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5 Conclusion

5.1 Main Problem

MathMod MOOC is an online course developed by TU Delft delivered to student via edx platform. The
main aim of the course is to make students able to understand process of mathematical modelling to
solve real world problems. In this course, two students were given an opportunity to form a team and
select a real life problem. In this regards, the authors of this work were given the objective of
investigating the behavior of a gliders trajectory and influence on it by the gliders velocity, angle of
orientation, lift, and drag coefficients with the application of mathematical model.

5.2 Mathematical Modelling

There are many parameters required for a realistic mathematical model of a gliders trajectory.
However, the data collected during the mathematical modelling process are proved to be essentially
fundamental which are sufficient to solve two differential equation- differential equation of velocity and
differential equation of angle of orientation- defining gliders flight. In addition, differential equations of
horizontal position x(t) and vertical position y(t) are computed to study gliders trajectory
simultaneously. These collected data are ample to simulate the four differential equation.

5.3 Model Simulation

The mathematical model were simulated numerically using Eulers methods in Python program. At first,
the setpsize to get precise velocity within 0.1 m/s and angle within 0.001 radian is computed to be 1/64
second by solving differential equation of angle and velocity individually considering largest drag and lift
coefficient. After determining stepsize, a differential equation for glider system is solved and found that
the velocity and time solutions are of bounded and damped oscillating nature.

The system seems to be equilibrium at velocity 50.8 m/s and -0.02702 radian with lift and drag
coefficient 1.48 kg/m and 0.04 kg/m respectively. The glider is assume to be stream lined so drag
coefficient is set to 0.04 kg/m. And considering L/D ratio of 37, lift coefficient is computed to be 1.48
kg/m.

Moreover, the trajectory of the flight has also been computed and found that the flight covers about
30,000 m in horizontal direction and drops by about 900 m height in 600 s time.

5.4 Validation
For the validation of the model, differential equations are solve analytically to compute angle and
velocity at equilibrium point. Different methods are considered to determine drag coefficient and lift
coefficient. And considering practical possibility, drag coefficient and lift coefficient are determined to
be 0.04 kg/m and 1.48 kg/m. And the corresponding angle and velocity at equilibrium point is computed
to be -0.02702 radian and 50.83 m/s respectively. These solution are indicated to in stable spiral points
as the solution has two Eigen value of imaginary number with negative real parts. The period of
oscillation are computed with the help of Eigen value to be 23.032 s.

Numerical simulation of mathematical model for 2000 s with stepsize 1/64 s as discussed early for initial
velocity 5 m/s, initial angle of flight -0.2 radian with drag coefficient and lift coefficient as determined
results in 50.83 m/s velocity and -0.02702 radian. These value are same as computed analytically at
equilibrium point. The period of oscillation from numerical simulation is figured to be 23.3 s which is
close to the period of oscillation computed analytically. Moreover, phase plane shows the converse
solution too.

Therefore, analytical solution and numerical simulation results are almost same which validate the
mathematical model that was studied. However, the trajectory of the flight shows high amplitude i.e.
fluctuation of height is so high that it is almost not acceptable practically. This is why, it is recommended
to modify the model. The detail recommendation will be discussed in consequent chapter.

6 Recommendation
The conclusion chapter recommended for the modification of the mathematical model. After
completing first cycle of mathematical model, the authors like to present following recommendation for
future modification of the model:

To incorporate the possibility of variance of drag coefficient and lift coefficient with angle of
glider.
To revise stepsize for obtaining even more precise results.
To incorporate additional parameters in the mathematical model.