article 302. Robbery is an uninhabited place or in a Article 302. Robbery is an uninhabited place or in a
private building. - Any robbery committed in an private building. - Any robbery committed in an
uninhabited place or in a building other than those uninhabited place or in a building other than those
mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 299, if the mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 299, if the
value of the property taken exceeds 250 pesos, shall be value of the property taken exceeds Fifty thousand
punished by prision correccional if any of the following pesos (P50,000), shall be punished by prision
circumstances is present: correccional in its medium and maximum periods if
1. If the entrance has been effected through any any of the following circumstances is present:
opening not intended for entrance or egress. 1. If the entrance has been effected through any
2. If any wall, roof, flour or outside door or window has opening not intended for entrance or egress.
been broken. 2. If any wall, roof, flour or outside door or window has
3. If the entrance has been effected through the use of been broken.
false keys, picklocks or other similar tools. 3. If the entrance has been effected through the use of
4. If any dorm, wardrobe, chest or by sealed or closed false keys, picklocks or other similar tools.
furniture or receptacle has been broken. 4. If any dorm, wardrobe, chest or by sealed or closed
5. If any closed or sealed receptacle, as mentioned in furniture or receptacle has been broken.
the preceding paragraph, has been removed even if the 5. If any closed or sealed receptacle, as mentioned in
same to broken open elsewhere. the preceding paragraph, has been removed even if the
When the value of the property takes does not exceed same to broken open elsewhere.
250 pesos, the penalty next lower in degree shall be When the value of the property takes does not exceed
imposed. Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000), the penalty next lower
in degree shall be imposed.

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In the cases specified in Articles 294, 295, 297, 299, 300, In the cases specified in Articles 294, 295, 297, 299, 300,
and 302 of this Code, when the property taken is mail and 302 of this Code, when the property taken is mail
matter or large cattle, the offender shall suffer the matter or large cattle, the offender shall suffer the
penalties next higher in degree than those provided in penalties next higher in degree than those provided in
said articles. said articles.
Article 309. Penalties. - Any person guilty of theft shall Article 309. Penalties. - Any person guilty of theft shall
be punished by: be punished by:
1. The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and 1. The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and
medium periods, if the value of the thing stolen is more medium periods, if the value of the thing stolen is
than 12,000 pesos but does not exceed 22,000 pesos, more than One million two hundred thousand pesos
but if the value of the thing stolen exceeds the latter (P1,200,000) but does not exceed Two million two
amount the penalty shall be the maximum period of the hundred thousand pesos (P2,200,000); but if the
one prescribed in this paragraph, and one year for each value of the thing stolen exceeds the latter amount
additional ten thousand pesos, but the total of the the penalty shall be the maximum period of the one
penalty which may be imposed shall not exceed twenty prescribed in this paragraph, and one (1) year for each
years. In such cases, and in connection with the additional One million pesos (P1,000,000), but the
accessory penalties which may be imposed and for the total of the penalty which may be imposed shall not
purpose of the other provisions of this Code, the exceed twenty (20) years. In such cases, and in
penalty shall be termed prision mayor or reclusion connection with the accessory penalties which may be
temporal, as the case may be. imposed and for the purpose of the other provisions
2. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and of this Code, the penalty shall be termed prision
maximum periods, if the value of the thing stolen is mayor or reclusion temporal, as the case may be.
more than 6,000 pesos but does not exceed 12,000 2. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium
pesos. and maximum periods, if the value of the thing stolen
3. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum is more than Six hundred thousand pesos (P600,000)
and medium periods, if the value of the property stolen but does not exceed One million two hundred
is more than 200 pesos but does not exceed 6,000 thousand pesos (P1,200,000).
pesos. 3. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum
4. Arresto mayor in its medium period to prision and medium periods, if the value of the property stolen
correccional in its minimum period, if the value of the is more than Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000) but
property stolen is over 50 pesos but does not exceed does not exceed Six hundred thousand pesos
200 pesos. (P600,000).
5. Arresto mayor to its full extent, if such value is over 4. Arresto mayor in its medium period to prision
5 pesos but does not exceed 50 pesos. correccional in its minimum period, if the value of the
6. Arresto mayor in its minimum and medium periods, property stolen is over Five thousand pesos (P5,000)
if such value does not exceed 5 pesos. but does not exceed Twenty thousand pesos
7. Arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, if (P20,000).
the theft is committed under the circumstances 5. Arresto mayor to its full extent, if such value is over
enumerated in paragraph 3 of the next preceding Five hundred pesos (P500) but does not exceed Five
article and the value of the thing stolen does not exceed thousand pesos (P5,000).
5 pesos. If such value exceeds said amount, the 6. Arresto mayor in its minimum and medium periods,
provision of any of the five preceding subdivisions shall if such value does not exceed Five hundred pesos
be made applicable. (P500).
8. Arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not 7. Arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Twenty
exceeding 50 pesos, when the value of the thing stolen thousand pesos (P20,000), if the theft is committed
is not over 5 pesos, and the offender shall have acted under the circumstances enumerated in paragraph 3
under the impulse of hunger, poverty, or the difficulty of the next preceding article and the value of the thing
of earning a livelihood for the support of himself or his stolen does not exceed Five hundred pesos (P500). If
family. such value exceeds said amount, the provision of any
of the five preceding subdivisions shall be made
applicable.

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8. Arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not
exceeding Five hundred pesos (P500), when the value
of the thing stolen is not over 5 pesos, and the offender
shall have acted under the impulse of hunger, poverty,
or the difficulty of earning a livelihood for the support
of himself or his family.
Article 311. Theft of the property of the National Library Article 311. Theft of the property of the National Library
and National Museum. - If the property stolen be any and National Museum. - If the property stolen be any
property of the National Library or the National property of the National Library or the National
Museum, the penalty shall be arresto mayor or a fine Museum, the penalty shall be arresto mayor or a fine
ranging from 200 to 500 pesos, or both, unless a higher ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to One
penalty should be provided under other provisions of hundred thousand pesos (P100,000), or both, unless a
this Code, in which case, the offender shall be punished higher penalty should be provided under other
by such higher penalty. provisions of this Code, in which case, the offender shall
be punished by such higher penalty.
Article 312. Occupation of real property or usurpation Article 312. Occupation of real property or usurpation
of real rights in property. - Any person who, by means of real rights in property. - Any person who, by means
of violence against or intimidation of persons, shall take of violence against or intimidation of persons, shall
possession of any real property or shall usurp any real take possession of any real property or shall usurp any
rights in property belonging to another, in addition to real rights in property belonging to another, in
the penalty incurred for the acts of violence executed addition to the penalty incurred for the acts of
by him, shall be punished by a fine from 50 to 100 per violence executed by him, shall be punished by a fine
centum of the gain which he shall have obtained, but from fifty (50) to one hundred (100) per centum of the
not less than 75 pesos. gain which he shall have obtained, but not less than
If the value of the gain cannot be ascertained, a fine of Fifteen thousand pesos (P15,000).
from 200 to 500 pesos shall be imposed. If the value of the gain cannot be ascertained, a fine of
from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed.
Article 313. Altering boundaries or landmarks. - Any Article 313. Altering boundaries or landmarks. - Any
person who shall alter the boundary marks or person who shall alter the boundary marks or
monuments of towns, provinces, or estates, or any monuments of towns, provinces, or estates, or any
other marks intended to designate the boundaries of other marks intended to designate the boundaries of
the same, shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine the same, shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine
not exceeding 100 pesos, or both. not exceeding Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000), or
both.
Article 315. Swindling (estafa). - Any person who shall Article 315. Swindling (estafa). - Any person who shall
defraud another by any of the means mentioned defraud another by any of the means mentioned
hereinbelow shall be punished by: hereinbelow shall be punished by:
1st. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum 1st. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum
period to prision mayor in its minimum period, if the period to prision mayor in its minimum period, if the
amount of the fraud is over 12,000 pesos but does not amount of the fraud is over Two million four hundred
exceed 22,000 pesos, and if such amount exceeds the thousand pesos (P2,400,000) but does not exceed
latter sum, the penalty provided in this paragraph shall Four million four hundred thousand pesos
be imposed in its maximum period, adding one year for (P4,400,000), and if such amount exceeds the latter
each additional 10,000 pesos; but the total penalty sum, the penalty provided in this paragraph shall be
which may be imposed shall not exceed twenty years. imposed in its maximum period, adding one year for
In such cases, and in connection with the accessory each additional Two million pesos (P2,000,000); but
penalties which may be imposed under the provisions the total penalty which may be imposed shall not
of this Code, the penalty shall be termed prision mayor exceed twenty years. In such cases, and in connection
or reclusion temporal, as the case may be. with the accessory penalties which may be imposed
under the provisions of this Code, the penalty shall be

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2nd. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum termed prision mayor or reclusion temporal, as the
and medium periods, if the amount of the fraud is over case may be.
6,000 pesos but does not exceed 12,000 pesos; 2nd. The penalty of prision correccional in its
3rd. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum minimum and medium periods, if the amount of the
period to prision correccional in its minimum period if fraud is over One million two hundred thousand
such amount is over 200 pesos but does not exceed pesos (P1,200,000) but does not exceed Two million
6,000 pesos; and four hundred thousand pesos (P2,400,000).
4th. By arresto mayor in its maximum period, if such 3rd. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum
amount does not exceed 200 pesos, provided that in period to prision correccional in its minimum period if
the four cases mentioned, the fraud be committed by such amount is over Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
any of the following means: but does not exceed One million two hundred
1. With unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence, namely: thousand pesos (P1,200,000).
(a) By altering the substance, quantity, or quality or 4th. By arresto mayor in its maximum period, if such
anything of value which the offender shall deliver by amount does not exceed Forty thousand pesos
virtue of an obligation to do so, even though such (P40,000), provided that in the four cases mentioned,
obligation be based on an immoral or illegal the fraud be committed by any of the following
consideration. means:
(b) By misappropriating or converting, to the prejudice 1. With unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence, namely:
of another, money, goods, or any other personal (a) By altering the substance, quantity, or quality or
property received by the offender in trust or on anything of value which the offender shall deliver by
commission, or for administration, or under any other virtue of an obligation to do so, even though such
obligation involving the duty to make delivery of or to obligation be based on an immoral or illegal
return the same, even though such obligation be totally consideration.
or partially guaranteed by a bond; or by denying having (b) By misappropriating or converting, to the prejudice
received such money, goods, or other property. of another, money, goods, or any other personal
(c) By taking undue advantage of the signature of the property received by the offender in trust or on
offended party in blank, and by writing any document commission, or for administration, or under any other
above such signature in blank, to the prejudice of the obligation involving the duty to make delivery of or to
offended party or of any third person. return the same, even though such obligation be totally
2. By means of any of the following false pretenses or or partially guaranteed by a bond; or by denying having
fraudulent acts executed prior to or simultaneously received such money, goods, or other property.
with the commission of the fraud: (c) By taking undue advantage of the signature of the
(a) By using fictitious name, or falsely pretending to offended party in blank, and by writing any document
possess power, influence, qualifications, property, above such signature in blank, to the prejudice of the
credit, agency, business or imaginary transactions, or offended party or of any third person.
by means of other similar deceits. 2. By means of any of the following false pretenses or
(b) By altering the quality, fineness or weight of fraudulent acts executed prior to or simultaneously
anything pertaining to his art or business. with the commission of the fraud:
(c) By pretending to have bribed any Government (a) By using fictitious name, or falsely pretending to
employee, without prejudice to the action for calumny possess power, influence, qualifications, property,
which the offended party may deem proper to bring credit, agency, business or imaginary transactions, or
against the offender. In this case, the offender shall be by means of other similar deceits.
punished by the maximum period of the penalty. (b) By altering the quality, fineness or weight of
(d) By post-dating a check, or issuing a check in anything pertaining to his art or business.
payment of an obligation when the offender therein (c) By pretending to have bribed any Government
were not sufficient to cover the amount of the check. employee, without prejudice to the action for calumny
The failure of the drawer of the check to deposit the which the offended party may deem proper to bring
amount necessary to cover his check within three (3) against the offender. In this case, the offender shall be
days from receipt of notice from the bank and/or the punished by the maximum period of the penalty.
payee or holder that said check has been dishonored (d) By post-dating a check, or issuing a check in
for lack of insufficiency of funds shall be prima facie payment of an obligation when the offender therein
evidence of deceit constituting false pretense or were not sufficient to cover the amount of the check.
The failure of the drawer of the check to deposit the
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fraudulent act. (As amended by R.A. 4885, approved amount necessary to cover his check within three (3)
June 17, 1967.) days from receipt of notice from the bank and/or the
(e) By obtaining any food, refreshment or payee or holder that said check has been dishonored
accommodation at a hotel, inn, restaurant, boarding for lack of insufficiency of funds shall be prima facie
house, lodging house, or apartment house and the like evidence of deceit constituting false pretense or
without paying therefor, with intent to defraud the fraudulent act.
proprietor or manager thereof, or by obtaining credit at Any person who shall defraud another by means of
hotel, inn, restaurant, boarding house, lodging house, false pretenses or fraudulent acts defined in
or apartment house by the use of any false pretense, or paragraph 2(d) hereof shall be punished by:
by abandoning or surreptitiously removing any part of 1st. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum
his baggage from a hotel, inn, restaurant, boarding period, if the amount. of fraud is over Foul' million
house, lodging house or apartment house after four hundred thousand pesos (P4,400,000) but does
obtaining credit, food, refreshment or accommodation not exceed Eight million eight hundred thousand
therein without paying for his food, refreshment or pesos (P8,800,000). If the amount exceeds the latter,
accommodation. the penalty shall be reclusion. perpetua.
3. Through any of the following fraudulent means: 2nd. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its minimum
(a) By inducing another, by means of deceit, to sign any and medium periods, if the amount of the fraud is over
document. Two million four hundred thousand pesos
(b) By resorting to some fraudulent practice to insure (P2,400,000) but does not exceed Four million four
success in a gambling game. hundred thousand pesos (P4,400,000).
(c) By removing, concealing or destroying, in whole or 3rd. The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum
in part, any court record, office files, document or any period, if the amount of the fraud is over One million
other papers. two hundred thousand pesos (P1,200,000) but does
not exceed Two million four hundred thousand pesos
(P2,400,000).
4th. The penalty of prision mayor in its medium
period, if such amount is over Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000) but does not exceed One million two
hundred thousand pesos (P1,200,000).
5th, By prision mayor in its minimum period, if such
amount does not exceed Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000).
3. Through any of the following fraudulent means:
(a) By inducing another, by means of deceit, to sign any
document.
(b) By resorting to some fraudulent practice to insure
success in a gambling game.
(c) By removing, concealing or destroying, in whole or
in part, any court record, office files, document or any
other papers.
Article 318. Other deceits. - The penalty of arresto Article 318. Other deceits. - The penalty of arresto
mayor and a fine of not less than the amount of the mayor and a fine of not less than the amount of the
damage caused and not more than twice such amount damage caused and not more than twice such amount
shall be imposed upon any person who shall defraud or shall be imposed upon any person who shall defraud or
damage another by any other deceit not mentioned in damage another by any other deceit not mentioned in
the preceding articles of this chapter. the preceding articles of this chapter.
Any person who, for profit or gain, shall interpret Any person who, for profit or gain, shall interpret
dreams, make forecasts, tell fortunes, or take dreams, make forecasts, tell fortunes, or take
advantage of the credulity of the public in any other advantage of the credulity of the public in any other
similar manner, shall suffer the penalty of arresto similar manner, shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos. mayor or a fine not exceeding Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000).

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Article 328. Special cases of malicious mischief. - Any Article 328. Special cases of malicious mischief. - Any
person who shall cause damage to obstruct the person who shall cause damage to obstruct the
performance of public functions, or using any performance of public functions, or using any
poisonous or corrosive substance; or spreading any poisonous or corrosive substance; or spreading any
infection or contagion among cattle; or who cause infection or contagion among cattle; or who cause
damage to the property of the National Museum or damage to the property of the National Museum or
National Library, or to any archive or registry, National Library, or to any archive or registry,
waterworks, road, promenade, or any other thing used waterworks, road, promenade, or any other thing used
in common by the public, shall be punished: in common by the public, shall be punished:
1. By prision correccional in its minimum and medium 1. By prision correccional in its minimum and medium
periods, if the value of the damage caused exceeds periods, if the value of the damage caused exceeds
1,000 pesos; Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000);
2. By arresto mayor, if such value does not exceed the 2. By arresto mayor, if such value does not exceed the
abovementioned amount but it is over 200 pesos; and abovementioned amount but it is over Forty thousand
3. By arresto menor, in such value does not exceed 200 pesos (P40,000); and
pesos. 3. By arresto menor, in such value does not exceed
Forty thousand pesos (P40,000).
Article 329. Other mischiefs. - The mischiefs not Article 329. Other mischiefs. - The mischiefs not
included in the next preceding article shall be punished: included in the next preceding article shall be punished:
1. By arresto mayor in its medium and maximum 1. By arresto mayor in its medium and maximum
periods, if the value of the damage caused exceeds periods, if the value of the damage caused exceeds
1,000 pesos; Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000);
2. By arresto mayor in its minimum and medium 2. By arresto mayor in its minimum and medium
periods, if such value is over 200 pesos but does not periods, if such value is over Forty thousand pesos
exceed 1,000 pesos; and (P40,000) but does not exceed Two hundred
3. By arresto menor or fine of not less than the value of thousand pesos (P200,000); and
the damage caused and not more than 200 pesos, if the 3. By arresto menor or fine of not less than the value
amount involved does not exceed 200 pesos or cannot of the damage caused and not more than Forty
be estimated. thousand pesos (P40,000), if the amount involved
does not exceed Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) or
cannot be estimated.
Article 331. Destroying or damaging statues, public Article 331. Destroying or damaging statues, public
monuments or paintings. - Any person who shall monuments or paintings. - Any person who shall
destroy or damage statues or any other useful or destroy or damage statues or any other useful or
ornamental public monument shall suffer the penalty ornamental public monument shall suffer the penalty
of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision
correccional in its minimum period. correccional in its minimum period.
Any person who shall destroy or damage any useful or Any person who shall destroy or damage any useful or
ornamental painting of a public nature shall suffer the ornamental painting of a public nature shall suffer the
penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Forty
pesos, or both such fine and imprisonment, in the thousand pesos (P40,000), or both such fine and
discretion of the court. imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.
Article 347. Simulation of births, substitution of one Article 347. Simulation of births, substitution of one
child for another and concealment or abandonment of child for another and concealment or abandonment of
a legitimate child. - The simulation of births and the a legitimate child. - The simulation of births and the
substitution of one child for another shall be punished substitution of one child for another shall be punished
by prision mayor and a fine of not exceeding 1,000 by prision mayor and a fine of not exceeding Two
pesos. hundred thousand pesos (P200,000).
The same penalties shall be imposed upon any person The same penalties shall be imposed upon any person
who shall conceal or abandon any legitimate child with who shall conceal or abandon any legitimate child with
intent to cause such child to lose its civil status. intent to cause such child to lose its civil status.

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Any physician or surgeon or public officer who, in Any physician or surgeon or public officer who, in
violation of the duties of his profession or office, shall violation of the duties of his profession or office, shall
cooperate in the execution of any of the crimes cooperate in the execution of any of the crimes
mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs, shall mentioned in the two (2) next preceding paragraphs,
suffer the penalties therein prescribed and also the shall suffer the penalties therein prescribed and also
penalty of temporary special disqualification. the penalty of temporary special disqualification.
Article 355. Libel means by writings or similar means. - Article 355. Libel means by writings or similar means. -
A libel committed by means of writing, printing, A libel committed by means of writing, printing,
lithography, engraving, radio, phonograph, painting, lithography, engraving, radio, phonograph, painting,
theatrical exhibition, cinematographic exhibition, or theatrical exhibition, cinematographic exhibition, or
any similar means, shall be punished by prision any similar means, shall be punished by prision
correccional in its minimum and medium periods or a correccional in its minimum and medium periods or a
fine ranging from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both, in fine ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000) to
addition to the civil action which may be brought by the One million two hundred thousand pesos
offended party. (P1,200,000), or both, in addition to the civil action
which may be brought by the offended party.
Article 356. Threatening to publish and offer to present Article 356. Threatening to publish and offer to
such publication for a compensation. - The penalty present such publication for a compensation. - The
of arresto mayor or a fine from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or penalty of arresto mayor or a fine from Forty
both, shall be imposed upon any person who threatens thousand pesos (P40,000) to Four hundred thousand
another to publish a libel concerning him or the pesos (P400,000), or both, shall be imposed upon any
parents, spouse, child, or other members of the family person who threatens another to publish a libel
of the latter or upon anyone who shall offer to prevent concerning him or the parents, spouse, child, or other
the publication of such libel for a compensation or members of the family of the latter or upon anyone
money consideration. who shall offer to prevent the publication of such libel
for a compensation or money consideration.
Article 357. Prohibited publication of acts referred to in Article 357. Prohibited publication of acts referred to
the course of official proceedings. - The penalty in the course of official proceedings. - The penalty
of arresto mayor or a fine of from 20 to 2,000 pesos, or of arresto mayor or a fine of from Forty thousand
both, shall be imposed upon any reporter, editor or pesos (P40,000) to Two hundred thousand pesos
manager or a newspaper, daily or magazine, who shall (P200,000), or both, shall be imposed upon any
publish facts connected with the private life of another reporter, editor or manager or a newspaper, daily or
and offensive to the honor, virtue and reputation of magazine, who shall publish facts connected with the
said person, even though said publication be made in private life of another and offensive to the honor,
connection with or under the pretext that it is virtue and reputation of said person, even though said
necessary in the narration of any judicial or publication be made in connection with or under the
administrative proceedings wherein such facts have pretext that it is necessary in the narration of any
been mentioned. judicial or administrative proceedings wherein such
facts have been mentioned.
Article 358. Slander. - Oral defamation shall be Article 358. Slander. - Oral defamation shall be
punished by arresto mayor in its maximum period to punished by arresto mayor in its maximum period to
prision correccional in its minimum period if it is of a prision correccional in its minimum period if it is of a
serious and insulting nature; otherwise the penalty serious and insulting nature; otherwise the penalty
shall be arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 shall be arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Twenty
pesos. thousand pesos (P20,000).
Article 359. Slander by deed. - The penalty of arresto Article 359. Slander by deed. - The penalty of arresto
mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in
its minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 its minimum period or a fine ranging from Twenty
pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall thousand pesos (P20,000) to One hundred thousand
perform any act not included and punished in this title, pesos(P100,000) shall be imposed upon any person
which shall cast dishonor, discredit or contempt upon who shall perform any act not included and punished
another person. If said act is not of a serious nature, the in this title, which shall cast dishonor, discredit or

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penalty shall be arresto menor or a fine not exceeding contempt upon another person. If said act is not of a
200 pesos. serious nature, the penalty shall be arresto menor or a
fine not exceeding Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000).
Article 364. Intriguing against honor. - The penalty Article 364. Intriguing against honor. - The penalty
of arresto menor or fine not exceeding 200 pesos shall of arresto menor or fine not exceeding Twenty
be imposed for any intrigue which has for its principal thousand pesos (P20,000) shall be imposed for any
purpose to blemish the honor or reputation of a intrigue which has for its principal purpose to blemish
person. the honor or reputation of a person.
Article 365. Imprudence and negligence. - Any person Article 365. Imprudence and negligence. - Any person
who, by reckless imprudence, shall commit any act who, by reckless imprudence, shall commit any act
which, had it been intentional, would constitute a grave which, had it been intentional, would constitute a grave
felony, shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor in its felony, shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor in its
maximum period to prision correccional in its medium maximum period to prision correccional in its medium
period; if it would have constituted a less grave felony, period; if it would have constituted a less grave felony,
the penalty of arresto mayor in its minimum and the penalty of arresto mayor in its minimum and
medium periods shall be imposed; if it would have medium periods shall be imposed; if it would have
constituted a light felony, the penalty of arresto constituted a light felony, the penalty of arresto
menor in its maximum period shall be imposed. menor in its maximum period shall be imposed.
Any person who, by simple imprudence or negligence, Any person who, by simple imprudence or negligence,
shall commit an act which would otherwise constitute shall commit an act which would otherwise constitute
a grave felony, shall suffer the penalty of arresto a grave felony, shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor in its medium and maximum periods; if it would mayor in its medium and maximum periods; if it would
have constituted a less serious felony, the penalty have constituted a less serious felony, the penalty
of arresto mayor in its minimum period shall be of arresto mayor in its minimum period shall be
imposed. imposed.
When the execution of the act covered by this article When the execution of the act covered by this article
shall have only resulted in damage to the property of shall have only resulted in damage to the property of
another, the offender shall be punished by a fine another, the offender shall be punished by a fine
ranging from an amount equal to the value of said ranging from an amount equal to the value of said
damages to three times such value, but which shall in damages to three (3) times such value, but which shall
no case be less than twenty-five pesos. in no case be less than Five thousand pesos (P5,000).
A fine not exceeding two hundred pesos and censure A fine not exceeding Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
shall be imposed upon any person who, by simple and censure shall be imposed upon any person who,
imprudence or negligence, shall cause some wrong by simple imprudence or negligence, shall cause some
which, if done maliciously, would have constituted a wrong which, if done maliciously, would have
light felony. constituted a light felony.
In the imposition of these penalties, the court shall In the imposition of these penalties, the court shall
exercise their sound discretion, without regard to the exercise their sound discretion, without regard to the
rules prescribed in Article sixty-four. rules prescribed in Article sixty-four.
The provisions contained in this article shall not be The provisions contained in this article shall not be
applicable: applicable:
1. When the penalty provided for the offense is equal 1. When the penalty provided for the offense is equal
to or lower than those provided in the first two to or lower than those provided in the first two (2)
paragraphs of this article, in which case the court shall paragraphs of this article, in which case the court shall
impose the penalty next lower in degree than that impose the penalty next lower in degree than that
which should be imposed in the period which they may which should be imposed in the period which they may
deem proper to apply. deem proper to apply.
2. When, by imprudence or negligence and with 2. When, by imprudence or negligence and with
violation of the Automobile Law, to death of a person violation of the Automobile Law, to death of a person
shall be caused, in which case the defendant shall be shall be caused, in which case the defendant shall be
punished by prision correccional in its medium and punished by prision correccional in its medium and
maximum periods. maximum periods.

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Reckless imprudence consists in voluntary, but without Reckless imprudence consists in voluntary, but without
malice, doing or falling to do an act from which material malice, doing or falling to do an act from which material
damage results by reason of inexcusable lack of damage results by reason of inexcusable lack of
precaution on the part of the person performing of precaution on the part of the person performing of
failing to perform such act, taking into consideration his failing to perform such act, taking into consideration his
employment or occupation, degree of intelligence, employment or occupation, degree of intelligence,
physical condition and other circumstances regarding physical condition and other circumstances regarding
persons, time and place. persons, time and place.
Simple imprudence consists in the lack of precaution Simple imprudence consists in the lack of precaution
displayed in those cases in which the damage displayed in those cases in which the damage
impending to be caused is not immediate nor the impending to be caused is not immediate nor the
danger clearly manifest. danger clearly manifest.
The penalty next higher in degree to those provided for The penalty next higher in degree to those provided for
in this article shall be imposed upon the offender who in this article shall be imposed upon the offender who
fails to lend on the spot to the injured parties such help fails to lend on the spot to the injured parties such help
as may be in this hand to give. (As amended by R.A. as may be in this hands to give.
1790, approved June 21, 1957).

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