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5/26/2011

CAESAR II: Calculating Modes of Vibration


A Quick Overview
26 May 2011
Presented by David Diehl

Quick Agenda

Modal Extraction, a brief introduction


Dynamic Input Review
Results Review
Model Adjustments
Use as Acceptance Criteria
Close

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INTRODUCTION
Modal Extraction / Eigen Solution

Modal Extraction / Eigen Solution the Start of It All

M &x& + C x& + Kx = F ( t ) is the angular frequency


let (radians/second) of this free
C =0 oscillation
F (t ) be harmonic
There is a matching shape to this
so oscillation
x = A sin t
&x& = 2 A sin t = 2 x There is no magnitude to this shape
2 Mx + Kx = F ( t )
This is important:
let Think of a mode of vibration (the &
F (t ) = 0 mode shape pair) as a single degree
(K M 2 )x = 0 of freedom system
so
x =0
or
K M 2 = 0
= K M

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Examples of Modes of Vibration

Two examples of a One


Degree of Freedom
(DOF) System A two DOF System An n DOF System

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Mode n

These are NOT circumferential modes

We are following nodal displacement distortion of the pipe centerline

The pipe also has modes of vibration associated with shell distortion:

:From Piping Vibration Analysis


by J.C. Wachel,
Scott J. Morton and
Kenneth E. Atkins of
Engineering Dynamics, Incorporated
San Antonio, TX

A Tutorial from the


Proceedings of 19th Turbomachinery Symposium
Copyright 1990

CAESAR II does NOT calculate these circumferential or axial modes

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DYNAMIC INPUT REVIEW


Controlling the Analysis

Starting the Dynamic Input Processor

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Starting the Dynamic Input Processor

Starting the Dynamic Input Processor

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General Comments on Data Entry

Add a new
line below Delete
current selected
line(s)

Save,
Error Check
Check,
Run

Comment
(do not process)

Modifying Mass

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Modifying Mass

X, Y, Z or ALL
The affected
Or a range
TheA signed
zero or Node number
of Nodes
magnitude
eliminates
li i t the is
th RX, RY, RZ or RALL
summedmass. the
with
calculated mass.

Calculated Mass:
Node Node Node

Adding Snubbers

Remember, damping was


eliminated from the equation of
motion (C=0). Point damping
is simulated with a stiff spring.
Mechanical Hydraulic

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Control Parameters

Def=Default;
this is a button

Entry cell
(use F1 for help)

Nonlinear Considerations

Our equation of motion insists on a linear system that is, the stiffness, K, is
constant. ( K M 2 ) x = 0

But our static model allows nonlinear conditions.

The dynamic model must linearize those nonlinear conditions.

In many cases, the operating state of nonlinear boundary conditions can serve
as the linear state for the dynamic evaluation.

An example will help

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Nonlinear Considerations (Liftoff)

: Cold Position

A +Y
(resting)
restraint

Nonlinear Considerations (Liftoff)

: (Static) Operating Position 1

Liftoff

Dynamic Model
(no restraint)

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Nonlinear Considerations (Liftoff)

: (Static) Operating Position 2

No liftoff

Dynamic Model
(double-acting Y)

Nonlinear Considerations (Friction)

X : (Static) Operating Position

Friction defined;
Normal Load = N

Dynamic Model

X K
K
Z

K=Stiffness Factor for Friction**N

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Stiffness Factor for Friction

This Stiffness Factor for Friction is not a physical parameter; it is a modeling


tool.

Larger
g normal loads ((N)) will p
produce g
greater restraint

This is NOT a 0 or 1! I use 1000 but values as low as 200 produce similar
results for the models I run.

This value will knock out frequencies associated with frictionless surfaces.

ASCE 7-10 para. 15.5.2.1: "Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be
considered to provide resistance to seismic forces
(But were
we re not running a seismic analysis here
here.))

Use it as a tuning parameter in forensic engineering.

How right is it?

Control Parameters (nonlinear issues)

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Stopping the eigensolver

A system with n degrees of freedom will have n modes of vibration.

Are all mode important?

No,
N nott for
f our purposes.

The lower (frequency) modes contribute the greatest structural response of the
system.

CAESAR II extracts modes starting with the lowest mode (lowest frequency).

Piping modes of vibration above 33 Hertz do not show resonant response to


seismic motion. This is the default CAESAR II cutoff frequency.

Piping modes of higher frequency (100+ Hz) may play a role in fast-acting
events such as fluid hammer.

Piping modes at lower frequencies respond to many environmental harmonic


loads (equipment vibration, acoustic vibration & pulsation).

Stopping the eigensolver

Two parameters are checked to stop the eigensolution:

A maximum frequency.

The total count of calculated modes (count = 0 ignores this check)

First limit reached stops the solution.

Frequency cutoff is typically used alone.

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Control Parameters (to stop the eigensolution)

Lumped Mass versus Consistent Mass

For many years CAESAR II (like most analysis tools) ignored rotational inertia
and off-diagonal mass terms.

This is what we call lumped


p mass.

Todays bigger and faster PCs can handle the fully-developed, complete mass
matrix.

This is the consistent mass approach.

Consistent mass will more accurately determine the frequencies of natural


vibration without adding more nodes (mass points) to the static model.

BUT more mass points may still be required to establish a proper mode
shape in the frequency/mode shape pair.

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Lumped Mass versus Consistent Mass

Lumped mass matrix Consistent mass matrix

Control Parameters (mass model)

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Confirming the calculation

The Sturm sequence check is a back check on the calculated frequencies

View the eigensolver as a search routine that finds system natural frequencies
from lowest to highest.
g

At times these frequencies may be discovered out of sequence.

The Sturm sequence check as a separate calculation of the total number of


modes below the last frequency produced. If this count doesnt match the
eigensolver total, the program will state that the check has failed.

A cheap (time-wise) insurance that no mode is missing.

Not so much a problem with todays PCs

Control Parameters (confirming the modal solution)

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RESULTS REVIEW
What Does It All Mean?

The Output Menu

No Load

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Results Frequency Report

f t

cycles perradians
secondper second
seconds per cycle

Results Mode Shapes

Mode shapes (mass & unity normalized)

Modes Mass Normalized the tendency of that modes contribution to the overall
response to a quickly-applied load, all other things being equal (i.e. DLF and point
of load application)
application).

Model Unity Normalized the typical mode shape. This is the same shape but
normalized to one.

Same shape;
different magnitude

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Results Mass Model

: Lumped Mass

Consistent Mass :

Results Active Boundary Conditions

Input
Operating Position (Liftoff 30, Resting 40)

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Results Animation

MODEL ADJUSTMENTS
Is the Static Model Sufficient?

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Is the static model adequate?

More mass points may be required to approximate the continuous mass beam

Reality:

continuous mass throughout

CAESAR II:

half of total mass at end

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Adding
g more nodes improves
p the calculation

Is the static model adequate?

hand
2node 2node 10node 10node 100node
Mode calculation
lumped consistent lumped consistent lumped
(continuous)

1 0.328 0.473 0.469 0.479 0.471 0.471


2 1.51 2.902 2.971 2.948 2.95
3 4.658 8.039 8.235 8.248 8.26
4 57.339 15.572 16.005 16.143
5 25.415 26.377 26.646

OD=4.5 in Consistent mass will develop


t=0.237 in better frequencies
***BUT***
length=50 ft
density=0.283 lb/cu.in More mass points may be
E=29.5E6 psi needed to develop the mode
shapes

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Suggested mass spacing

Some simple suggestions:

Add nodes (break pipe) so that the maximum node spacing is no more
than one foot ((300mm)) p
per nominal inch of p
pipe
p

Use half this spacing into anchors

Have a node between restraints

Have a node between bends

from the paper On Mass-Lumping Technique for Seismic Analysis of


Piping - John K
Piping K. Lin & Adolph T
T. Molin of United Engineers &
Constructors and Eric N. Liao of Stone & Webster

L = 4 9.2( D 3 t W )

USE AS ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA


An End in Itself

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Use as an acceptance criteria

The lowest natural frequency can be used to assess the risk of failure
associated with dynamic response

DNV-RP-D101 recommends the first mode of vibration be no less than 4-5 Hz

You typically increase frequency by adding stiffness

Adding stiffness will increase cost

Adding stiffness may impact thermal flexibility

CLOSE

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Closing Points

Many systems are built for static loads (deadweight and thermal strain) by
providing Y supports alone, leaving great flexibility in the horizontal plane
modal analysis will uncover such oversights.

Modal evaluation is a quick and easy tool to learn more about your piping
system response.

The topic for Junes webinar is not established.

Next dynamic session response to harmonic loads.

PDH Certificate

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Intergraph @ Hexagon 2011

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Join us for Intergraph @ Hexagon 2011


Intergraphs International Users Conference
Orlando, FL, USA | June 6-9, 2011

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