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AN ERROR ANALYSIS IN USING SIMPLE PAST

TENSE IN NARRATIVE TEXT


(A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP Islam
Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the Academic
Year of 2011/2012)

A Final Project

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education

HARISMANIA ROSYIDA
18.208.0080

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM


COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES
SULTAN AGUNG ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SEMARANG
2012
i
APPROVAL

A Sarjana Pendidikan Final Project on

AN ERROR ANALYSIS IN USING SIMPLE PAST TENSE


IN NARRATIVE TEXT
(A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP Islam
Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the Academic
Year of 2011/2012)

Prepared and Presented by

Harismania Rosyida
18.208.0080

Approved by

Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho, S.Pd, M.Pd Semarang, 6 September 2012


First Advisor

Arif Suryo Priyatmojo, S.Pd, M.Pd Semarang, 6 September 2012


Second Advisor

ii
VALIDATION

A Sarjana Pendidikan Final Project on

AN ERROR ANALYSIS IN USING SIMPLE PAST TENSE


IN NARRATIVE TEXT
(A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP Islam
Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the Academic
Year of 2011/2012)

Prepared and Presented by


Harismania Rosyida
18.208.0080

Defended before the board of Examiners


On September, 11th 2012
And Declared Acceptable
Board of Examiners

Chairman : Hartono, S.S. M.Pd _________________

Secretary : Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho, S.Pd. M.Pd _________________

Member : Arif Suryo Priyatmojo, S.Pd. M.Pd _________________

Semarang, September 2012


College of Languages UNISSULA
Dean

Drs. Widiyanto, M.Si, Ph.D

iii
STATEMENT OF WORK ORIGINALITY

Hereby, I honestly declare that the undergraduate thesis I wrote does not

contain the works or part of the works of other people, except those which were

cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should. If my

statement is not valid in the future, I absolutely agree to accept an academic

sanction in the form of revocation of my paper and my degree obtained from that

paper.

Semarang, 10 September 2012


The Writer,

Harismania Rosyida
18.208.0080

iv
MOTTO

     



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 $% 
!
 )* " !
  +,$ %  
"This, because God would never change the blessings with which He has graced a
people unless they change their inner selves: and (know)
that God is all-hearing, all-seeing."

Continual Efforts and Frequent Errors are Genius Stepping Stone

(Elbert Hubbard)

Something that has not been done, often seems impossible, we will be confident if

we have managed to doing well.

(Evelyn Underhill)

v
DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to:

My beloved late father (Bahroji) in the heaven and mommy (Wiji Lestari)
who always give inspiration and motivation to continue this study
(Lovely BahWi)

My beloved brothers (Masyhur, Ali, Huri) and my nephews

(Dian, Fajar, and Izaa) who always supports the writer


to finish this thesis

My best friends Minory Ndut, PoPiTaEm, all E2/08 crew. Thanks for
your support and advice. I will always remember you

My Sweetheart Ozi, thanks for your support and attention

Last but not least, those who cannot be mentioned one by one, who have
supported the writer to finish this thesis

Thanks for all

vi
ABSTRACT

Rosyida, Harismania. 182080080 An Error Analysis in Using Simple Past


Tense in Narrative Text (The Case Study of the 7th Grade Students of
SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the Academic Year of
2011/2012. A Final Project, English Language Education Study
Program, College of Languages Sultan Agung Islamic University. The
first advisor: Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho, S.Pd, M.Pd and the second
advisor: Arif Suryo Priyatmojo, S.Pd, M. Pd.

The background of this research is based on the phenomenon of students'


mistakes in the use of simple past tense. In learning and understanding the English
language, especially grammar, students usually make mistakes. This is caused by
differences in components between Indonesia and English language. Mastery of
English is the knowledge of how to set the sentence grammatically. In a narrative
text, students make some mistakes in the use of simple past tense because they do
not have sufficient knowledge of grammar.
The problem of this study is what common mistakes contained in the
narrative texts that have been analyzed by the students.
This research is descriptive qualitative. The population was the seventh grade
students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the academic school year
2011/2012 consisting of one class. Total population is 80 students, 34 students in
7A1 selected as sample using non-random sampling.
The results showed that students made a mistake in using the simple past
tense in narrative text. Based on the calculation error analysis, there are three kind
of errors made by students, that are (1) wrong of be (30%), (2) wrong in using
verb (53.3%) are the biggest mistakes made by students , and finally (3) wrong in
modal auxiliary (17.6%).
Based on the above results, it is suggested that teachers should explain to
students about the simple past tense, including patterns and how to use them in
writing narrative text.

Key words: Error Analysis, Simple Past Tense, text narration and Junior High
School.

vii
INTISARI

Rosyida, Harismania. 182080080 An Error Analysis in Using Simple Past


Tense in Narrative Text (The Case Study of the 7th Grade Students of
SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the Academic Year of
2011/2012. A Final Project, English Language Education Study
Program, College of Languages Sultan Agung Islamic University. The
first advisor: Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho, S.Pd, M.Pd and the second
advisor: Arif Suryo Priyatmodjo, S.Pd, M. Pd.

Latar belakang dari penelitian ini didasarkan pada fenomena kesalahan


siswa dalam penggunaan simple past tense. Dalam belajar dan memahami bahasa
Inggris terutama tata bahasa, para siswa biasanya membuat kesalahan. Hal ini
disebabkan oleh perbedaan komponen bahasa antara Indonesia dan Inggris.
Penguasaan bahasa Inggris adalah pengetahuan tentang cara mengatur kalimat
gramatikal. Dalam menulis teks narasi, siswa membuat beberapa kesalahan dalam
penggunaan simple past tense karena mereka tidak memiliki pengetahuan tata
bahasa yang cukup.
Masalah penelitian ini adalah apa saja kesalahan umum yang terdapat
dalam teks narasi yang telah dianalisis oleh siswa.
Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Populasi adalah siswa
kelas VII SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang pada tahun ajaran akademik
2011/2012 yang terdiri dari satu kelas. Jumlah total populasi adalah 34 siswa, dari
80 siswa terpilih sebagai sampel dengan menggunakan non-simple random
sampling.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa membuat kesalahan dalam
menggunakan simple past tense dalam teks narasi. Berdasarkan perhitungan
analisis kesalahan, terdapat tiga macam kesalahan yang dibuat oleh siswa, yakni
(1) salah pada be sebanyak (30%), (2) Kesalahan pada bentuk kata kerja sebanyak
(53,3%) ini termasuk kesalahan terbanyak yang dilakukan oleh siswa, dan yang
terakhir (3) kesalahan pada kata kerja bantu sebanyak (17,6%).
Berdasarkan hasil di atas, disarankan kepada guru bahwa seharusnya
memberikan penjelasan kepada siswa tentang simple past tense termasuk pola dan
bagaimana menggunakannya dalam menulis teks narasi.

Kata-kata kunci: Error Analysis, Simple Past Tense, Teks Narasi dan Siswa
SMP

viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Bismillahirrohmaanirrohiim,

Praise be to Allah SWT, Alhamdulillahirobbilalamin, thank for the love


given to me that makes me wake up every day to realize my dreams.

As the final project was done, I would like express my deepest thanks to
some persons. First, thanks to Drs. Widiyanto, M.Si., Ph.D as Dean of the College
of Languages UNISSULA, and Hartono,S.S.,M.Pd as secretary of Dean of
College of Languages.

Second, I would like to give my deep gratitude to Kurniawan Yudhi


Nugroho, S.Pd., M.Pd., my first advisor, whose great patience, guidance, advice,
and encouragement led me to the completion of this writing, and Arief Suryo
Priyatmojo, S.Pd., M.Pd., as my second advisor, who carefully gave me valuable
suggestions as well as corrections to complete this paper.

Then, special thanks to Prof. H. Retmono, M.A., Ph. D, my inspirator


lecture, the headmaster of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang, Zaenuri, S.Ag,
Sholeh Anwar, B.A and all teachers who have given me a chance to conduct the
research there.

I would also like to give my deep gratitude to my parent, brothers and


family for their prayers and support to enable me to finish my study. Last but not
least, thanks to all my friends in education program 2008, UKM SAEC and to
numerous people that I can not mention one by one. Thank you very much.

Semarang, 11 September 2012


The Writer,

Harismania Rosyida
18.208.0080

ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title ........................................................................................................... i
Approval ................................................................................................... ii
Validation ................................................................................................. iii
Thesis of Statements ................................................................................ iv
Motto ........................................................................................................ v
Dedication ................................................................................................ vi
Abstract ................................................................................................... vii
Intisari ...................................................................................................... viii
Acknowledgement .................................................................................... viii
Table of Contents ..................................................................................... x
List of Tables ............................................................................................ xiii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONS
1.1. Background of the Study ................................................................ 1
1.2. Reason for Choosing Topic ............................................................. 3
1.3. Research Question .......................................................................... 4
1.4. Objective of the Study .................................................................... 4
1.5. Significance of the Study ................................................................ 4
1.6. Limitations of the Study ................................................................. 4
1.7. Definitions of Key Terms ............................................................... 5
1.8. Outline of the Study ........................................................................ 6

CHAPTER II RIVIEWS OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1. Theoretical Reviews ........................................................................ 8
2.1.1. Error Analysis ................................................................................ 8
2.2. General Description of Tenses ......................................................... 9
2.2.1. Simple Past Tense ........................................................................... 10
2.2.2. Forms of Simple Past Tense ........................................................... 11
2.2.3. Time Signal of Simple Past Tense ................................................... 12
2.2.4. Uses of Simple Past Tense .............................................................. 13

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2.3. General Concept of Narrative Text ................................................. 14
2.3.1. Narrative Text ................................................................................ 14
2.3.2. Generic Structure Narrative Text .................................................... 15
2.3.3. The Lexicogrammatical .................................................................. 15
2.4. General Description of Junior High School ..................................... 16

CHAPTER III METHODS OF INVESTIGATION


3.1. Research Design ............................................................................ 19
3.2. Subjects of the Study ..................................................................... 20
3.2.1. Population ..................................................................................... 20
3.2.2. Sample ........................................................................................... 20
3.3. Instruments of the Study ................................................................. 21
3.3.1. Test ............................................................................................... 21
3.3.2. Question List ................................................................................. 22
3.4. Data Gathering .............................................................................. 22
3.4.1. Test ............................................................................................... 22
3.4.2. Interview ....................................................................................... 23
3.5. Technique of Analyzing Data ........................................................ 25
3.5.1. Identification of Error .................................................................... 24
3.5.2. Classification of Error .................................................................... 24
3.5.3. Percentage of Error ........................................................................ 24
3.5.4. Identfying the Causes of Error ...................................................... 26

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1. General Description ....................................................................... 27
4.2. Data Description ............................................................................ 28
4.2.1. Common Error in Simple Past tense Analysis ................................ 28
4.2.2. Common Error in Generic Structure Analysis ................................ 32
4.3. Discussion ..................................................................................... 33
4.3.1. The Result of Error Analysis in Simple Past Tense ........................ 33
4.3.2. The Percentage of Error and Dominant Errors ............................... 37
4.4. Summary of Interview ................................................................... 43
4.5. The Implication of Research Finding ............................................. 45

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1. Conclusion .................................................................................... 47
5.2. Suggestions ................................................................................... 48

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................... 50
APPENDICES........................................................................................... 53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table page

1. Errors in Using Past Tense .................................................................. 28


2. Errors in Generic Structure .................................................................. 32
3. Percentages of Errors of Each Students ............................................... 39
4. Common Errors and the Proportional Each Students ........................... 42

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of The Study

Language is a mean of communication among individuals. It is a sound

system which were structured and used to communicate peoples feelings,

intentions, purpose, etc to the others. Language is the development of the basic

form of communication between human beings in a society. As it is the basic

form, it is also the most developed. We cannot communicate in any real sense

without language, other than through gestures; we do communicate through some

non-verbal forms like the visual arts - painting and sculpture as well as dance,

communication is through language. It could take a number of forms, of course.

According to Brown (2000:5), "language is system of arbitrary conventionalized

vocal, written, or gestural symbols that enable members of a given community to

communicate intelligibly with one another.

English is one of the international languages were used as a means of

communication both orally and written to cooperate among people in different

countries in the world was English. Therefore, it was very important to learn

English.

Everyone need to learn English because it becomes the first foreign

language and has an important role in the development of Indonesia. In Indonesia,

English has been taught as the foreign language. Learning English becomes more

1
2

and more important nowadays since we know that English is one of the

international languages which can be used to communicate around the world.

After we knew the language, in order to be able to communicate, people

should master the communicative competence. Johnson & Johnson (1999: 62-68)

stated that communicative competence is the knowledge which enables someone

to use a language effectively and their ability to actually use this knowledge for

communication. Communicating in English was extended to understand and

express information, thought, feelings and develops science, technology culture

(Depdiknas, 2004:6). Thus it can be said that mastering English is an essential

requirement as stock in an effort to make the interaction and communication in

the associations growing community, both nationally and internationally. In this

connection, the mastery of English can be obtained through various programs, and

programs of teaching or learning in a formal school course was the main tool for

students.

Genre is one of the important and influential concepts in language

education. There were much kind of genres such as narrative, descriptive, report,

and exposition are referred to as text types. In writing, those kinds of texts should

follow the generic structure of the texts as well as the grammar.

In learning and understanding English, the students usually make errors.

Error in learning process is very human and it is caused by the differences of

language components between Indonesia and English. For example, in writing a

narrative text, sometimes the students make some errors in the use of simple past

tense because they do not have enough grammar knowledge. Consequently, the
3

result of the teaching English in our school is still unsatisfactory especially in

writing a narrative text. Because of these errors, the teacher has to give

motivations and create effective teaching. In addition, students' error can also give

information for the teachers themselves. The information includes the

effectiveness of techniques used in delivering materials and the students

understanding of the materials. Based on the statement above, the conclusion as

the research goal is to identity and describes some common errors, especially in

the use of simple past tense in writing narrative text.

1.2. Reason for Choosing the Topic

Through grammar, people will learn to make correct English sentences in

the time adjustment in the referring to the tenses. To construct the sentences,

everyone should study the several of words that are the basic or fundamental in

the preparation of English sentences.

The reason for choosing the topic because many people have problems in

grammar that was difficult, because of the limited of student ability in the

mastering grammar, especially for identify regular and irregular verb according to

the problem because it was commonly found in narrative text. Another reason was

simple past tense was one form of the essential tenses in English that students

should know earlier before writing narrative text. By knowing the errors on using

simple past tense in narrative text that students will be made, the teacher can give

more concern in teaching the grammatical patterns, especially the use of simple

past tense. In this research was conducted to learn how to make an analysis for

simple past tense in narrative text easily for beginners.


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1.3. Research Question

The research question was;

What are common errors that occurred in the narrative text uses the

simple past tense by students?

1.4. Objective of The study

The objective of this study is to find out of the common errors made by

students in narrative text in use of simple past tense.

1.5. Significance of The Study

This study may contribute some benefits as follows:

1. It gives information for teachers, teacher trainers, and readers that need

some data, references about types of errors, dominant errors, and causes of

error in using simple past tense in narrative text.

2. It gives information to the English teacher of the seventh grade students of

SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the academic year of 2011/2012

about students mastery of simple past tense; hopefully this information will

be meaningful in setting new policy of teaching the same material in the

future.

1.6. Limitation of The Study

This research was limited only to the analysis of the students errors and

causes of the errors in using simple past tense in narrative text. This research was

done only at the seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang

in the academic year of 2011/2012.


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1.7. The Definitions of Key Terms

(1) An Error Analysis

Error is mistake which learner cannot correct themselves and which

therefore need explanation by Harmer (2007:96). While according to Brown

(2000:218) Error analysis is a fact that learners do make errors, and that

these errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal something of

the system operating within the leaner, led to a surge of study of learners

errors.

(2) Simple Past Tense

The simple past tense indicates that an activity began and ended at a

particular time in the past by Azar (1989:24). For example: John studied in

my room last night. She brought me some potatoes two days ago.

The simple Pat tense is also used for a past habit. For example: he

always carried an umbrella. They never drank wine.

(3) Narrative Text

Narratives may be imaginary or concerned with real-life situations. A

narrative has a beginning, a middle, and an ending by Sadler and Hayllar

(2004: 65). The main characteristics of narrative text are the presence of a

problem (or what is considered a problem or difficult) and the steps taken to

respond to this issue with the general form of solution or resolution.

To write a narrative story, we should know that social function and

generic structure. The social function of narrative is to amuse, entertain and


6

to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. (Hartono,

2005:6)

(4) Junior High School

Junior high school learner are different than young learner. They are

included in the adolescents; the age is changed from childhood to adulthood.

According to Howard (1968: 2) that the junior high school is a unique

pupils. The junior high school is intended to educate and serve those

children who are preadolescent and early adolescent, that is, on the edge of

puberty. Many transition in this age they are way of thinking, physical

changes and the appearance. According to Harmer (2007:15) adolescent

students have a great capacity for learning, enormous potential for creative

thought and passionate commitment to things which interest them.

1.8. Outline of the Study

This final project proposal consists of five chapters. Chapter I gives an

Introduction which contains Background of the Study, Reasons for Choosing the

Topic, Research Question, Objective of the Study, Significance of the Study,

Limitation of the Study, Definition of the Key Terms, and Outline of the Study.

Chapter II deals with the Review of Related Literature. This present an

Error Analysis, Source of Error, Simple Past Tense, Narrative Text, and

Grammatical Differences between English and Indonesia in sentences of Simple

Present Tense, and Previous Research.


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Chapter III is concerned with Methods of Investigation consists of Design

of Research, Population and Sample, Technique of Collecting Data, Instruments,

and Technique of Analyzing Data.

Chapter IV deals with the Result of the Study, which presents General

Description, Data Description and Discussion. In this chapter, the Collected Data

are Analyzed to find out the Common Errors, the Dominant Errors, and Possible

Causes of Error made by the seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4

Semarang in using simple past tense in narrative text seen from their test result.

Chapter V is the last chapter which presents some Conclusions and

Suggestions of the Research.


CHAPTER II

RIVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter deals with the review of related literature. This presents the

definition Error Analysis, Source of Error, Simple Past Tense, and Narrative in

Analysis Narrative Story.

2.1. Error Analysis

According to Brown (2000:218), Error analysis is a fact that learners do

make errors, and that these errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to

reveal something of the system operating within the leaner, led to a surge of study

of learners errors. While James (1998:7) states that error analysis is a

methodology for dealing with data rather than a theory of acquisition. The data

can be taken by conducting a test with the students as the respondent.

From those explanations, the writer concludes that error analysis is a

method to deal with data which can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal

or determine the incidence, nature, causes and consequences of unsuccessful

language learning within the learners.

An error can identify 3 levels of errors in students writing

- grammar (sentence level) errors,

- paragraph level errors (problems with coherence within the paragraphs,

summary sentences, linking phrases and other devices),

- whole text level errors (introduction, thesis statement, direct linear text, etc)

- focuses on the grammatical or sentence


8
9

Lange and Lane (1993: 1) Error analysis helps for intelligible in writing,

clear ideas, and get higher marks (some subjects allocate a percentage of final

mark to accuracy in grammar or lack of errors).

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/learning/assets/downloads/error-analysis.pdf (retrieved

on February 12th 2012)

The sources of error occurrence according to Ancker (2000: 1)

(1) Interference from the native language is similar. Then, he will over generalize

the rules of his native language.

(2) An incomplete knowledge of the target language. Because of the incomplete

knowledge, the learner may make guesses. When he has something that he

doesnt know, he may guess what it should be there. Lengo (1995: 1) added

that foreign language learners commit errors largely because of the paucity of

their knowledge of the target language whereas deviant forms produced by

native speakers are dismissed as slips of the tongue or slips of the pen.

(3) The complexity of the target language certain aspects in English are difficult

for some learners, it may be caused the rules of their native language are quite

different from English and even more complex that their native language.

2.2. General Description of Tenses

A tense is a form of the verb in the English language to indicate the time

(present, future, or past) the occurrence of an act or event. Because the form of

time is used in everyday life. By using the "tenses" we can use the sentence

appropriate to the circumstances. For example; something that used to do, in

progress, will be done, something in the past and others.


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The verb used for an act done with habits, different verb used in ongoing

activities and verbs in use for past actions, it is also different.

2.2.1. Simple Past Tense

Tense is a systematic structure to describe different forms of verbs that

show the time of action. Meanwhile, simple past tense expresses an action or

event that occurs at certain times in the past. In other line, according to Hornby

(1975:78), tense stands for a verb form or series of verb forms used to express a

time relation.

In mastering simple past tense, we must know its definition. There are

some definitions from some experts, as follows:

1) According to Hornby (1975:85), Simple past tense is to indicate activities

or states in the past, without indicating any connection the present.

2) According to Hewings (1999: 6), We use the past simple for situation that

existed for a period of time in the past, but not now.

3) According to Azar (2002: 24), The simple past indicates that an activity or

situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.

Based on the explanations above, here can be concluded that simple past

tense is a verb form to indicate activities or situations that happen at a particular

time in the past.


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2.2.2. Forms of Simple Past Tense

There were some forms of simple past tense: They are affirmative (+),

negative (-), and interrogative (?) sentences. They can be put into the pattern as

follows:

+ S + V 2 + O + Complement

 
- S + + V 1 + O + Complement
  /  


?  / 
+ S + V 1 + O + Complement ?

The explanations of forms above are in the affirmative, the simple past

tense uses verb to be was/were. For example; I/he/she/it was and You/we/they/

were. The negative is formed by did not/ was not / were not + the infinitive with

adding to. For example; I/you/he/she didnt/was not and You/we/they didnt/were

not (wont). And the third forms is interrogative form of past tense is used

was/were/did + subject + the infinitive without to (of the main verb) and question

mark. For example; Was I/she/he/it ? and Were you/we/they ?

This analysis focuses specifically on regular and irregular past tense verb

ending formation. Most verbs in English are regular, meaning they use the same

inflections to mark person, tense, aspect, and voice (Biber et al, 2002:115). To

form regular past tense endings one simply adds an ed suffix but has to

memorize six main patterns to mark past tense irregular verbs.


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Past Tense Verb Ending Formation

Verb Ending Patterns Examples

Regular 1. base + suffix ed a. looked, moved, walked

Irregular 1. The t suffix replaces a final a. build built, spoil spoilt

d of the base of many be added

to the base

2. The t or d suffix is added b. think thought, sell sold

and base vowel changes

3. No suffix is used and the c. give gave, know knew

base vowel changes

4. Only the base vowel d. begin began, come

changes came

5. Forms are identical to base e. cut cut, hit hit, run

form run

6. The form is completely

different f. go went, eat ate, see

saw

Adapted from Biber et al (2002:116-117)

2.2.3. Time Signal in Simple Past Tense

There were time signals uses in simple past tense by (Lado, M.J., 2005: 2-

3), as follows:

Just now Last Monday

This morning Last week/month/year


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Yesterday Three days ago

The day before A few weeks ago

Last night Many years ago, etc.

For example;

I went to Surabaya last year.

She taught English three days ago

2.2.4. Uses of Simple Past Tense

There were some used of simple past tense. According to Wishon and Burks

(1980:195) state that simple past tense is used to report a state or activity which

can be described to a definite past time.

The past time is also used for activities that occurred over a period of time in

the past, both are now finished or that occurred at intervals in the past, but dont

occur now. While according to Walker et al in Tiarani, Dedes paper for seminar

(2000:37).

1) Completed actions

To talk about events and actions in the past those are now finished. The past

simple refers to the complete event. The time or approximate time that the

event took place is stated or is understood from the context. It may be in the

very recent past.

Your mother phoned a few minutes ago.

I played tennis with my friends yesterday.

I never learnt to swim as a child.


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2) Past Habit or Regular Event

She went out for a meal every evening on holiday.

She got up at 5 oclock every morning to do to pray.

He worked there for twenty years.

He worked for most of his life.

So, it can be concluded that basically the use of simple past tense is to talk

about situation and activity in the past.

2.3. General Concept of Narrative Text

2.3.1. Narrative Text

Narratives set out to entertain and amuse listeners and readers. To achieve

this purpose, they must attract and hold an audiences attention it is the interesting

and extraordinary events that can hold an audience spellbound. Some narratives

go a step further than this; as well as telling a story they seek to instruct, give an

explanation for natural events or teach a moral lesson.

Narrative could be spoken or written texts. They were usually told by a

narrator, who might be one of the characters or an outsider. Some of the most

familiar forms of narratives were novels, short stories, science fiction, fairytales,

folktales, movie, script, soap operas, comic strips, ballads, mysteries, and etc.
15

2.3.2. The Generic Structure of Narrative Text

In some narrative, visual elements were very important. In pictures books,

artwork or photographs may be part of the story. In comic strips, the drawings

were often just as important as the words.

Narratives usually have a series of happenings in which action occurs and

characters were involved. Narratives usually consist of the following three parts.

(1) Orientation (beginning)

The orientation tells the reader who: the character(s) or people, for when,

where: the setting time and place, what and why can the direction of the story

are all introduce.

(2) Complication (middle)

As the story develops, complication occurs. At least one problem arises that a

character must overcome before the goal in the story can be reached. There is

often a sequence of events involving the characters in actions that test their

courage, determination and other qualities.

(3) Resolution (ending)

As the sequence of events brings the story an end, the problem that faced the

characters is solved or resolved. A resolution is achieved, which leads to a

happy or unhappy ending in the story. (Haylar 2003: 14)

2.3.3. The Lexicogrammatical of Narrative Text

Setiawan (2007: 41) stated that narrative text often used specific

linguistics elements, such as:


16

A particular noun as a pronoun, animals, and objects in the story for example,

Stepmother, household, etc.

Individual participants focusing on the narratives of participants (actors)

certain specific.

Simple Past Tense

Time to sort connective and the conjunction of events, such as after, before,

soon, then, after, that, etc.

Action verb, verbs that show the event or activity for example stayed, climbed,

killed, etc.

Verb saying and thinking verbs, reporting verbs that show or speech for

example; said, of toll, promised, thought, understood, etc.

2.4. Junior High School

According to Harmer (2003: 37), age becomes a major factor in our

decision about how to teach students. Because students at different ages have

different characteristics, the way we teach them will differ too. So, in teaching

English for students especially junior high school, a teacher has to be more

creative and he/she has to make it more interesting for the learners to learn the

language.

As we know that most of junior high School students are the age of

thirteen to fifteen years old, and they are called young adolescent. As Salyer and

Mkeel, 2003 defined that young adolescents are students who are 10 to 15 years

old. Harmer (2003: 11) commented that the children of thirteen to fifteen seemed
17

to be less lively and humorous than adults. They were so much less motivated and

they showed outright discipline problems.

Young adolescents are wondrous group. Eager to learn, full of energy,

curious, ready for adventure, sociable, disarmingly honest, and ready to solve the

problems of the world; this group of students can be a challenge for teachers to

motivate, hold their attention, and channel their enthusiasm and energy into real

learning (http://www.turningpts.org/pdf/YALGuide2.pdf).

There are five key areas of young adolescent development that can provide

a strong foundation for meeting the needs of these learners. The National Middle

School Association (1995) identifies these important areas as:

1. Intellectual

Young adolescent learners are curious, motivated to achieve when

challenged, and capable of critical and complex thinking.

2. Social

Young adolescent learners have an intense need to belong and be accepted by

their peers while finding their own place in the world. They are engaged in

forming and questioning their identities on many different levels.

3. Physical

Young adolescent learners are mature at varying rates and go through rapid

and irregular physical growth, with bodily changes that can cause awkward

and uncoordinated movements.

4. Emotional and Psychological


18

Young adolescent learners are vulnerable and self-conscious, and often

experience unpredictable mood swings.

5. Moral

With their new sense of the larger world around them, young adolescent

learners are idealistic and want to have an impact on making the world a

better place (http://www.turningpts.org/pdf/YALGuide2.pdf)

In Indonesia, the characteristics of junior high school students are not

different from common students. However, the researcher wants to emphasize

several characteristics based on the article of At the Turning Point: The Young

Adolescent Learner Complete guide available from http: //www.turningpts.org//

that characteristics of young adolescent intellectual development include:

a) Moving from concrete to abstract thinking

b) An intense curiosity and wide range of intellectual pursuits, few of which are

sustained over the long term

c) High achievement when challenged and engaged

d) Preferences for active over passive learning experiences

e) Interest in interacting with peers during learning activities

f) An ability to be self-reflective

Therefore, from the brief explanation above, the researcher comes to a

conclusion that the junior high school students still need specific guidance to learn

English and they need more attention from English teacher, so that they can

understand English lesson well.


CHAPTER III

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

This chapter presented the Research Method. This Chapter was divided

into five sections. They were Research Design, Population and Sample, Data

Gathering, Instruments of the Research and Technique of Analyzing Data.

3.1. Research Design

There were some definitions of research put forward in this sub-chapter.

The research is an investigation undertaken in order to discover new fact, to get

additional information, etc. Hornby (1995: 996). The conclusion that research is

an investigation held scientifically, systematically, and logically to obtain the facts

objectively. This research use descriptive qualitative method.

Research was investigation of a knowledge which had done to obtain the

fact and principles patiently and systematically by Narbuko and Achmadi (2010:

1-2). While, according Sowell and Casey (Maskar, 2008:37) stated that

descriptive method is a method that uses exiting situation to collect the data in

order to measure the variables and interpret the result appropriately without any

manipulation of the variables themselves. It means by using this method were

analyze by collecting the existing data, such as common errors and causes of

error, and computed in order to find out the dominant errors in narrative text.

After that, it will be described in terms of its need and in order to find out the facts

in it.

19
20

This research is descriptive because it will describe a systematically facts

and characteristics of certain population accurately, briefly, and clearly. The

descriptive research studies are applied to describe certain information

objectively. This case was also designed to obtain the answer concerning the

current status of problem that the method of descriptive research is applied to

solve the current problem. The main purpose is for describing a certain situation

objectively. Narbuko and Achmadi (2010:44).

3.2. Subjects of the Study

3.2.1. Population

Koentjaraningrat (1986: 89) stated that population is all part of the subject

involved in research as a direct target or as the sources of information. According

to the definition above, it can be concluded that population is the total subject of

the research as a direct target or the sources of information. The writer used the

seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the academic

year 2011/2012 as the population.

3.2.2. Sample

In a study, a researcher should determine the population. After

determining the population the researcher selects the sample. The writer only

selects a few of the population as a sample in order to make it more efficient.

To get sample, non random sampling was decided because not all

individuals in the population gave opportunity of being selected for the sample.

There were various kind of non random sampling technique; here the writer used
21

purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling technique was the technique

intends to existence the groups to get the sample based on groups that were in

population. A good sample is one that is representative of the population from

which it was selected. (Achmadi and Narbuko, 2010:107). From the statement

above, it could be summarized that sample is a part which is selected to represent

the population that will be examined.

The number of population is too big to be investigated. According to

Arikunto (2002:134), if the population of the research is less than a hundred, the

writer has to take all of the population. Because the populations less than a

hundred, the total of populations that uses are 80 students. Here will be use as

sample was class of 7A1 with total number are 34 students.

3.3. Instruments of the Study

There must be an instrument in a research. It influences the data which are

obtained. Instrument means equipments for collecting the data using a method.

Based on the statement, instrument plays important role in conducting a research

that is for gathering the data accurately. The equipments the writer uses in this

research as follows:

3.3.1. Test

The equipments the writer used in this research were question sheets and

answer sheets because this study talked about the subjects achievement in using

simple past tense in narrative text. Consequently, the writer used a writing test to

measure the students writing ability in order to obtain the empirical data.
22

Therefore, the writer uses 34 pieces of paper consisting of outlines to write the

narrative text to treat the same theme of the students writing, and 34 pieces more

are for the students writing.

3.3.2. Question List

This contains the list of questions that will be used to obtain additional

data from students. The aspects to be investigated in interview include these

following:

1. Students understanding of simple past tense.

2. Students understanding of narrative text.

3. The causes of student errors in using simple past tense in narrative text.

3.4. Data Gathering

All research studies involve data gathering. In gathering data, research

instrument plays an important role in a research project in which the validity and

reliability of the data obtained. Data gathering can be obtained through test and

interview.

3.4.1. Test

In general, this instrument is the first order used to collect data that can be

divided into two types, a test and non-test. A test is sequence of question, exercise

to measure students skill, knowledge, and intelligence.

In gathering the data for the analysis in this research, the writer uses test as

the instrument. Before testing students, the writer first explain the subjects about

the using of the simple past tense, and then the writer explain about the rules in
23

writing a narrative text. Next, the writer held a field research by holding a writing

test. Then looks after the test to avoid the same writing among the students. After

the students did the test, the writer analyzes the students works by making a list

of the students errors. The writer furthermore began to conduct an error analysis.

3.4.2. Interview

Interview is a dialogue which is done by interviewer to gain information

from interviewee. The researcher, in this case, is as interviewer, give questions,

give mark for the answer, and ask for explanation. In other side, the interviewee

(can be teacher or student), answer questions, explain and sometimes give

question back to the interviewer. (Hadi, S. 2004:218). There were four students

who are interviews because they can represent all of students voice. The goal of

interview is to collect information and not to change or clout the opinion of the

respondents (Achmdi and Narbuko, 2008: 86).

3.5. Technique of Analyzing Data

In this research, the writer described about students errors of using simple

past tense in narrative text make by the seventh grade students of SMP Islam

Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the academic year of 2011/2012. The writer wants to

explain the common errors and to provide the percentage of students errors and

the dominant errors.

After collecting the data, the writer analyzes it using a certain technique.

In this research, the writer applies the technique of analyzing data as follow:
24

3.5.1 Identification of Error

In this step, the writer tried to find out the errors in using the simple past

tense in writing narrative text. The writer checks the students writing. The writer

only collects the wrong answers. It helps the writer find some error easily.

3.5.2 Classification of Error

In this step, the writer classifies types of error in using the simple past

tense in writing narrative text into some categories. In writers opinion, the

possible errors are in the writers opinion. There are possible errors categories;

1) The Form of Verb

V1 V2

Correct : cut cut

write write

Incorrect : cut cutted

write writted

2) The Form of To Be

Correct : was, would

Incorrect : is, will

3.5.3 Percentage of Error

Sattayatham, A and Pongrat, R (2008:27), dealing with this step, to

calculated the percentage of error in using the simple past tense in writing

narrative text done by the students. To measure and to calculate the percentage of

errors made by each student, the writer used the following formula:
25


X =  x 100 %

Where:

X = the percentage of errors

E = the sum of various kinds of errors

T = the sum of sentences

Furthermore, the researcher carried out an error analysis in order to find

out the dominant error. The writer counted the percentage of each type of error.

The writer used the following formula:


pi = x 100%


Where:

pi = the proportion of the frequency of error

fi = the absolute frequency of a particular type of errors

n = the total number of errors observed

After that, the researcher calculated the average proportion of frequency

of error assurance that is called the mean (M). The formula of the mean is as

follow:

M=

Where:

M = the average proportion of frequency of occurrence (Mean)


26

x = the sum of percentage of all errors

N = the total number of possible errors of all the categories

http://www.journal.su.ac.th/index.php/suij/article/view/ 119/132. (Retrieved on

August 30th 2102).

Next, the writer identified the degree of dominance of particular error by

calculating the (pi-M). Any error whose (pi-M) is plus (+) is called dominant

errors. Whereas, if the (pi-M) is zero (0) or minus (-), it is said to be less

dominant.

3.5.4 Identifying the Causes of Error

Based on each category of the errors, the writer identified the causes of the

errors as follows:

1. Errors which are caused by the influence of the first language or mother

tongue (interlinguas errors).

2. Errors which are caused by the second language which is being learnt

(intralingual errors).

By doing these steps, the writer expects that there will be a maximum

result of the research achieved. Furthermore, the result is supposed to encourage

the seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the

academic year of 2011/2012 to correct their error in narrative text by using simple

past tense especially in order that their writing ability will be developed

significantly.
CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This chapter describes the Result of the Study based on the data which

were obtained on May 16th 17th 2012. As the writer mentioned in the previous

chapter, this Study is intended to describe the Possible Errors in the use of Simple

Past Tense in Narrative Text made by the seventh grade students of SMP Islam

Sultan Agung 4 Semarang. Therefore, this chapter is divided into two aspects.

They are General Description and Data Description. The data description consists

of story contents in error analysis and generic structure analysis.

4.1. General Description

In this analysis, writer uses texts of narrative entitle Snow White. The

topic was given to the students was the topic that can motivation them to study

analysis because it help the students make an analysis in narrative text easily,

because they know about the topic.

Out of the topic that were given to the students, there were a lot of students

who enthusiasm with the topic, because they explore the answers easily. And

there were six students of thirty four students did not focus, it makes students

difficulty to answer it.

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28

4.2. Data Description

The data in this research is obtained from the writing test result of the

seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in Academic year

of 2011/2012. It was described the data about students errors in using simple past

tense in narrative text. The description and the analyzing of the data were as

follows:

4.2.1. Common Errors in Using Simple Past Tense Analysis

There are three categories of errors that will be used as the base of classify

the errors. They are wrong of be, wrong use of verb, and wrong in Modal

Auxiliary.

Therefore, it will categorize the students errors in using simple past tense

in narrative text into each item. The result of the categorization is shown in the

table below:

Table 4.1: Errors in using Past Tense

Error Categories
No Erroneous Sentences
1 2 3
1. I was here now v

2. Did you went to London? v

3. Sorry, I was not hear you at the door v

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29

4. She doesnt go with me v

5. I going to school v

6. John work very hard v

7. She went to the door v

8. We were fly to Germany last month v

9. I was school on Kaligawe Street v

10. They were come home from work v

11. He had not left before I come v

12. She run away from home v

13. The glass broken v

14. I lived in Jakarta for 2 years v

15. Her parents dead v

16. The water boiled v

17. She is diligent at that time v

18. I was work in Semarang v

19. The old man walked away v

20. She lived in Indonesia v

21. The bird flew up in the sky v

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30

22. The child was cry v

23. Worked she in Semarang? v

24. Did you saw her new rabbit


v
yesterday?
25. The door opened v

26. Alex dont work last week v

27. Were you are angry? v

28. What you eat for lunch yesterday? v

29. She drive to London on Monday v

30. We not hear the telephone V

Errors 9 16 5

 Note :

1. Wrong of be

2. Wrong use of verb

3. Wrong in modal auxiliary

For it result, shows that the students errors in wrong of be there are 9

errors for 30 sentences that they make, wrong use of verb there are 16 errors for

30 sentences, and last errors is wrong in modal auxiliary there are 5 errors.

30
31

From the first data result description above, will sum of average of

dominant of errors with the general formula;


X =  x 100 %

1. Wrong of be

X =  x 100%

X = 30%

2. Wrong use of verb



X =  x 100%

X = 53,3%

3. Wrong in modal auxiliary



X =  x 100%

X = 16,7%

The sum above shows the dominant errors occurs in use of wrong of verb

there was 53,3% from 100% was the constant value.

From the description above, we know about the common errors that are

found in students analyze, the percentage of each error, and the dominant errors.

It is called dominant because frequency of error is too much while less dominant

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32

is little error that made by students. All of them will be useful for further

discussion of this research.

4.2.2. Common Error in Generic Structure Analysis

The generic structure analysis was based on aspect number students. This

aspect was about organization which includes orientation, complication and re

orientation. The formula was taken from Heaton (1979:29) to interpret the result

statistically. The formula was as follow:

The total of the percentage


The average of the students result +
The number of the students

Table 4.2: Error in Generic Structure

Generic
No. Number of the Students Total Percentage
Structure

S.1/S.2/S.3/S.4/S.5/S.6/S.7/S.8/S.9

S.11/S.12/S.16/S.17/S.18/S.19
1 Complete 28 82.353%
S.20/S.21/S.22/S.23/S.24/S.25/S.27

S.28/S.29/S.30/S.32/S.33/S.34

2 Incomplete S.10/S.13/S.14/S.15/S.26/S.31 6 17.647%

34 100%

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From the data above, we can see that 28 students completed the three

elements of the generic structure, and 6 students failed in writing, because they

did not make a conclusion. It made their writing incomplete and distracts the

reader to catch the ideas.

4.3. Discussions

In this point is the discussion of the error using simple past tense was

created by students on some points which will answer the statement of the

problems in this research. The writer tries to make the discussion of research

based on the findings.

4.3.1. The Result Of Error Analysis In Simple Past Tense

Based on the findings of the research that is described above, it could be

conclude some statements that are useful for discussion about the subject problem.

In this research, it is proven that there are errors, especially in using simple past

tense found in students evaluating in writing a narrative text. Then, those errors

are classified into three types of errors. They are wrong of be, wrong use of verb,

and wrong in Modal Auxiliary.

For the first discussion, the writer want to let the reader to understand

about the common errors that is done by the seventh grade students of SMP Islam

33
34

Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in academic year of 2011/2012 in analyze narrative

text.

1) The first error found in using simple past tense that is done by the students is

wrong of be. In this case, omission can be characterized by the absence of

certain item that has to appear in a well-formed sentence, because any

omission will make the sentence or utterance incomplete consequently. Here

the students had omitted be in sentence. Due to omitting be, the sentence

cant be understood in English correctly.

Based on an incomplete sentence caused omission of be, it must be imported

the correct certain item needed to be a correct sentence. Here are incorrect

sentences found.

Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences

She was went to the door She went to the door

I was school on Kaligawe street My school on Kaligawe Street

I were lived in Jakarta for 2 years I lived in Jakarta for 2 years

Her parents dead Her parents were dead

The old man was walked away The old man walked away

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35

She is diligent at that time She was diligent at that time

She was lived in Indonesia She lived in Indonesia

The bird was flew up in the sky The bird flew up in the sky

The door was opened The door opened

2) The second error is found is the wrong use of the verb. This error can occur

because students are always adding "ed" to verbs, although they are able to

tell it. In this case, the students are in place to add it is not necessary in a

sentence. Here are some result of the use of the verb:

Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences

The glass broken The glass broke

She drive to London on Monday She drove to London on Monday

I am here now I was here now

She run ran away from home She run away from home

The water is boiled The water boiled

35
36

Did you saw her new rabbit Did you see her new rabbit

yesterday? yesterday?

Did you went to London? Did you go to London?

I going to school I went to school

John work very hard John worked very hard

We were fly to Germany last month We flew to Germany last month

They were come home from work They were coming home from

work

I was work in Semarang I was worked in Semarang

The child was cry The child cried

Were you are angry? Were you angry?

Worked she in Semarang? Did she work in Semarang?

He had not left before I come He had not left before I came

36
37

3) The third error that the writer found in using simple past tense that is done by

the students is wrong use of modal auxiliary. In this case, the students ignore

rule of modal auxiliary that is after modal auxiliary must use infinitive. Here

are some result of incorrect sentence that is made by students:

Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences

Sorry, I was not hear you at the door Sorry, I was did not hear you at the

door

She doesnt go with me She did not go with me

Alex dont work last week Alex didnt work last week

We not hear the telephone We didnt hear the telephone

What you eat for lunch yesterday? What did you eat for lunch

yesterday?

4.3.2. The Percentage of Each Error and Dominant Errors

After finding the students errors through identification and classification

of errors, the writer started to analyze the data. First, the writer counted the errors

proportion made by each student and then counted the mean of the errors

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38

proportion. Next, the writer calculated the dominant errors by conducting an error

analysis. To find out the dominant errors, the writer classified the errors into

several categories based on the students errors. Finally, the writer put the result

of the computation in tables.

In order to determine the proportion of errors made by each student in the

use of simple past tense in narrative text, the writer used the following formula:


X= x 100 %


Where:

X = the percentage of errors

E = the sum of various kinds of errors

T = the sum of sentences

Since there were 34 students participating in this study, the writer had 34

computations for the percentages of errors in using simple past tense. The result of

the data can be seen in table 3. The first column is the total number of the students

who participated in this study that is 34 students. The second column is the sum of

various kinds of errors made by the students. The writer found that there were 50

simple past tense errors. The third column is the sum of simple past tense in

sentence analysis that was used in the students narrative analyze. Here, the

students had to write more than 15 answers in their analysis. The sum of sentences

in simple past tense occurrences is 476. The last column is the percentages of the

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39

errors made by each student. The result of the study shows that the students made

errors in various degrees of percentages. Then the mean of the error proportion

which is obtained by dividing the total percentages of errors by the total number

of the students is 10, 11 %. It means that there were still some students who faced

some difficulties in using correct structure.

Table 3. Percentages of Errors of Each Student

Sample code E T Percentage (%)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

S.1 1 14 7,14

S.2 1 14 7,14

S.3 4 11 36.3

S.4 1 14 7,14

S.5 1 14 7,14

S.6 1 14 7,14

S.7 0 15 0

S.8 1 14 7,14

S.9 1 14 7,14

S.10 3 12 25

S.11 1 14 7,14

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40

S.12 1 14 7,14

S.13 2 13 15,4

S.14 3 12 25

S.15 3 12 25

S.16 1 14 7,14

S.17 1 14 7,14

S.18 1 14 7,14

S.19 1 14 7,14

S.20 2 13 15.4

S.21 1 14 7,14

S.22 1 14 7,14

S.23 1 14 7,14

S.24 1 14 7,14

S.25 1 14 7,14

S.26 5 10 50

S.27 1 14 7,14

S.28 1 14 7,14

S.29 1 14 7,14

S.30 1 14 7,14

S.31 3 12 25

40
41

S.32 1 14 7,14

S.33 1 14 7,14

S.34 1 14 7,14

Total 50 476 343,9

The mean of the errors proportion is 343,9 : 34 = 10,11 %

The result above shows the mean of errors proportion that was made by

25 students. To find out the dominant errors, the writer classified the errors into

three categories or three headings. They are wrong of be, wrong use of verb, and

wrong in Modal Auxiliary.

They are wrong of be, wrong use of verb, and wrong in Modal Auxiliary.

To find the percentage of error of each heading, the writer had to do an error

analysis by using the following formula:


pi + 0 122%


Where:

pi = the proportion of the frequency of error

fi = the absolute frequency of a particular type of errors

n = the total number of errors observed

Based on the data, the writer classified the students errors into several

types. The result of the data can be seen in the following table:

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42

Table 4. Common Errors and the Proportion of Each Error

No Headings fi Proportion

1 Wrong of be 9 30

2 Wrong use of verb 16 53.3

3 Wrong in Modal auxiliary 5 17.6

Total n=30 pi=100

122
pi + 0 122%
4

pi = 33,3% The mean of the proportion is 100/3=33, 3%

Table 4 shows that some common errors made by students in using simple

past tense in narrative text and the proportion of each error. The mean of the

proportions of each error is derived from the sum of percentage of all errors

divided by the total number of possible errors of all the categories.

Before finding out the degree of dominant errors, the writer computed the

proportion of frequency of occurrence of errors as a whole (Mean) by using the

formula:

M = 5

Where:

M = the average proportion of frequency of occurrence (Mean)

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43

x = the sum of percentage of all errors

N = the total number of possible errors of all the categories

The M was computed as follows:



M=

M = 10093

M = 33, 3 %

From the table above, the writer concluded that the students dominant

errors between wrong of be, wrong use of verb, and in modal auxiliary is wrong

use of verb when they use simple past tense in writing narrative texts. There were

53, 3 % error in using verb from mean was 33,3 %.

4.4. Summary of Interview on Students Understanding and the Causes of

Errors Related to Simple Past Tense

The interview was administered based on the interview guide that could be

highlighted into two major questions pertaining to the students understanding

related to simple past tense and narrative text and the causes of students errors in

using simple past tense. The writer had interviewed the teacher and the students of

SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang.

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44

Concerning to the first question that tried to investigate the students

understanding related to the mastery of simple past tense. The teacher and most of

the students explained their comments that the students had been taught simple

past tense and students enough to understand simple past tense.

The next question related to the mastery of narrative text. The teacher

stated that the students had understood narrative text well including the generic

structure of narrative text. Meanwhile, some students also said that they more

understand about narrative text although other student still lacks understand it.

The teacher gave the task to analyze narrative text that the title different.

Meanwhile, the last question about the causes of students errors in using

simple past tense in narrative text. The teacher said that when he gave the task to

analyze narrative text, there were a lot of errors in their writing after it was

corrected especially in grammatical structure such as using verb and be. It is

happened because the students still confused to understand using verb.

In addition, there are some causes of errors made by students. After

interviewing some students, the writer categorize some causes because the

students answer almost same to another student. The first, they forgot to fulfill the

sentence by using be. For example, I go to school. In this case, using it sentence

was true but in using simple present tense, and in simple past tense was false

because it was happened because they forgot to changed the verb one into verb

two. Secondly, some students lack to understand the use of simple past tense

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45

because they did not catch the teachers explanation clearly. For example, it was

happened one night in September. They added be was in the sentence. The

students said that they added was because they considered that was as marker

of simple past tense. So in their mind, be was should be followed in sentence. It

was caused by less understanding about the use of simple past tense. The true

sentence is it was happened one night in September. Because, in almost all other

variations of past tense, the form of the verb to be and the participle retain the

same form regardless of the type of sentence. The last causes that they confused

the use of verb. For example, I launched this blog on July 13th 2012. The form of

verb is second verb "launched", is classified as irregular verbs, just add "ed"

behind the "launch".

4.5. The Implication of Research Findings for the Teaching of Simple Past

Tense

The collected data was analyzed by identification, classification, and

percentage of errors to find out the common errors, the dominant errors, and the

causes of errors made by students. By knowing them, the researcher offers

suggestions or implications for teaching of simple past tense for students of SMP

Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in the academic year of 2011/2012.

Concerning to come up with research based suggestion for teaching of

simple present tense can be highlighted by repetition. Students should be

45
46

accustomed and continued to use simple past tense in sentences or paragraph and

the teacher gives assignment in writing narrative form in order to able to improve

students understanding of simple past tense.

In addition, by using types of grammatical exercise and skill based

exercise that make students practice and correct their errors. From the teachers

explanation of the errors, the students do not make errors again.

The last, the students should be given motivation to lose a fear in themselves

when they make errors. In learning the second language acquisition make error is

common. Because error is stepping stones to acquire rightness. Thus, we learn of

errors.

46
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

In this chapter, the writer presents the Conclusion and the Suggestion of

the research.

5.1. Conclusion

In this point, the writer concluded of the research based on the findings of

this research. Hopefully, the readers are able to have a good understanding after

reading the conclusion of the research. Based on the analysis of error, there are

three kinds of errors found and the errors which are considered being dominant in

using simple past tense in narrative text made by the seventh grade students of

SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4 Semarang in Academic year of 2011/2012. They are

wrong use of verb (53.3%) is the dominant error. In contrast, the writer also found

the errors which are considered being less dominant. They are which done in

wrong of be (30%) and wrong of Modal Auxiliary (17.6%).

Students errors are caused by the first language of the students

(interlinguas errors) and the second language which is being learnt (intralinguas

errors) include overgeneralization, ignorance of rule restriction, incomplete

application of rule, and false concept hypothesized.

47
48

5.2. Suggestions

From the conclusion above, there are some suggestions for students,

teacher, and future research.

1. For students

a. Students should pay more attention to the grammatical structure

because it will give a learners good understanding about how to make

good sentences.

b. Students should be more exercises in using simple past tense,

especially in narrative text.

c. Students should not be fear when they make errors in their early stage

of study. It is because making error is something common happen

when we start to study a new language.

d. Students should be accustomed to use simple past tense in sentence or

writing narrative text. They can participate actively during group work,

speak up their mind, state their objection, and bear mutual respect of

others opinion in forum to exercise their ability.

2. For teacher

a. Teacher should motivate students writing interest.

b. Teacher should explain more clearly about wrong of be, wrong use of

verb, and wrong in Modal Auxiliary.

48
49

c. Teacher is supposed to give the students a clear explanation about

simple past tense including the pattern and how to use it in writing

narrative text.

d. Teacher should be use more source of learning. It is because explore

the material and can improve students skills in using simple past tense

in narrative text.

3. For future research

The writer hopes for future researchers which are interested in the

same focus of study (students errors in using simple past tense in

narrative text). It can be an input to develop their research toward another

text or any of its variations.

Hopefully, the suggestion above can help the students to minimize

the errors and the teaching learning process will give a better result than

before. The writer also hopes that this study could be reference for future

researcher that will analyze students errors in using simple past tense in

narrative text.

49
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52
Appendix 1

YAYASAN BADAN WAKAF SULTAN AGUNG


BIDANG PENDIDIKAN DASAR DAN MENENGAH
SMP ISLAM SULTAN AGUNG 4
TERAKREDITASI : A
JL. Raya Kaligawe KM. 4 Telp. 6581525 Semarang

DAFTAR SISWA VII A1


TAHUN PELAJARAN 2011 / 2012

NOMOR
L/P NAMA
URT NIS NISN
1 3419 L Adi Cahyo Saputro
2 3420 9994712174 P Afrada Novis Safira
3 3421 L Aldrian Purmajianto
4 3422 L Ali Imron Al Amin
5 3423 9991077472 P Aulia Izza Safira
6 3424 9972927224 L Bagus Slamet Rinjani
7 3425 L Dian Pratama Priambodo
8 3426 9981139536 L Difa Zain
9 3427 9996237901 P Febbi Alviyani
10 3428 9983131251 L Gilang Fandy Saputra
11 3429 L Ichwan Danial
12 3430 P Ida Khusnul Karomah
13 3431 9981138975 P Karisma Anggraeni
14 3432 9997413300 L Luqmanul Khakim
15 3433 9991077500 L Maulana
16 3434 9994712232 L Mohammad Anharul Huda
17 3435 L Mokhamad Edo Indrawan
18 3436 9994276208 L Muhammad Afdzal S.
19 3437 9993220316 L Muhammad Vicky Budiyono
20 3438 L Muhhamad Eryan Sugara

1
21 3439 L Ochtavian Syafiul Huda
22 3440 P Oktaviana Kusumaningrum
23 3441 P Revo Alfian Pratama
24 3442 998284608 L Riski Dwi Murdiantoro
25 3443 L Riski Satrio Wibowo
26 3444 9994712261 P Silvi Hanafarah
27 3445 P Tiara Yulianingtyas
28 3446 9981150407 L Tofan Enfiro Amsa
29 3447 9991074969 P Tyas Candrawati
30 3448 9993171646 P Wahyu Frediana Dinda Putri
31 3449 9991869163 P Winda Lia Aprilia
32 3450 9991073973 L Yuda Ari Setiawan
33 3451 9997516810 P Zahra Febilla
34 3452 9997539174 P Zalsa Nurul Hidayah
L 20
JUMLAH
P 14

Semarang, Mei 2011


Mengetahui
Kepala Sekolah Guru Bahasa Inggris

Zaenuri, S.Pd. H. Sholeh Anwar, B.A

2
Appendix 2

OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Theme : Analysis Texts


Subject : Seventh grade students of SMP Islam Sultan Agung 4
Semarang in the Academic Year of 2011/2012
Tense : Simple Past Tense
Genre : Narrative
Purpose : To Analysis Texts of Narrative
Time allotment : 60 minutes

- Write your name on the top right corners of your answer sheet!

- Read carefully a narrative text that you get!

- You may look up to your dictionaries in case there are some vocabularies

which you are not familiar.

- You may look up the list of Regular Verb and Irregular Verb which

provided.

- Write the right words in the blank spaces.

- Write sentence that tell about Narrative Text. For example: kind of generic

structure and language feature.

- Good Luck.

3
Appendix 3
Narrative Text
Definition

Narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks

narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang).

Social Function

To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious


experiences in different ways.
(Untuk menghibur pendengar atau pembaca tentang suatu kisah

atau cerita masa lampau yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata,

khayal atau peristiwa-peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu

krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian).

Generic Structures

Narrative text has three generic structures namely, orientation,

complication, and resolution. It can be showed in the following

table

Generic Structure Function

1. Orientation Introducing the participants and

informing the time and the place

Pengenalan yang berisi tentang

pengenalan tokoh dalam cerita serta

waktu dan tempat kejadiannya.

2. Complication Describing the rising crises which

the participants have to do with

berisi tentang gambaran munculnya

4
krisis atau masalah yang di alami oleh

tokoh pada cerita tersebut yang

harus dipecahkan.

3. Resolution Showing the way of participant to

solve the crises, better or worse

Pada baigan Resolution berisi tentang

bagaiman tokoh dari cerita tersebut

memecahkan masalah yang ada pada

bagian Complication.

Language Features/ Lexicogrammatical

A particular noun as a pronoun, animals, and objects in the story

for example, Stepmother, household, etc.

Individual participants focusing on the narratives of

participants (actors) certain specific.

Simple Past Tense

Time to sort connective and the conjunction of events, such as

after, before, soon, then, after, that, etc.

Action verb, verbs that show the event or activity for example

stayed, climbed, killed, etc.

Verb saying and thinking verbs, reporting verbs that show or

speech for example; said, of toll, promised, thought,

understood, etc.

5
Appendix 4

QUESTIONS LIST

The aspects that will be investigated are highlighted as follows:


a. Students understanding of simple past tense.
b. Students understanding of narrative text (the generic structure and
language features).
c. The causes of students errors in using simple past tense in writing
narrative text.

6
Appendix 5

Examine the following letter and fill the blank with appropriate word and identify its part

S NO W W H ITE
S W H IT E

Once upon a time there 1_____________ (live) a little


A girl 2_____________ (name) Snow white. She lived with
her aunt and Uncle because her parents
3_____________ (dead).

One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about
B leaving Snow White in the castle because they both
wanted to go to America and they didnt have enough
money to take Snow White.
Snow White didnt want her Aunt and Uncle to do this
so she 3_____________ (decide) it would be best if she ran away. The next morning
C she 4_____________ (run) away from home when her Aunt and Uncle 5

_____________ (have) breakfast. She 6_____________ (run) away into the woods.
She was very tired and hungry. Then she 7_____________ (see) this little cottage.
She 8_____________ (knock) but no one 9_____________ (answer) so she
10_____________ (go) inside and fell asleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were 11_____________ (come) home from work. They
went inside. There they 12_____________ (find) Snow White sleeping. Then Snow
White 13_____________ (wake) up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is
your name? Snow White said, My 14_____________ (name) is Snow White. Doc
said, if you wish, you may live here with us. Snow White 15_____________ (say),
Oh, could I? Thank you. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and
Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

7
Examine the following letter and fill the blank with appropriate word and identify
its part

The Frog Prince

Long ago there was a king who had a


beautiful daughter. He 1_____________ A
(love) her very much. Everyday the
princess 2_____________ (will) sit by the
old palace well and toss a golden ball high in the air and the let it
drop. She loved to play this game.
One day she accidentally tosses her ball too high. When it came down
she could not catch it. It fell into the well. The princess B
3_____________ (begin) to cry. Why are you crying? said a voice
behind her. The princess looks down. She 4_____________ (see) a
frog. Oh please, Frog, 5 _____________ (say) the princess, I lost
my ball down the well. If you bring it back to me, I will do anything
you want. Anything at all? 6 _____________ (ask) the frog. Yes,
anything, said the princess.
So the frog into the well and gave the ball back to the princess, I C
dont want money or property, said a frog. Let me live with her as
her favorite friend but she 7_____________ (be) an honest princess.
When she 8_____________ (make) a promise she kept it. So the frog
came back with her to the palace.
One day the princess discovered that the frog had 9_____________
(turn) into a handsome prince so they got 10_____________ (marry)
and live happily ever after.

8
Appendix 6
THE TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW
WITH STUDENTS

Interviewer : Harismania Rosyida (H)


Interviewee : Students (S)
Date : May 17th 2012

1. H: Apakah kamu pernah belajar tentang Simple Past Tense dan Narrative
Text?
S: Iya, saya pernah belajar tentang pelajaran ini.
H: Apakah kamu paham materi ini?
S: Iya, saya paham past tense tentang bentuk lampau dan saya pikir generic
structure mudah.
H: Ketika saya memberi tes dan saya koreksi, kalimat kamu adalah "She was
went to the te door", itu adalah kalimat yang salah. Ini akan lebih baik
jika "She went to the door". Di sini, Kamu menambahkan "was" dalam
kalimat. Apakah pendapat kamu? mengapa Kamu membuat kesalahan
dengan menambahkan "was" dalam kalimat?
S: Itu benar. Karena saya lupa untuk memenuhi kalimat dengan "was",
sehingga kalimat kurang lengkap gramatikal, hehe..... .
H: Ok, terima kasih atas waktunya. .
S: Sama-sama miss.

2. H: Apakah kamu pernah belajar tentang Simple Past Tense dan Narrative
Text?
S: Iya, pernah.
H: Apakah kamu paham materi ini?
S: Ehmm, cukup paham sich miss.
H: Waktu saya memberikan tes kemarin. Coba lihat tulisan kamu, I went to
school. Menurut kamu apakah kalimat kamu benar?

9
S: Iya miss, karena bentuk kedua dari go adalah went.
H: Kenapa bisa begitu?
S: Setahu saya, dalam setiap simple past selalu menggunakan bentuk kedua,
karena lampau.
H: Good, memang benar apa yang telah kamu tulis dan penjelasan kamu
juga.
O.k thank you for your time.
S: You are welcome miss.

3. H: Apakah kamu pernah belajar tentang Simple Past Tense dan Narrative
Text?
S: Iya, pernah.
H: Apakah kamu paham materi ini?
S: Insyaallah paham.
H: Bagaimana pemahamanmu tentang materi ini?
S: Simple past tense, menjelaskan tentang bentuk lampau. Narrative,
ehmmm... tentang ceerita rakyat, kayak gitu lah.
H: O.k ketika tes, kamu menulis kalimat The water was boiled seharusnya
kau tidak pelu menambahkan was ketika sudah menggunkan
tambahaned. Bagaimana pendapat kamu?
S: Berarti yang bener The Water Boiled o.k akan saya ingat miss....
H: Baiklah, terimakasih waktunya...
S: Yeahhh...

4. H: Apakah kamu pernah belajar tentang Simple Past Tense dan Narrative
Text?
S: iyaa, saya pernah
H: Apakah kamu paham materi ini?
S: iya saya paham.
H: Ketika tes menulis dilakukan, dalam tulisan Kamu ada kalimat John
work very hard. Kamu tidak menambahkan akhiran-ed dalam kalimat,

10
mengapa?
S: Saya lupa.
H: O.k terimakasih
S: Yups, sama-sama.

11
Appendix 7

THE TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW


WITH AN ENGLISH TEACHER

Interviewer : Harismania Rosyida (R)


Interviewee : Mr. Sholeh Anwar (T)
Date : May 17th 2012

R: Apakah siswa pernah diajarkan Simple Past Tense dan Narrative Text
sebelumnya?
T: Yes, ofcourse mereka pernah saya ajarkan. Mereka belajar tentang Simple
Past Tense ketika mereka awal duduk di kelas tujuh ini. Saya pernah
mengulas materi tenses ketika mereka SD, yang di dalamnya mengenai
Simple Past Tense juga.
R: Bagaimana pemahaman siswa berkaitan dengan Simple Past Tense?
T: Saya pikir mereka cukup baik untuk memahami penggunaan Simple Past
Tense.
R: Lalu bagaimana dengan Narrative Text, mengenai pemahaman mereka?
T: Pastinya, setelah memahami penggunaan Simple Past Tense, mereka
mengerti tentang Narrative Text dengan baik termasuk Generic Structure
dan Lexicigrammatical-nya. Kan...di buku panduan belajar dan RPP sudah
tersedia, mbak. Jadi setelah belajar Simple Past Tense, mereka harus bisa
memahami Narrative Text, mbak.
R: Apakah ada masalah selama pengajaran bahasa Inggris, pak?
T: Tentu saja, para siswa tidak mempersiapkan diri dengan baik tentang kelas
Karena pada dasarnya mereka masih termasuk siswa labil, sifat SD-nya
masih terbawa, dan saya harus meminta mereka untuk mempersiapkan

12
mereka sebaik mungkin, ketika pelajaran telah usaii...
R: Pak Sholeh sebagai guru di sini, apakah bapak pernah memberikan tugas
atau meminta siswa untuk membuat Narrative Text menggunakan Simple
Past Tense?
T: Yess, buku yang saya pakai, telah tersedia bacaannya, lalu saya jelaskan
dan saya beri tugas pada soal selanjutnya.
R: Mengenai tugas rumah, berkaitan dengan materi ini, apakah bapak pernah
memberikannya?
T: Iya dulu saya pernah memberikannya untuk browsing cerita Narrative Text.
Pada meeting selanjutnya, saya tugaskan mereka untuk analisis cerita
tersebut.
R: Judul apa yang mereka sukai?
T: Banyak sich mbak. Malin kundang, ada. Snow White, juga pernah.
Pokoknya banyak mbak. Materi ini emang yang palig favorite anak-anak.
R: Ketika Mr Sholeh mengoreksi hasil siswa, apakah banyak menemukan
kesalahan pada anak? Misalnya dalam grammaticalnya. Jadi apa
penyebab kesalahan ini, pak?
T: Of course , mereka masih memiliki banyak kesalahan dengan jawaban
mereka.Sebagian dari masalah mereka adalah pada penggunaan verb.
Misal, mereka menemukan kata go pada Simple Past Tense, pada analisa
mereka, mereka tinggal menambahkan ed. Salah besar, right!. Seharusnya
mereka menggunakan V2 nya yaitu went. Yaaa tidak langsung
menyalahkan mereka, karena mereka bigung dengan banyaknya regular
dan irregular verb.

13
Table 1: Errors in Using Past Tense

Error Categories
No Erroneous Sentences
1 2 3
31. I was here now v

32. Did you went to London? v

33. Sorry, I was not hear you at the door v

34. She doesnt go with me v

35. I going to school v

36. John work very hard v

37. She went to the door v

38. We were fly to Germany last month v

39. I was school on Kaligawe Street v

40. They were come home from work v

41. He had not left before I come v

42. She run away from home v

43. The glass broken v

44. I lived in Jakarta for 2 years v

45. Her parents dead v

46. The water boiled v

47. She is diligent at that time v

48. I was work in Semarang v

14
49. The old man walked away v

50. She lived in Indonesia v

51. The bird flew up in the sky v

52. The child was cry v

53. Worked she in Semarang? v

54. Did you saw her new rabbit


v
yesterday?
55. The door opened v

56. Alex dont work last week v

57. Were you are angry? v

58. What you eat for lunch yesterday? v

59. She drive to London on Monday v

60. We not hear the telephone v

Errors 9 16 5

 Note :

1 : wrong of be

2 : wrong use of verb

3 : wrong in modal auxiliary

15
Table 2 : Percentage of Errors

Percentage Dominant
No Error
of Error Errors

1 Wrong of be 30 % -

2 Use of wrong verb 53.3 % v

3 wrong in modal auxiliary 16.7 % -

100%

Table 3 : Error in Generic Structure

Generic
No. Number of the Students Total Percentage
Structure

S.1/S.2/S.3/S.4/S.5/S.6/S.7/S.8/S.9
S.11/S.12/S.16/S.17/S.18/S.19
1 Complete 28 82.353%
S.20/S.21/S.22/S.23/S.24/S.25/S.27
S.28/S.29/S.30/S.32/S.33/S.34

2 Incomplete S.10/S.13/S.14/S.15/S.26/S.31 6 17.647%

34 100%

16
Table 4. Percentages of Errors of Each Student

Sample code E T Percentage (%)


(1) (2) (3) (4)
S.1 1 14 7,14
S.2 1 14 7,14
S.3 4 11 36.3
S.4 1 14 7,14
S.5 1 14 7,14
S.6 1 14 7,14
S.7 0 15 0
S.8 1 14 7,14
S.9 1 14 7,14
S.10 3 12 25
S.11 1 14 7,14
S.12 1 14 7,14
S.13 2 13 15,4
S.14 3 12 25
S.15 3 12 25
S.16 1 14 7,14
S.17 1 14 7,14
S.18 1 14 7,14
S.19 1 14 7,14
S.20 2 13 15.4
S.21 1 14 7,14
S.22 1 14 7,14
S.23 1 14 7,14
S.24 1 14 7,14
S.25 1 14 7,14
S.26 5 10 50
S.27 1 14 7,14

17
S.28 1 14 7,14
S.29 1 14 7,14
S.30 1 14 7,14
S.31 3 12 25
S.32 1 14 7,14
S.33 1 14 7,14
S.34 1 14 7,14
Total 50 476 343,9

18
Appendix 9

Wrong of be

She was went to the door (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

She went to the door (correct sentence)

I was school on Kaligawe Street (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

My school on Kaligawe Street (correct sentence)

I were lived in Jakarta for 2 years (incorrect sentence should not be added

were)

I lived in Jakarta for 2 years (correct sentence)

Her parents dead (incorrect sentence should be added were)

Her parents were dead (correct sentence)

The old man was walked away (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

The old man walked away (correct sentence)

She is diligent at that time (incorrect sentence should be use was)

She was diligent at that time (correct sentence)

She was lived in Indonesia (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

She lived in Indonesia (correct sentence)

The bird was flew up in the sky (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

The bird flew up in the sky (correct sentence)

The door was opened (incorrect sentence should not be added was)

The door opened (correct sentence)

19
Wrong Use of Verb

The glass broken (incorrect sentence should be used 2nd verb)

The glass broke (correct sentence)

She drive to London on Monday (incorrect sentence should be used 2nd verb)

She drove to London on Monday (correct sentence)

I am here now (incorrect sentence should be used 2nd verb)

I was here now (correct sentence)

She run ran away from home (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

She run away from home (correct sentence)

The water is boiled (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

The water boiled (correct sentence)

Did you saw her new rabbit yesterday? (incorrect sentence interrogative

sentence wrong use in verb)

Did you see her new rabbit yesterday? (correct sentence)

Did you went to London? (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

Did you go to London? (correct sentence)

I going to school (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

I went to school (correct sentence)

John work very hard (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

John worked very hard (correct sentence)

We were fly to Germany last month (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

We flew to Germany last month (correct sentence)

They were come home from work (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

20
They were coming home from work (correct sentence)

I was work in Semarang (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

I was worked in Semarang (correct sentence)

The child was cry (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

The child cried (correct sentence)

Were you are angry? (incorrect sentence wrong in interrogative

sentence)

Were you angry? (correct sentence)

Worked she in Semarang? (incorrect sentence wrong in interrogative

sentence)

Did she work in Semarang? (correct sentence)

He had not left before I come (incorrect sentence wrong use in verb)

He had not left before I came (correct sentence)

21
Wrong of Modal Auxiliary

Sorry, I was not hear you at the door (incorrect sentence auxiliary)

Sorry, I was did not hear you at the door (correct sentence)

She doesnt go with me (incorrect sentence auxiliary)

She did not go with me (correct sentence)

Alex dont work last week (incorrect sentence auxiliary)

Alex didnt work last week (correct sentence)

We not hear the telephone (incorrect sentence auxiliary)

We didnt hear the telephone (correct sentence)

What you eat for lunch yesterday? (incorrect sentence auxiliary))

What did you eat for lunch yesterday? (correct sentence)

22