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Fluid Dynamics is the study of fluid flow and its parameters. It is governed by few mathematical equations such as the partial differential equations and depends on various fluid properties such as pressure, temperature, density, Reynold’s number, etc. The analyses and investigation of these flow properties can be easily computed using software such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
This report focuses on the accuracy of the CFD codes for various mathematical models of Wannier flow. Wannier flow is flow past a rotating cylinder next to a moving wall at Reynolds number close to 1. Various advantages and applications of CFD are outlined in this report, along with the basic types of flow and mathematical flow models. The Wannier flow is initially analysed analytically and a simulation of the flow model is built using Fluent, a CFD software. The results of the analytical results and the simulated results are compared to determine the pattern of errors and the accuracy of the CFD code used in the software.
This project showed that there is a pattern to the errors between the two solutions as the parameters are changed. The studies showed that the errors are gradual for all the cases except for case with Reynolds number which exhibited a rapid error change. This is believed to be the result due to the Wannier flow definition.

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FINAL REPORT

Wannier Flows

Rennie Philip

ID Number: 200687762

Programme: Advanced Aerospace Engineering

December 2015

Project No. 175

School of Engineering

The University of Liverpool

Brownlow Hill, LIVERPOOL, L69 3GH

Summary

Fluid Dynamics is the study of fluid flow and its parameters. It is governed by few

mathematical equations such as the partial differential equations and depends on various

fluid properties such as pressure, temperature, density, Reynolds number, etc. The analyses

and investigation of these flow properties can be easily computed using software such as

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).

This report focuses on the accuracy of the CFD codes for various mathematical models of

Wannier flow. Wannier flow is flow past a rotating cylinder next to a moving wall at

Reynolds number close to 1. Various advantages and applications of CFD are outlined in this

report, along with the basic types of flow and mathematical flow models. The Wannier flow

is initially analysed analytically and a simulation of the flow model is built using Fluent, a

CFD software. The results of the analytical results and the simulated results are compared to

determine the pattern of errors and the accuracy of the CFD code used in the software.

This project showed that there is a pattern to the errors between the two solutions as the

parameters are changed. The studies showed that the errors are gradual for all the cases

except for case with Reynolds number which exhibited a rapid error change. This is believed

to be the result due to the Wannier flow definition.

Acknowledgment

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr Mark Johnson, project supervisor and

mentor for the research done in this report, and Dr Volfango Bertola for the guidance given

to me.

I am thankful to family and friends, whose support and encouragement helped me complete

this report.

Contents

Summary ........................................................................................................... II

Notation............................................................................................................ IX

1.0 Introduction.............................................................................................. 1

2.2 Models................................................................................................... 4

2.4.2 How CFD Works? .............................................................................. 12

3.2.3 Setup................................................................................................. 22

3.2.4 Solution............................................................................................. 24

V

5.1 Gap to Diameter Ratio ......................................................................... 38

VI

Figures and Tables

Figure 1: Circular cylinder in a uniform free stream. ................................................................. 4

Figure 2: a) Vortices generating, Re 10; b) Von Karman vortex street (laminar,

temperature), Re = 250 .............................................................................................................. 5

Figure 3: Flow past a cylinder with circulation .......................................................................... 6

Figure 4: A Couette Flow ............................................................................................................ 7

Figure 5: Representing the streamlines of the exact solution to the parameters; .................... 9

Figure 6: Representing the computational domain discretized for K=40 quadrilateral

elements (Top) and K=65 triangular elements (Bottom). (Johnson, 1998).............................. 10

Figure 7: Hot-wire sensor ......................................................................................................... 11

Figure 8: 3D flow past a rotating cylinder. .............................................................................. 14

Figure 9: Wannier Flow Model ................................................................................................ 16

Figure 10: Representing two cases of Ansys geometry for varied cylindrical radius ............... 19

Figure 11: Three Mesh cases .................................................................................................... 21

Figure 12: a) Error vs Elements; b) Log of Error vs Elements ................................................... 21

Figure 13: Refinements around the cylinder ............................................................................ 22

Figure 14: Elements vs Convergence ........................................................................................ 25

Figure 15: Convergence of Mesh case 1................................................................................... 25

Figure 16: 3 different radii with all same gap between the moving wall and the cylinder wall.

.................................................................................................................................................. 26

Figure 17: Wannier Flow Solution; change in radius at a constant gap. a) Dimensional form;

b) non-dimensional form.......................................................................................................... 27

Figure 18: Wannier Flow Solution in the positive x coordinate; change in radius at a constant

gap. .......................................................................................................................................... 27

Figure 19: velocities in the x-direction. .................................................................................... 28

Figure 20: Representing 3 different gap between the moving wall and the cylinder wall with

all the same radius. .................................................................................................................. 29

Figure 21: Wannier Flow Solution; change in gap at constant radius ..................................... 30

Figure 22: Display the gradient increase when the velocity parameters are increased. ......... 31

Figure 23: Wannier flow in CFD (Left diagram, Diameter 1 and Right diagram, Diameter 10)

.................................................................................................................................................. 32

VII

Figure 24: Change in gap to diameter ratio ............................................................................. 33

Figure 25: Velocity path lines for different values (Left diagram rotational speed 1 rad/s

and Right diagram rotational speed 20 rad/s) ........................................................................ 34

Figure 26: velocity change for varying rotational speeds ........................................................ 34

Figure 27: Velocity values for different Reynolds number ....................................................... 35

Figure 28: Velocity path lines for different Reynolds number (Top diagram, Reynolds number

1 and Bottom diagram, Reynolds number 10) ......................................................................... 36

Figure 29 : Shear velocity for different radii. ........................................................................... 36

Figure 30: Representing 3 different radii conducted to achieve a liner shear velocity ............ 37

Figure 31: Percentage error with diameter change ................................................................. 38

Figure 32: Percentage error with rotational speed .................................................................. 39

Figure 33: Percentage error with Reynolds number ................................................................ 40

Figure 34: Percentage error with Reynolds number ................................................................ 41

Figure 35: Percentage error with an increase in radius ........................................................... 41

Table 2: Mesh Test with different number of elements.......................................................... 20

Table 3: Refinements test and subsequent error .................................................................... 22

Table 4: Mesh, Refinements and the steps for convergence. ................................................. 24

Table 5: Parameters used when varying the wall and the cylinder velocities ........................ 30

Table 6: parameters used to vary gap to diameter ratio ......................................................... 32

Table 7: Parameters used to vary cylinder to wall velocity ratio ............................................ 33

Table 8: parameters used to vary Reynolds number ............................................................... 35

VIII

Notation

a0, a1, a2, a3, Constants for Wannier flow solution Eq. 1-4

r Cylinder radius m

x, y 2D coordinates

1.0 Introduction

Fluid flows explains (liquid and gas flows) the behaviour of fluid particles in motion and are

studied by analysing their flow parameters. It has various aspects of motion attributed to it

defined by its steadiness, compressibility, viscosity, rotational motion, etc. Few of these

features are those of the fluid particles itself, while others are dependent on exterior factors

affecting its motion.

The behaviour of the fluid is governed by various laws of physics such as the Navier stokes

equations and the continuity equations. Computing these flow parameters and

understanding its behaviour can be a tedious task without computer software. One such

software is Ansys, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software that uses the Navier

Stokes and the conservation of mass equations to solve difficult problems. (Kuzmin, 2015)

In CFD analysis, partial differential equations are used as a method to predict the fluid flow,

making it easier to conduct virtual experiments through mathematical models of the flow.

This software is widely used and accepted by engineers in various fields such as Aerospace,

Mechanical, Civil, Chemical and Petroleum, and other fields such as medicine, meteorology,

defence, transport, etc. (Kuzmin, 2015)This software provides a huge advantage against the

ancient method of determining and defining a flow property. This report focuses on

determining the accuracy of the CFD software packages through quantitative analysis of a

Wannier flow.

Wannier flow is defined as the viscid creeping flow past a cylindrical body, rotating next to a

moving wall. In this report we consider the various flow models that defines a Wannier flow,

analyse the accuracy of the CFD codes for these models at various parameters using the CFD

software packages, and compare the two results.

1

1.1 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this project is to investigate the accuracy of computation fluid dynamics codes of

software packages by comparing it to the analytical solution for a Wannier flow.

including the flow/wall velocities, the wall diameter, the change in gap between the

wall and the cylinder.

- To produce the Wannier flow model in CFD software package.

- To investigate the Wannier flow model at various parameters of Reynold number

and cylinder diameter.

- To compare the solutions achieved between the software packages and the

analytical solutions calculated.

- To investigate the pattern in the errors between the two resultants.

- To use the rotating cylinder examples to find out the radius required for the

successful calibration of surface hot films.

2

2.0 Literature Review

A flow past a rotating cylinder in a uniform stream has been investigated numerous times

and can be interpreted through two-dimensional computer software. A finite element

method can be used to solve the incompressible Navier Stokes Equation.

The earliest experiments on a rotating cylinder when in steady flow were carried out by

Prandtl (1925). His findings stated that the maximum lift generated by a spinning cylinder in

a uniform flow is limited to 4. (Mittal and Bhaskar, 2002) The flow however when

experimented can be seen as more complex than what was observed by Prandtl and deals

with two dimensional instabilities.

A creeping flow past a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform flow next to a moving wall is

called a Wannier flow. This review will address the Wannier flow model in a CFD software

package. Analytical solution will be worked out and discussed and will be used as a

benchmark for the comparison of the computational results.

2.1 Flows

To know the different types of flow that is dealt with when modelling is an important factor.

1) Uniform Flow This is where the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at

every point in the fluid.

2) Non Uniform Flow when at a given instant the velocity of the flow is not the same at all

the locations.

3) Steady Flow in which conditions such as velocity and pressure may differ from one point

to another but doesnt change with time.

4) Unsteady When the above mentioned conditions change with time.

3

2.1.2 Compressible, Incompressible Flows

When a fluid flow is compressible, the fluid density varies with its pressure. Compressible

flows are usually high speed flows with Mach numbers > 0.3. For an incompressible flow the

density does not vary. The Mach number is usually <0.3 for an incompressible flow.

2.2 Models

fluid flow around a cylinder where the flow is transverse. Figure 1 below represents this

flow model. The flow is uniform away from the cylinder. The velocity field is irrotational and

can be classed as a potential flow. The solution has zero drag unlike a real fluid and is known

as dAlemberts paradox. The result gained through this model is the basic to understanding

the vector fields and coordinate transformations. The calculation for the flow past a circular

cylinder at low speeds is given by equations of viscous steady flow. (Thom, 1933) The

governing parameter for viscous ows is the Reynolds number, expressing the ratio of

inertia to viscous forces. The Reynolds number is dened as = /, where is the

free stream velocity, D is the diameter of the cylinder and is the kinematic viscosity.

(Engelbreth, 2011)

Figure 1 has a neglected viscosity entirely. The flow is symmetrical from upstream to

downstream. This occurs at Reynolds number which are very small, Re 1. The streamline is

4

symmetrical on both the horizontal and the vertical axis. As the flow reaches Re 10, a

closed region of streamline starts to form in the rear side of the cylinder. The fluid flow can

be seen rotating clockwise and anticlockwise in the upper and lower side of the cylinder

respectively. This is as a result of vortices generating. (Sato and Kobayashi, 2012) Figure 2a

represents the initial vortices generating.

As the viscosity starts to increase the flows starts to get separated and vortices become

unstable. The vortices starts oscillating in up and down directions. This occurs at around

Re60. The wake generates a large amount of drag and this shedding is called Karmen

Vortex Street; figure 2b represents this flow pattern. This flow is periodic unsteady however

the pattern repeats itself. At high Reynolds number (Re 250) the boundary layer

transitions to a chaotic turbulent flow. (Benson, 2014) However, the free stream far from

the cylinder maintains a steady state of flows.

a) b)

temperature), Re = 250

The presence of a wall next to the circular cylinder is dependent primarily on several

parameters in addition to the Reynolds number; these include the gap to diameter ratio, the

boundary layer thickness, and the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. (Zdravkovich

and Bearman, 1998)

5

One of the earliest experiments on this model was performed in 1965 which worked with

Reynolds number, >200 and various gap ratios. Due to the experiment being performed

with a towed cylinder, observations of vortices were made at a low 0.6 gap ratio. (Taneda,

1965)

Potential flow around a cylinder that rotates can be classed as an equivalent to a vortex

combined with the flow past a cylinder. As such in addition to superimposed uniform flow

and a doublet, a vortex is added to the doublet centre which will simulate a rotating cylinder

in uniform stream. The distribution of pressure will result in a force which in turn culminates

to a lift force. The phenomenon of lift generated by a rotating object which is placed in a

stream is known as Magnus effect. Figure 2 demonstrates a rotating cylinder in a free

steam. (Nptel, 2015)

flow past a rotating circular cylinder have been conducted by numerous researchers. The

application of a rotating cylinder has great importance in the field of engineering and

especially in aerodynamics. Another well recognised use of a rotating cylinder is that it is

used for the controlling of boundary layer flows. (Karabelus et al., 2012)

6

2.2.4 Flow past a rotating cylinder next to a wall

The modelling of a flow past a rotating cylinder can be investigated as a two-dimensional

simulation. For this model to work the flow has to be a creeping solution, if the Reynolds

number is large the flow past the cylinder can be turbulent and vortices can be formed. The

calculations cannot be completed in cases such as these. For cylinder rolling forward there

can be a wake and the reverse rotation can suppress the vortex shredding completely. (Rao

et al., 2011)

As the radius of the cylinder increases to a very large number the problem turns into a

Couette flow. A Couette flow is a laminar flow of fluid between a moving plate and a steady

wall at parallel to each other.

Creeping flow past a rotating circular cylinder next to a moving wall is called a Wannier flow.

(Wannier, 1950). For a creeping flow past a rotating cylinder next to a moving wall; the

solution depends on the cylinders rate of rotation, the cylinder radius, the distance from

the centre of the cylinder to the moving wall, and the velocity of the wall.

7

Constants:

(1)

0 =

1 (2)

1 = (0 + 2 )

2

1 (3)

2 = ( + ) (0 + 2 )

2

1

3 = ( ) (0 + 2 ) (4)

2

Where,

2 = 2 2 (5)

And,

+ (6)

=

1 (, ) = 2 + ( + )2 (7)

2 (, ) = 2 + ( )2 (8)

Using the above mentioned constants and functions, the Wannier flows solution is given by:

+ 1 2 ( + )2

1 (, ) = 2(1 + 0 ) [ + ] 0 ln ( ) [ + ]

1 2 2 1 1

3 ( )2 (9)

[ + ]

2 2

2 2 ( + ) 3 ( )

2 (, ) = (1 + 0 )(2 1 ) (10)

1 2 1 2 2 2

Figure 4 represents the streamlines of Wannier flow with the exact solution given by the

above equations. (Barth and Deconinck, 1999), (Roe, 1981)

8

The solution to this problem can also be solved numerically using the triangle mesh

elements. (Samson et al., 2012) A solution was found after splitting the domain into 65

elements. Figure 5 represents the element split. The mesh uses curvilinear elements around

the cylinder; furthermore it introduces a triangulisation to test the convergence of the

method on the distorted meshes. (Sherwin and Karniadakis, 1995) When performing

integration all elements are mapped to a standard triangle and the curvilinear elements is

not constant due to the deformed nature. (Johnson, 1998)

9

Figure 6: Representing the computational domain discretized for K=40 quadrilateral

elements (Top) and K=65 triangular elements (Bottom). (Johnson, 1998)

The exact solution can be validated by a computed error of the solution at steady state for

several expansion orders.

10

2.3. Application

A hot film is a sensor that can be calibrated and kept on a stationary wall next to a rotating

cylinder to measure the shear velocity. If the velocity of the flow and the height of the

cylinder from the wall is known the shear velocity can be worked out. The results achieved

can then be used to work out the shear stress using the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.

Two situations where the Wannier flow can occur is when dealing with a hot-film or a hot-

wire probe. Hot-wire and hot-films are both thermal anemometer instruments and are

used as a common method to measure and analyse microstructures in fluid flows. The

application works by an electrically heating sensing element or a probe detecting the

convective heat loss to the surrounding fluid. If only the fluid velocity varies, then the heat

loss can be interpreted as a variable measurement. Hot films in additions can be employed

to measure the wall shear stress.

Hot wires are made from short lengths of resistance wire and a hot film is a sensor

consisting of a thin layer of conducting material that has been attached to non-conducting

substrate and usually takes up a cylindrical shape. Thermal anemometry uses a very small

probe that offers high spatial resolution and has excellent frequency response

characteristics. To optimise the frequency resistance of an anemometer, the probe should

have a very small thermal inertia and this is consistent with the requirement for small size.

Platinum coated tungsten is used to work with gases and the wire is usually 5 m in

diameter. Figure 7 represents a typical hot-wire sensor.

11

2.4. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Before the Wannier flow is modelled in the CFD software package it is essential to

understand what CFD is and why it is used. Fluid flows are governed by partial differential

equations (PDE) which represents conservation laws for mass, momentum and energy. CFD

helps to replace these differential equating systems to a set of numerical equations which

can be solved by computers. (Kuzmin, 2015)

The numerical process used in CFD model enables the user to predict the flow, the mass and

heat that is transferred, and any other related phenomena by solving the mathematical

equation. Using a CFD can help create a new conceptual design, detailed development and

redesign. (Bakker, 2002)

CFD can only be done by initially creating the mathematical model of the physical problem.

The fluid property is modelled empirically. Usually the assumptions such as inviscid, steady

state, incompressible, made during a CFD problem is at its simplest form as it is easily

traceable. The numerical methods used in CFD also known as discretization makes

approximations of the governing equations of fluid mechanics in the interested region. The

discretized domain is split into finite set of control volumes called a mesh, which can be

controlled according to the resolution required or by computer memory. (Bakker, 2002)

There are several advantages in using a CFD model compared to an experimental model.

CFD can predict the systems performance before actually installing the system and work out

the flow within an occupied zone.

12

1) Lower Cost setting up the experiments physically and getting the tests done to get the

essential data can be considerably more costly than setting up the model in CFD.

Furthermore building a CFD model is relatively inexpensive.

2) Simulation A CFD model has the ability to both simulate a real and an ideal condition.

Unlike a physical experiment any condition can be simulated on a CFD model, an example of

a heat transfer process maybe hypersonic. The modelling of a hypersonic flow physically is

quite difficult compared to a CFD model. Condition on a CFD model can be altered to match

the need of the user and provides the ability to help the user understand any and all

phenomenons related to the flow. (Bakker, 2002)

whereas CFD allows the user to find data on a large number of locations simultaneously in

the experimented region.

4) Time time can be saved using a CFD model due to the multiple data analysis at the same

time compared to the experiment where one data is analysed at a time.

1) Models CFD models are only accurate as the physical models on which they are based

on such as turbulence, multiple fluid flow, etc.

2) Errors CFD can produce multiple errors, as the problems are solved using a computer

introduces numerical errors. Round off errors are also common due to the finite size

available on the computers. As a solution is produced using a mesh/grid method there is a

truncation error due to approximations. However the truncation error can be dealt with by

refining the model mesh. (Bakker, 2002)

3) Conditions- The solution to the CFD model is only as good as the boundary condition

provided for the model.

13

2.4.5 CFD Software packages

Although there are numerous CFD software packages, one of the most beneficial software

package is the ANSYS Fluent software. Fluent has an advanced solver technology which

provides accurate results faster. Other positives that this software provides are a flexible

moving and deforming meshes and superior scalability. This software is very user friendly

and has incorporated new user models as well as enabling the customisation of existing

designs. Fluent has interactive solver setup which with its post processing capabilities allows

user to pause and change calculations during the processing phase. (Ansys, 2015). Figure 8

represents a 3D visual image of a Karmen Vortex forming past a rotating cylinder at 300

Reynolds number, produced in a CFD software package.

In CFD there are several errors that could occur; these are categorised into acknowledged

and unacknowledged errors. (Slater, 2008)

1) Physical approximation error Error that are caused due to the deliberate simplification

of the model. Errors often occur when a problem is modelled using fluid properties and the

governing equations are used to solve it. Furthermore, building a model can also cause

modelling errors. The physical error often occur in CFD solutions where there is a degree of

14

uncertainty, when the phenomenon is not understood properly, or when the experiment is

incomplete due to the simplification of the model.

2) Iterative convergence error occurred due to the eventual stopping points in the

iterative methods used in the simulation.

3) Discretization errors (numerical error) Error that are caused by the governing flow

equations and algebraic expression in a discrete domain of space and time. A zero

discretization error occurs with the growth of the grid points and grid spacing tends to zero.

The grid convergence is achieved as the mesh is refined and the solution reaches a

continuum. In CFD problem the discretisation error is the biggest concern because the

model is completely dependent on the grid size.

4) Computer round off errors These are depended on the accuracy of the computer used,

the numbers should be stored at small bits to represent the floating points. However the

round off errors can be insignificant compared to the other errors.

1) Usage Errors Occurred due to the improper manner for the application of code. The

user set up of model, grids and input establishes the accuracy of the simulation and can

have blatant errors. The usage errors increase with an increased level of CFD code available.

2) Computer Programme errors errors which are embedded into the programme of the

code. The programme errors can only be discovered by the running of various simulation to

check the results are what is expected.

15

3.0 Project

The initial stage for this project is to work out the Wannier flow solutions. The results are

achieved through varying parameters to work out the solutions.

To work out the analytical solutions, the equation for Wannier flow problem was set up on

Microsoft excel which allows the varying of the parameters with ease. The Excel programme

can also help to create the relevant graphs necessary to understand the flow patterns.

Wannier flow equations gives the results of velocity in both the x-plane (u1) and in the y-

plane (u2). To achieve these results the parameters we have to decide upon is the cylindrical

radius (r or D/2 in m), the gap between the cylinder and the wall (d-r in m), the velocity of

the wall (U in m/s) and the rotational speed of the cylinder ( in rad/s).

To simplify the Wannier flow problem the moving wall is assumed to be on the x plane, i.e.

(at y=0). Figure 9 below represents the Wannier flow model with the parameters discussed

earlier.

16

The Wannier flow equations found initially in the High-Order Methods for Computational

Physics and in The Handbook of Fluid Dynamics produced incorrect results. Both the books

had the functions Y1 and Y2 incorporated into Wannier flow equation, these were

dependants on the position of the cylinder of coordinate (x, y). Investigations on the

equation for fixed cylinder next to a moving wall resulted in the removal of both the Y

functions from the Wannier flow equation and replacing it with the y-coordinate, this

started producing the expected results.

To check if the achieved results are correct, a simple procedure of applying the coordinates

of the walls can be used to see if it matches the parameters selected. As an example a

cylinder of radius 0.6m was used with a rotational speed of 2 rad/s. The wall velocity was

chosen to be 1m/s and the gap between the wall and the cylinder was chosen to be 0.1m.

By applying the coordinates (0, 0), the velocity achieved should be that of the moving wall.

Similarly by applying the coordinates at the edge of the cylinder (0, 0.1), the result should be

equal to r .

Parameters:

d 0.7 m

D 1.2 m

r 0.6 m

U 1 m/s

2 rad/s

Pythagoras Length Result:

s 0.361 m

Constants:

3.124

a0 0.878

a1 -1.313

a2 3.980

a3 1.274

17

2D Co-ordinates:

x 0 0

y 0 0.1

K1 0.13 0.212

K2 0.13 0.068

Wannier Flow velocity in x and y direction:

u1 1 m/s 1.2 m/s

u2 0 m/s 0 m/s

Table 1, imported from the Wannier flow spreadsheet created in excel shows that the

results do support the correct answers. The results at the coordinate (0, 0) gives the result

of 1m/s which equals to the wall velocity. Similarly the velocity of the cylinders edge equals

to the product of r = 2 0.6 = 1.2m/s .

18

3.2 Wannier Flow modelling in Ansys Workbench (Fluent)

Ansys is split into 5 sections, this includes geometry, mesh, set-up, solution and results.

3.2.1 Geometry

Geometry consists of the building the base of the model; the boundaries and the cylinder.

A geometry (boundary) was created with dimensions that could have a cylinder of dimeter

10m and still have undisturbed flow upstream and downstream of it.

The 2D geometry created was 15m vertical in height and 30m horizontally in length. The

centre of the cylinder was on the y-plane.

Figure 10: Representing two cases of Ansys geometry for varied cylindrical radius

Figure 10 represents two cases of investigation. Case 1 deals with a cylinder of 0.5m radius

and case 2 deals with a cylinder of 5m radius.

19

3.2.2 Mesh

Selecting the correct mesh is important when working with CFD problems. A finer mesh will

provide results closer to the true value. For the mesh test, the velocity at the centre of the

gap was selected.

(m/s) (m/s) (%)

1 162 0.955 1.505 36.54

2 312 1.148 1.505 23.72

3 644 1.343 1.505 10.76

4 1255 1.452 1.505 3.52

5 1865 1.490 1.505 1.00

6 4938 1.495 1.505 0.66

7 8012 1.500 1.505 0.33

8 16101 1.500 1.505 0.33

Table 2 shows a number of tests conducted with different number of elements, it can be

seen that the numerical error decreases as the number of elements increase. Mesh 1 in the

table deals with a very small number of elements, for a large geometry such as the one

created, the error is reflection of the lack of the number of elements. An error of 36.54% for

a simple Wannier flow model means a more complex design model would provide

percentage errors that will reach several hundreds. From the table one can see that Mesh 5

which has close to 2000 elements gave only a small error 1% error. The table also shows

that as Mesh 8 has twice as much elements as Mesh 7 but the error remained 0.33%, this

could be the limit for this software.

20

Figure 11: Three Mesh cases

Figure 11 above displays three of the mesh cases from table 2; Mesh 6 from the diagram can

be seen as a really fine quality for this model. Figure 12a represents the graph that shows

the relationship between the number of elements and the errors they have. The graph

exhibits an exponential decay; the error is decreased drastically as the number of elements

increased towards the initial stage, however from 2000 to 8000 elements the gradient of

the graph is close to 0. Figure 12b represents a negative linear pattern to the error as the

element number increase.

40.00 2

35.00

1.5

30.00

25.00

1

Log of Error

20.00

Error %

15.00 0.5

10.00

0

5.00

2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

0.00

-0.5

-1900-5.00 100 2100 4100 6100 8100

-10.00 -1

No of Elements Log of the No of Elements

a) b)

21

This project takes an in-depth look at the regions close to the cylinder next to the wall,

therefore having a large number of elements far away from the cylinder is irrelevant. To

decrease the element count, a refinement is introduced to the region of focus (closer to the

cylinder).

(m/s) (m/s) (%)

0 1865 1.452 1.505 1

1 1993 1.495 1.505 0.66

2 2144 1.498 1.505 0.47

3 2403 1.500 1.505 0.33

Table 3 shows that the error decreases as the refinement around the cylinder is increased.

In addition, the numerical value for the percentage of error for refinement 3 is the same as

the Mesh 7 and Mesh 8 investigations made previously (Table 2).

3.2.3 Setup

Setup in Ansys software is where the flow and models parameters are set out.

22

3.2.3.1 General

The initial step in the setup solver is to make the set up a 2D space planer model. Any other

type of space can make this Wannier flow model complex.

The velocity formulations was chosen between relative and absolute. The recommended

formulation is one which will result in the flow domain having the smallest velocities in

frame. This will reduce the numerical diffusion and hence making the solution more

accurate. The absolute velocity formulation is preferred over the relative formulation in

models where the flow in most of the domain is not rotating. However, the inlet velocity

and wall velocity can be either be in a relative frame or an absolute frame for this flow

setup. (Ansys, 2015)

The Wannier flow is defined as a creeping flow that is a viscous laminar flow, therefore the

model was selected to match the definition.

For materials, the 2 most common Fluid materials chosen are air and water. The problem

with choosing either of these materials is that it the results will have a large Reynolds

number that cannot be used for a Wannier flow model.

= (11)

For this project U and L are parameters that will be changed consistently. So for a model

that will have a moving wall velocity of 1 m/s and a gap of 0.1 m; air having a kinematic

viscosity of 1.7894e-05 kg/ms will give a Reynolds number of 5589 to 4s.f. and water having

a kinematic viscosity of 1.34e-05 kg/ms will give a Reynolds number of 7463 to 4s.f. Both of

which will go against the Wannier flow definition. Therefore, an undefined material was

selected with =0.1 kg/ms, this will give the Reynolds number to be exactly 1.

Boundary conditions are the parameters section that needs to be constantly altered for

each model. There are 5 zones for this model;

Cylinder wall a rotational moving wall motion, the speed (rad/s) and the coordinates for

the centroid of the cylinder needs to be specified for each model.

23

Inlet- the left wall of the geometry, the velocity magnitude of the inlet flow needs to be

specified for each model.

Moving Wall a transitional wall motion in the x-direction, the speed (m/s) needs to be

specified for each model. The velocity of the wall equals the inlet velocity for all cases

except for stationary wall.

Outlet and wall 2 zones that are constant throughout the experiment. Outlet is the right

wall of the geometry and is pressure based and the top wall of the geometry is stationary.

3.2.4 Solution

3.2.4.1 Time Steps

In CFD, number of iterations are inputted to achieve the convergence, i.e. the solution no

longer changes with further iterations and all balances are achieved. The criteria for a

solution to converge in CFD is that it should be equal to 1x10-5, so the answers are never

exact.

A disadvantage of having a large number of elements is that the solution would require a

large number of time steps for the flow to converge. For a project that requires to solve a

large number of problems in a limited time, it is essential to decrease the time steps.

Table 4 shows the number of elements and the time it takes to converge for the 8 mesh

cases and the 3 refinement cases conducted in section 3.2.2.

1 162 140 0 1865 2611

2 312 459 1 1993 2790

3 644 934 2 2144 3002

4 1255 1820 3 2403 3316

5 1865 2611

6 4938 6913

7 8012 10816

8 16101 20931

24

The data reveals that the required time in which the governing equations being solved

increases as the number of elements increase. Figure 14 shows the graph of elements vs

convergence; there is a linear relationship between number of elements and the time it

takes to converge. This is true for both the mesh case and the refinement case. The

importance of using the refinement case compared to the Mesh case 7 or 8 can be justified

here as the solution was converged at a 1/3 of the steps for case 7 and almost 1/7 of the

steps for case 8.

Mesh Refinement

8000

7000

6000

TIME STEPS

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

NO OF ELEMENTS

Figure 15 below is the result of the completed model which represents Mesh model 1 in

Ansys software.

25

4.0 Results

The initial test case was checking the pattern of flow when changing the cylindrical radius

while keeping the gap between the cylinder and the moving wall the same.

For this case; the gap between cylinder and wall was chosen to be 0.1m, the rotation of

cylinder to be 2rad/s and the wall velocity to be 1m/s. The range of cylinder radius was

chosen to be 0.4m to 0.8m.

Figure 16 show 3 of the 5 cases selected and how the parameters are set out.

Figure 16: 3 different radii with all same gap between the moving wall and the cylinder

wall.

26

2.1 2

Dia=0.8

1.9 Dia=0.8

1.8

Dia=1

Dia=1

1.7 1.6

Dia=1.2

Dia=1.2

1.5 Dia=1.4

U/Uwall

U (m/s)

1.4 Dia=1.4

1.3 Dia=1.6

1.2 Dia=1.6

1.1

1

0.9

0.7 0.8

0.5 0.6

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

x coordinates x/D

a) b)

Figure 17: Wannier Flow Solution; change in radius at a constant gap. a) Dimensional

form; b) non-dimensional form

1.8 Dia=0.8

Dia=1

1.6 Dia=1.2

Dia=1.4

1.4 Dia=1.6

U/Uwall

1.2

0.8

0.6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

x/D

Figure 18: Wannier Flow Solution in the positive x coordinate; change in radius at a

constant gap.

27

Figures 17 and 18 are graphs created by using the x-direction velocity (u1) at the mid-point

of the gap i.e. (x, 0.05).

Studying Figure 17, one can see that the result of Wannier flow solution shows that as the

radius of the cylinder increases the velocity of flow in the gap increases as well. The

maximum velocity of the gap was 1.298m/s at the smallest radius of 0.4m. The velocity is

increased to 1.893m/s at the radius of 0.8m.

Figure 17 also indicates that the velocity is the same in the y-plane. This is due to the

symmetry upstream and downstream of flow around a cylinder at very low Reynolds

number, as considered in section 2.1.1. Figures 17 and 18 shows that the pattern of the flow

is similar for all 5 test cases; the velocity decreases as the flow moves from the centre of the

cylinder to undisturbed domain. The flow then adjust to match the free stream velocity.

Figure 18 illustrates that far away from the cylinder, velocities for all 5 cases are equal to

1m/s which is equal to the free stream velocity.

Figure 19 is created from a cylinder of radius of 0.6m with a distance of 0.1m from the

moving wall. It has the exact parameters as the case of diameter=1.2 in Figures 17 and 18.

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

U/UWALL

0.8

0.6

0.4

x=0 x=0.1 x=0.2

0.2 x=0.3 x=0.4 x=0.6

x=0.6 x=1 x=5

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Y/GAP

28

Unlike the case with Figure 17, graph on Figure 19 was created to show the complete

velocity profile across the gap between the wall and the cylinder. For x coordinates 0 to 0.5

(coordinates directly below the cylinder), a curved velocity profile can be seen, this is as a

result of the velocity getting pushed through the narrow gap. The profile then changes to a

linear one as the coordinates leaves the gap between the wall and the cylinder.

The second test case involved checking the pattern of flow, when changing the gap between

the cylinder and the moving wall the same, while keeping the cylinder radius constant.

For this case; the radius of the cylinder was chosen to be 0.7m, the rotation of cylinder to be

2rad/s and the wall velocity to be 1m/s. The range of gaps was chosen to be 0.1m to 0.3m.

Figure 20 illustrates 3 of the 5 cases selected and how the parameters are set out.

Figure 20: Representing 3 different gap between the moving wall and the cylinder wall

with all the same radius.

29

2

Gap=0.1

1.8

Gap=0.15

1.6 Gap=0.2

Gap=0.25

1.4

U/Uwall

Gap=0.3

1.2

0.8

0.6

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

x/D

The data for Figure 21 was created using the coordinates (x, 0.05) and the graph presented

that the velocity decreases as the gap widens. This is as a result of the increase in space for

the flow to travel between the gap of the cylinder and the wall.

The graph illustrates a symmetry in the y-plane similar to that of Figure 17 due to the low

Reynolds number.

There are two velocity parameters that can be changed in the Wannier flow equation; the

wall velocity and the cylinder velocity.

Table 5: Parameters used when varying the wall and the cylinder velocities

0.6 1 0.5 1 1 0 0.05 1.446

0.6 1 0.5 2 1 0 0.05 2.2

0.6 1 0.5 3 1 0 0.05 2.954

0.6 1 0.5 4 1 0 0.05 3.708

0.6 1 0.5 5 1 0 0.05 4.462

0.6 1 0.5 1 1 0 0.05 1.446

0.6 1 0.5 1 2 0 0.05 2.138

0.6 1 0.5 1 3 0 0.05 2.831

0.6 1 0.5 1 4 0 0.05 3.523

0.6 1 0.5 1 5 0 0.05 4.215

30

5

4.5

4

U wall; U cylinder (m/s)

3.5

2.5

Wall Velocity

2 Cylinder Velocity

1.5

0.5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

U (m/s)

Figure 22: Display the gradient increase when the velocity parameters are increased.

Examination on each of these velocities showed that an increase in either of the velocity,

increases the velocity of the coordinate selected (0, 0.05). Although both velocities increase

the Wannier flow velocity, Figure 22 displayed that the wall velocity have a bigger impact on

the flow than the cylinder velocity. For this case, each time the wall velocity is increased by

1m/s, the flow velocity in increased by 0.754 m/s, compared to flow velocity increase of

0.692 m/s, when the cylinder velocity was increased by increments of 1m/s.

The parameters of the Wannier flow was changed so that results could be achieved for

various ratios and different Reynolds number. The results for the CFD work are as follows;

The first set of results are for a change in the gap to diameter ratio while keeping the

cylinder to wall velocity ratio as well as the Reynolds number constant. To change the gap to

diameter ratio, the cylindrical radius was changed while the gap was kept constant like the

analytical experiment conducted in section 4.1.1. The table below shows the parameters

that were set for the first experiment for four different gap to diameter ratios.

31

Table 6: parameters used to vary gap to diameter ratio

(m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

0.6 1 0.5 1 2 1 0.60 1 1

1.1 2 1 1 1 1 0.55 1 1

2.6 5 2.5 1 0.4 1 0.52 1 1

5.1 10 5 1 0.2 1 0.51 1 1

The maximum diameter used for this experiment was limited to 10m. The use of a bigger

cylinder would result in the flow upstream to be disturbed for the boundary that was set up

initially in section 3.2.1. Figure 23 shows the results for the cylinder of radius 0.5m and

radius 5m. The results for the other two experiments along with the numerical results can

be found in the appendix.

Figure 23: Wannier flow in CFD (Left diagram, Diameter 1 and Right diagram, Diameter 10)

Figure 24 is a graph which shows the resultant velocity for the different ratios for the gap to

diameter. At an initial glace the similarity for the velocity profile can be seen to that of the

experiment conducted in section 4.1.1, the analytical experiment conducted on the varying

diameters while keeping the gap same.

32

1.6

1.5 D=1

1.4 D=2

1.3 D=5

1.2 D=10

U/Uwall

1.1

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

x/D

The second CFD results is as a result of the change in the cylinder to the wall velocity ratio.

The rotational speed for the cylinder wall was increased for this experiment while keeping

the wall velocity, the Reynolds number and the gap to diameter ratio constant. The

parameters were set for 5 different cylinder to wall velocity ratios and all the parameters

can be seen in table 7 below.

(m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

0.7 1.2 0.6 1 1 0.6 0.58 0.6 1

0.7 1.2 0.6 1 2 1.2 0.58 1.2 1

0.7 1.2 0.6 1 5 3 0.58 3 1

0.7 1.2 0.6 1 10 6 0.58 6 1

0.7 1.2 0.6 1 20 12 0.58 12 1

The rotational speed of the cylinder was changed from 1rad/s to 20rad/s. The two profiles

on figure 25 shows the velocity path lines of the smallest and the biggest values

experimented. The rotational speeds causes to form a vortex next to the cylinder, however

the higher rotation speed resulted in the shift of the vortex from the top right of the

cylinder to the left of the cylinder.

33

Figure 25: Velocity path lines for different values (Left diagram rotational speed 1 rad/s and Right

diagram rotational speed 20 rad/s)

Figure 26 below shows the non-dimensional velocity profile for the five different rotational

speed of the cylinder. For rotational speeds of 1 rad/s and 2 rad/s, the highest velocity is in

the gap between the wall and the cylinder however for a bigger rotational speeds the

highest velocity is at the cylinder wall.

3.5

=1

3 =2

=5

2.5

U-Uwall/ Ucylinder-Uwall

= 10

2

= 20

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.5

-1

y/Gap

For the third experiment, the ratios of gap to diameter, and the cylinder to wall velocities

were kept constant, whilst changing the Reynolds number. The parameters for this

experiments are displayed in table 8.

34

Table 8: parameters used to vary Reynolds number

(m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

1.1 2 1 1 1 1 0.55 1 1

1.1 2 1 2 2 2 0.55 1 2

1.1 2 1 3 3 3 0.55 1 3

1.1 2 1 5 5 5 0.55 1 5

1.1 2 1 10 10 10 0.55 1 10

The experiments were conducted for five different Reynolds number from 1 to 10. The

velocity flow pattern showed similarity between all five experiments. The highest velocity of

the flow for each profile was at the centre of the gap, coordinates (0, 0.05). Figure 27 shows

the velocity patterns for the 5 experiments. Figure 28 represents the path lines of velocity

for Reynolds number 1 and 10. A similar trend can be seen from the two Reynolds number

except the vortex for the higher Reynolds number is forced to move further from the

cylinder.

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3 Re=1

U/Uwall

Re=2

1.2

Re=3

Re=5

1.1

Re=10

0.9

0.8

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

y/Gap

35

Figure 28: Velocity path lines for different Reynolds number (Top diagram, Reynolds number 1 and

Bottom diagram, Reynolds number 10)

Using the Wannier flow solutions, an example was conducted to see how large the cylinder

radius have to be to achieve a linear shear velocity as initially thought. The wall was made

stationary and the gap was kept to be 0.1m as the cylinder radius was increased. For each

case the velocity of the cylinder was kept as 1m/s.

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6 r=0.5

y/Gap

0.5 r=5

0.4 r=10

0.3 r=15

0.2 r=18

0.1

0

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

dU/dy

36

Figure 30: Representing 3 different radii conducted to achieve a liner shear velocity

The investigation revealed that for a gap of 0.1m, the radius of the cylinder have to be 18m

to achieve a linear gradient to 0.1m horizontally to 2dp. Figure 29 represents the graph on

shear velocity and shows that at a small radius of 0.5m, the shear velocity is drastically

varying from a linear profile. Case 1 on figure 30 depicts the situation with 0.5m radius. Case

2 and 3 represents the shear velocity at radius of 5m and 18m respectively.

37

5.0 Discussion

The analytical results and the CFD results showed the similar trend in the velocity profiles.

The result gathered in CFD however does not reflect the exact results to the analytical

solutions. An objective of this project was to find out the error between the results.

An in-depth look at the errors for the CFD results is looked at in this section.

The percentage of error between the analytical and the CFD results for the four different

cylinder diameters can be seen in Figure 31 below. The cylinder to wall velocity ratio is

constant and the Reynolds number for the gap is constant.

1.7

1.5

1.3

Error %

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.5

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

D (m)

The graph is similar to a negative exponential graph. The graph reveals that the percentage

error is decreasing as the diameter of the cylinder is increased. The max error for the

cylinder of radius 0.5m is under 2%, the error is as a result of the sudden change in the

velocity profile as the flow I squeezed through the gap. The error is decreased to 0.6% as the

dimeter is increased to 10m. The error decrease at the larger cylindrical diameter is due to

the gradually change in the velocity profile compared to that of a smaller cylinder.

38

The max error of 1.63% can be acceptable in a lot of experimental cases as it is quite small.

However the error doesnt quite reach 0% as the diameter is increased. This could change as

the ratio is decreased further.

Figure 32 below shows the error vs the rotational speed. The percentage error for the

cylinder to wall velocity ratios between analytical and CFD, is a positive linear as the

rotational speed increases.

1.25

1.2

1.15

1.1

Error %

1.05

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0 5 10 15 20 25

(rad/s)

The path lines for the CFD of Wannier flow of rotational speed of 1 rad/s and 20 rad/s in

figure 25 on section 4.2.2 can explain the increase in percentage error as the rotational

speed increases. For the cylinder with the higher rotational speed, the vortex is on the left

of the cylinder, close to flow entering the gap between the wall and the cylinder; this forces

the separation of flow to be closer to the cylinder, hence flow with a higher velocity forced

through the gap and error as a resultant.

The final experiment conducted involved the increase of Reynolds number. Figure 33 is a

graph which shows the percentage error between the analytical results and the CFD results

39

for an increase in the Reynolds number. The graph shows that the there is a linear

relationship between the Reynolds number and the resultant error for L. The error trend

however turns to that of a natural logarithmic graph moving further away centre of the gap.

Compared to the errors of the previous two experiments the Reynolds number errors can

be seen as the largest. The percentage of error between the analytical solution and the CFD

can be expected to rise as the Reynolds number increase, this is as a result of the reason

that the analytical solutions are for those of a Wannier flow and increasing the Reynolds

number is in contradiction to the definition of a Wannier flow.

4.5

3.5

3

Error %

2.5

2 x=0

x=0.1

1.5

x=0.2

1

x=0.5

0.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Re. No

A sixth case was studied on Reynolds number 50, to check if the error pattern remained

linear as the first five case for a larger Reynolds number. The study showed that the

percentage error rose to 23%. Figure below shows that at a higher Reynolds number the

error is bigger than twice the original linear trend.

40

25

20

15

Error %

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Re. No

For the stationary wall, a diameter of 1m produced an error of over 18%. As the diameter is

increased the percentage of error is decreased much like the gap to diameter decrease

previously looked at in section 5.1. Figure 35 shows a negative exponential graph similar to

figure 31.

In the case of using the hot films to calibrate and measure the shear velocity, a cylinder of

diameter 6m is required if an error of 10 % is plausible. To have under 1% of error a cylinder

at 16m or over is required in diameter.

20.00

18.00

16.00

14.00

12.00

Error %

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

r (m)

41

6.0 Conclusion

At the onset, this project was set out to study the Wannier flow; its definition and the

characteristics of flow. Initially this was done analytically, and the result achieved was then

used to compare Wannier flow models build on a computational fluid dynamics software.

It should be evident from this project that the initial aims and objectives set out were

accomplished. The analytical solutions were found and the patterns analysed using the

combination of Wannier flow equations and excel spreadsheet. The Wannier flow model

was built on the Ansys software, allowing to vary parameters and find the velocity profiles.

The results achieved in both situations were used to work out the error patterns.

The analytical solutions were used to work out the flow patterns. An increase in the

cylindrical diameter while keeping the gap constant will result in an increased velocity flow

through the gap. On the contrary, increasing the gap while keeping the cylinder size

constant will result in a decrease of flow velocity through the gap. Additionally, the increase

of U-wall and/or U-cylinder would result in an increase of flow through the gap. However,

the study showed that the U-wall has a bigger impact on the flow velocity than U-cylinder.

The CFD results produced results similar to that of the analytical counterpart. Decreasing

the gap to diameter ratio, while keeping other parameters constant, increased the flow

velocity through the gap. Similarly, increasing the cylinder to wall velocity ratio increased

the overall flow velocities. Finally, studying the Reynolds number showed the similar flow

patterns with each increment, but with a higher velocity.

Although the flow patterns for the CFD matched the analytical solution, it did not match the

exact solution. Studies on the error revealed that there is a relationship in the pattern of

errors. The error was similar to an exponential decay graph for the experiment with varying

gap to diameter ratio. This was as a result of the rapid velocity changes closer to the gap for

smaller cylindrical diameter, compared to a gradual change that occurs for the larger

cylinder. The second study on the ratios of velocity between the wall and the cylinder

presented a linear relationship, the error increased as the velocity of the cylinder increased.

The increased rotational speed moved the vortex formed closer to gap causing the velocity

streamlines to be closer when entering the gap. The maximum percentage error for the first

42

experiment was below 1.7% and the percentage error for the second experiment reached

above 1.2% for the rotating cylinder of 20 rad/s. Both of which can be said as small errors.

The third experiment demonstrated that the percentage error increased with an increase in

Reynolds number. The analytical solutions used to compare are for a Wannier flow and by

increasing the Reynolds number, the flow property changes from a viscous creeping flow,

which results in the larger errors.

The errors for experiments 1 and 2 are smaller compared to the percentage error in the

third experiment. The studies indicated that none of the errors for any experiments

conducted reached 0%. The study on mesh points and refinements showed a discretization

error of 0.33% for refinement 3 which was used for all the tests. The discretization errors

combined with iterative convergence errors could be the two major contributors to the

overall error.

Initially the Wannier flow for a steady wall was thought to produce the same result as a

Couette flow, which could be used for the application of the calibration of a hot film. The

study on the original concept demonstrated that the errors could be close to 20% for a

cylinder of small diameter 1m. It was found out that a cylinder of minimum diameter 6m

should be used to have below 10% error and the diameter have to be above 16m if the error

is to be decreased below 1%. The study showed that a cylindrical diameter of 18m will

produce a linear profile to 2d.p.

The analytical solutions for the Wannier flow gave a symmetric results in the y-plane. This

project focusing only on the cylinder next to moving wall and the region of the gap wouldnt

have any error related to the symmetrical result. However, the Wannier flow can be studied

further, which focuses on the entire boundary region, focusing on both the undisturbed

domain upstream and downstream as well as the disturbed region, due the presence of

cylinder. The study could be used to check for what velocities and Reynolds number the

symmetrical results could start to vary and start producing errors.

Although majority of the project was done according to the milestones setup initially, there

were several aspects of the project that took more time than what was initially anticipated.

Studying the analytical solutions to Wannier flow took a lot of time as the mistake in the

43

publication for Wannier flow was discovered and amended later, which in turn delayed the

studies on the velocity profiles. However, time management on the other tasks, such as

building the model in Ansys software, allowed the student complete the tasks on time. The

Gantt chart attached in the Appendix reveals the milestones and completion dates that

were set at the start of the project.

The errors produced in Ansys software was quite small as evident from the achieved results.

The study of the Wannier flow analytically and on Ansys was successful. To check the

precision of the differential equations used in CFD, the exact study could be conducted on

another CFD software which can then be used to compare the two.

44

7.0 References

Ansys, (2015). Introduction to Ansys Fluent. [online] Available at:

http://imechanica.org/files/fluent_13.0_lecture02-intro-to-cfd.pdf [Accessed 17 May

2015].

Barth, T. and Deconinck, H. (1999). High order methods for computational physics.

Berlin: Springer, pp.287-290.

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/dragsphere.html [Accessed 17 May

2015].

WALL. Masters. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Johnson, R. (1998). The handbook of fluid dynamics. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press,

ch:pp.29:30-32.

Karabelas, S., Koumroglou, B., Argyropoulos, C. and Markatos, N. (2012). High Reynolds

number turbulent flow past a rotating cylinder. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 36(1),

pp.379-398.

MITTAL, S. and KUMAR, B. (2003). Flow past a rotating cylinder. Journal of Fluid

Mechanics, 476.pp.303334.

http://www.nptel.ac.in/courses/112104118/lecture-23/23-2_flow_rotate_cylinder.htm

[Accessed 17 May 2015].

Prandtl, L. (1925) 'The Magnus eect and windpowered ships'. Naturwissenschaften 13,

93108

45

Rao, A. et al. (2011) 'Flows Past Rotating Cylinders Next To A Wall'. Journal of Fluids and

Structures 27.5-6: pp.668-679.

schemes. Journal of Computational Physics, 43(2), pp.357-372.

Samson, Michael Daniel, Huiyuan Li, and Li-Lian Wang. (2012): 'A New Triangular

Spectral Element Method I: Implementation And Analysis On A Triangle'. Numerical

Algorithms 64.3 pp.519-547.

study of the flow past a circular cylinder using Abaqus/CFD, 2(1), pp.3,4.

Available at: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/wind/valid/tutorial/errors.html [Accessed

2 Dec. 2015].

applications to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Computer Methods in

Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 123(1-4), pp.189-229.

Physical Society of Japan 20.9 pp.1714-1721.

Thom, A. (1933). The Flow Past Circular Cylinders at Low Speeds. Proceedings of the

Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 141(845), pp.651-669.

Von Karman vortex street (laminar, temperature), Re = 250. (2010). [video] Available at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDeGDFZSYo8 [Accessed 18 May 2015].

Quart.Appl.Math,.8(1)

Fundamentals. J. Fluids Eng., 120(1), p.216.

46

8.0 Appendices

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

2 1.1 2 1 1 1 1 0.55 1 1

3 2.6 5 2.5 1 0.4 1 0.52 1 1

4 5.1 10 5 1 0.2 1 0.51 1 1

Case 1.1:

(m) (m) (m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) (m/s)

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0 0.05 1.446 1.470 1.63

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.1 0.05 1.284 1.300 1.23

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.2 0.05 0.985 0.995 1.01

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.3 0.05 0.781 0.785 0.51

47

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.4 0.05 0.703 0.700 -0.43

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.5 0.05 0.698 0.690 -1.16

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.6 0.05 0.723 0.720 -0.42

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.7 0.05 0.756 0.760 0.53

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.8 0.05 0.789 0.795 0.75

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 0.9 0.05 0.818 0.820 0.24

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 1 0.05 0.843 0.855 1.40

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 1.25 0.05 0.889 0.900 1.22

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 2 0.05 0.951 0.955 0.42

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 3 0.05 0.977 0.980 0.31

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 4 0.05 0.987 0.990 0.30

0.6 1 0.5 0.1 1 2 5 0.05 0.99 0.990 0.00

Case 1.2:

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) (m/s)

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0 0.05 1.472 1.490 1.21

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.1 0.05 1.382 1.395 0.93

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.2 0.05 1.17 1.180 0.85

48

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.3 0.05 0.955 0.960 0.52

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.4 0.05 0.802 0.805 0.37

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.5 0.05 0.721 0.725 0.55

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.6 0.05 0.692 0.690 -0.29

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.7 0.05 0.694 0.695 0.14

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.8 0.05 0.711 0.710 -0.14

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 0.9 0.05 0.734 0.735 0.14

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1 0.05 0.759 0.755 -0.53

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1.1 0.05 0.783 0.780 -0.38

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1.2 0.05 0.805 0.805 0.00

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1.3 0.05 0.825 0.825 0.00

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1.4 0.05 0.842 0.845 0.36

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 1.5 0.05 0.858 0.860 0.23

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 2 0.05 0.911 0.910 -0.11

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 3 0.05 0.957 0.960 0.31

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 4 0.05 0.975 0.975 0.00

1.1 2 1 0.1 1 1 5 0.05 0.984 0.980 -0.41

Case 1.3:

49

d (m) D (m) r (m) Gap U x y u1 CFD Er %

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) (m/s)

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 0 0.05 1.489 1.500 0.73

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 0.4 0.05 1.056 1.060 0.38

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 0.8 0.05 0.714 0.715 0.14

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 1.2 0.05 0.701 0.700 -0.14

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 1.6 0.05 0.762 0.760 -0.26

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 2 0.05 0.819 0.820 0.12

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 2.4 0.05 0.861 0.860 -0.12

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 2.8 0.05 0.892 0.890 -0.22

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 3.2 0.05 0.914 0.915 0.11

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 3.6 0.05 0.930 0.930 0.00

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 4 0.05 0.942 0.940 -0.21

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 4.4 0.05 0.951 0.950 -0.11

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 4.8 0.05 0.959 0.960 0.10

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 5.2 0.05 0.965 0.965 0.00

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 5.6 0.05 0.969 0.970 0.10

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 6 0.05 0.973 0.975 0.21

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 6.4 0.05 0.976 0.975 -0.10

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 6.8 0.05 0.979 0.980 0.10

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 7.2 0.05 0.981 0.980 -0.10

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 7.6 0.05 0.983 0.985 0.20

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 8 0.05 0.985 0.985 0.00

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 9 0.05 0.988 0.990 0.20

2.6 5 2.5 0.1 1 0.4 10 0.05 0.990 0.990 0.00

50

Case 1.4:

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) (m/s)

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 0 0.05 1.494 1.500 0.40

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 0.4 0.05 1.233 1.235 0.16

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 0.8 0.05 0.856 0.855 -0.12

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 1.2 0.05 0.701 0.700 -0.14

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 1.6 0.05 0.693 0.695 0.29

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 2 0.05 0.732 0.730 -0.27

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 2.4 0.05 0.777 0.775 -0.26

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 2.8 0.05 0.817 0.815 -0.25

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 3.2 0.05 0.849 0.850 0.12

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 3.6 0.05 0.874 0.875 0.11

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 4 0.05 0.894 0.895 0.11

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 4.4 0.05 0.910 0.910 0.00

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 4.8 0.05 0.923 0.925 0.22

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 5.2 0.05 0.933 0.935 0.21

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 5.6 0.05 0.941 0.940 -0.11

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 6 0.05 0.948 0.950 0.21

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 6.4 0.05 0.954 0.955 0.10

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 6.8 0.05 0.959 0.960 0.10

51

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 7.2 0.05 0.963 0.960 -0.31

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 7.6 0.05 0.969 0.970 0.10

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 8 0.05 0.970 0.970 0.00

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 8.4 0.05 0.973 0.975 0.21

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 8.8 0.05 0.975 0.975 0.00

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 9.2 0.05 0.977 0.975 -0.21

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 9.6 0.05 0.979 0.980 0.10

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 10 0.05 0.980 0.980 0.00

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 11 0.05 0.984 0.985 0.10

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 12 0.05 0.986 0.985 -0.10

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 13 0.05 0.988 0.990 0.20

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 14 0.05 0.990 0.990 0.00

5.1 10 5 0.1 1 0.2 15 0.05 0.991 0.990 -0.10

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

2 0.7 1.2 0.6 1 2 1.2 0.58 1.2 1

3 0.7 1.2 0.6 1 5 3 0.58 3 1

4 0.7 1.2 0.6 1 10 6 0.58 6 1

5 0.7 1.2 0.6 1 20 12 0.58 12 1

52

Case 2.1:

x y u1 CFD Er %

(m/s) (m/s)

0 0 1.000 1.000 0.00

0 0.01 1.095 1.100 0.45

0 0.02 1.158 1.165 0.60

0 0.03 1.192 1.200 0.67

0 0.04 1.197 1.207 0.83

0 0.05 1.174 1.184 0.85

0 0.06 1.122 1.131 0.80

0 0.07 1.040 1.048 0.76

0 0.08 0.928 0.933 0.54

0 0.09 0.782 0.784 0.26

0 0.1 0.600 0.600 0.00

53

Case 2.2:

x y u1 (m/s) CFD Er %

(m/s)

0 0 1 1 0.00

0 0.01 1.199 1.204 0.42

0 0.02 1.357 1.365 0.59

0 0.03 1.475 1.486 0.74

0 0.04 1.554 1.566 0.77

0 0.05 1.595 1.608 0.81

0 0.06 1.598 1.6118 0.86

0 0.07 1.562 1.575 0.83

0 0.08 1.486 1.497 0.73

0 0.09 1.366 1.371 0.36

0 0.1 1.2 1.2 0.00

54

Case 2.3:

x y u1 CFD Er %

(m/s) (m/s)

0 0 1.000 1.000 0.00

0 0.01 1.515 1.520 0.33

0 0.02 1.954 1.964 0.51

0 0.03 2.322 2.340 0.75

0 0.04 2.623 2.646 0.85

0 0.05 2.857 2.882 0.87

0 0.06 3.025 3.053 0.90

0 0.07 3.127 3.150 0.71

0 0.08 3.160 3.177 0.52

0 0.09 3.119 3.132 0.40

0 0.1 3.000 3.000 0.00

55

Case 2.4:

x y u1 CFD Er %

(m/s) (m/s)

0 0 1.000 1.000 0.00

0 0.01 2.039 2.049 0.46

0 0.02 2.948 2.968 0.66

0 0.03 3.735 3.765 0.78

0 0.04 4.405 4.445 0.89

0 0.05 4.961 5.011 0.99

0 0.06 5.405 5.455 0.91

0 0.07 5.736 5.786 0.86

0 0.08 5.950 5.990 0.66

0 0.09 6.040 6.070 0.49

0 0.1 6.000 6.000 0.00

56

Case 2.5:

x y u1 CFD Er %

(m/s) (m/s)

0 0 1 1 0.00

0 0.01 3.089 3.109 0.64

0 0.02 4.937 4.977 0.80

0 0.03 6.56 6.62 0.91

0 0.04 7.968 8.048 0.99

0 0.05 9.169 9.269 1.08

0 0.06 10.164 10.289 1.21

0 0.07 10.953 11.079 1.14

0 0.08 11.53 11.636 0.91

0 0.09 11.884 11.94 0.47

0 0.1 12 12 0.00

57

Experiment 3 parameters used for CFD:

(m) (m/s) (rad/s) (m/s) diameter velocity ratio No

ratio

1 1.1 2 1 1 1 1 0.55 1 1

2 1.1 2 1 10 10 10 0.55 1 10

3 1.1 2 1 10 50 50 0.55 1 50

Case 3.1:

x y u1 CFD Error

0 0 1.000 1.000 0.00

0 0.01 1.170 1.175 0.43

0 0.02 1.302 1.310 0.61

0 0.03 1.396 1.405 0.64

0 0.04 1.452 1.464 0.82

0 0.05 1.472 1.485 0.88

0 0.06 1.455 1.467 0.82

0 0.07 1.400 1.410 0.71

0 0.08 1.308 1.315 0.53

0 0.09 1.175 1.180 0.42

0 0.1 1.000 1.000 0.00

58

Case 3.2:

x y u1 CFD Error

0 0 10.000 10.000 0.00

0 0.01 11.700 11.985 2.38

0 0.02 13.020 13.362 2.56

0 0.03 13.960 14.331 2.59

0 0.04 14.520 14.933 2.76

0 0.05 14.720 15.147 2.82

0 0.06 14.550 14.963 2.76

0 0.07 14.000 14.382 2.66

0 0.08 13.080 13.413 2.48

0 0.09 11.750 12.036 2.38

0 0.1 10.000 10.000 0.00

59

Case 3.3

Re. No Error %

1 0.88

2 1.1

3 1.3

5 1.7

10 2.5

50 23

60

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