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Faculty of Engineering

National University of Sciences and Technology

ME 206

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Department of Mechatronics Engineering

National University of Sciences and Technology

Pakistan

National University of Sciences and Technology

ME 206

Credit Hours: 2-1 Pre Req: ME 132 Engineering Statics

Contact Hours: 5 Hours per Week

Private Study: 3 Hours per Week

Field of study, Specialization

Robotics, Structures, Computer Aided Engineering, Aerospace, Bio Medical

Objective: This course is a foundation to many advanced techniques that allow engineers to

design structures, predict failures and understand the physical properties of materials.

Mechanics of Materials gives you basic tools for stress, strain and strength analysis. Methods

for determining the stresses, strains and bending produced by applied loads are learned.

Engineering design concepts are integrated into the Mechanics of Materials course. The

subject includes laboratory demonstrations on basic strength of materials.

Abilities: After completing the course the students will be able to understand physical

properties of materials, strength and deformation in structures. You will be able to draw

bending moment diagram and Mohrs circle and use it in stress strain analysis.

2

National University of Sciences and Technology

Mechanics of Materials

Axial Loading

Torsion

Pure Bending

Mohrs Circle

3

National University of Sciences and Technology

Text Books:

Seventh Edition

Reference Books:

2. Mechanics of Materials by F P Beer, E R Johnson, Latest Ed.

4

WHY DO WE NEED MECHANICS OF

National University of Sciences and Technology

MATERIALS

Pre-university:

Theoretical problems

massless spring

particle of negligible radius

frictionless surface

More realistic problems:

2 and 3D objects

Stress distributions through

materials

5

WHAT IS MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ?

National University of Sciences and Technology

the behaviour of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.

Other names for this field of study are

1. Strength of materials and

2. Mechanics of deformable bodies.

The solid bodies considered throughout this course include bars with

Axial loads

Shafts in torsion

Beams in bending

Columns in compression.

6

PURPOSE OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

National University of Sciences and Technology

Objective

The principal objective of mechanics of materials is to determine the

stresses, strains, and displacements in structures and their components

due to the loads acting on them.

all types of structures, whether

Buildings and bridges

Machines and motors or

Ships and spacecraft.

7

BRIEF HISTORY

National University of Sciences and Technology

Post-WW II jets, missiles, space flight

Need for light weight structures

Required accurate stress analysis

Paralleled growth of computers

8

National University of Sciences and Technology

9

National University of Sciences and Technology

10

ITS ALL ABOUT National University of Sciences and Technology

Strength of Materials

Deformation of Elastic Models

11

11

BECAUSE REAL STRUCTURES ARE COMPLEX!

National University of Sciences and Technology

Reality:

Human trabecular bone

(from Abaqus.com)

(from Abaqus.com)

12

INTRODUCTION

National University of Sciences and Technology

13

INTRODUCTION National University of Sciences and Technology

Nodes

Basics:

Elements

Divide complex structure into

smaller regions (elements)

Develop algebraic equations to

approximate the behaviour of

each region

Assemble equations for all

regions and solve using a

computer

Output the node

displacements, stress, strain etc

14

WHY DO WE NEED TO KNOW HOW IT

WORKS? National University of Sciences and Technology

Results are only as good as the assumptions made

Element type

Boundary conditions

Constitutive equations

Material properties

Axes of symmetry

Etc

You still have to do the thinking!

15

National University of Sciences and Technology

Analysis Types

16

National University of Sciences and Technology

17

SOLID MECHANICS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN

National University of Sciences and Technology

Strength?

Life?

Deformation?

Stability?

Vibrations?

Material Selection

Shape Optimization

Cost

Manufacturability

18

COMMON APPLICATIONS

National University of Sciences and Technology

Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automotive

Engineering

Structural/Stress Analysis

Static/Dynamic

Linear/Nonlinear

Fluid Flow

Heat Transfer

Electromagnetic Fields

Soil Mechanics

Acoustics

Biomechanics

19

SAMPLE APPLICATION: HIP IMPLANT

National University of Sciences and Technology

20

APPLICATION: CRASH SIMULATION

National University of Sciences and Technology

21

FRONTAL CRASH: BELTED AND UNBELTED

DRIVER National University of Sciences and Technology

22

KNEE PROTECTION

National University of Sciences and Technology

23

BUCKLING AND PENETRATION

National University of Sciences and Technology

24

MISSILE DETONATION (!)

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25

MILLING

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26

BICYCLE FRAME DESIGN

National University of Sciences and Technology

27

GEAR DESIGN

National University of Sciences and Technology

28

Mechatronics Engineering Department

Faculty of Engineering

National University of Sciences and Technology

Chapter 1

Tension, Compression, and Shear

Department of Mechatronics Engineering

National University of Sciences and Technology

Pakistan

NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

considering a prismatic bar subjected to axial forces.

A prismatic bar is a straight structural member having the same cross

section throughout its length

An axial force is a load directed along the axis of the member, resulting

in either tension or compression in the bar.

30

NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

tension:

(a) free-body diagram

of a segment of the

bar,

(b) segment of the bar

before loading,

(c) segment of the bar

after loading, and

(d) normal stresses in

the bar.

31

NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

Stress has units of force per unit area and is denoted by the Greek

letter s (sigma).

In general, the stresses s acting on a plane surface may be uniform

throughout the area or may vary in intensity from one point to another.

distributed over the area. Then the resultant of those stresses must be

equal to the magnitude of the stress times the cross-sectional area A of

the bar, that is

32

NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

When the bar is stretched by the forces P, the stresses are tensile

Stresses

If the forces are reversed in direction, causing the bar to be

compressed, we obtain compressive stresses.

Stresses acting in a direction perpendicular to the cut surface, they are

called normal stresses.

Sign convention + for tensil and for compression.

Stress is customarily expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or kips

per square inch (ksi).

33

NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

longer when in tension and shorter when in compression.

Elongation of the bar is the cumulative result of the stretching of all

elements of the material throughout the volume of the bar.

If we consider half of the bar (length L/2), it will have an elongation

equal to /2, and if we consider one-fourth of the bar, it will have an

elongation equal to /4.

34

UNIAXIAL STRESS AND STRAIN

National University of Sciences and Technology

Static body

Geometric conditions

Principle requirement deformation of bar be uniform throughout

volume.

Bar prismatic

Load acts through centeroids of cross sections.

Material be homogeneous.

35

LINE OF ACTION OF AXIAL FORCES

National University of Sciences and Technology

Met if line of action of axial forces is through centeroid of cross sectional

area.

Prismatic bar subjected to uniformly distributed stress .

p1 represents point in cross section where the line of action of the forces

intersects the cross section.

36

LINE OF ACTION OF AXIAL FORCES

National University of Sciences and Technology

denote the coordinates of point p1 by x and y.

To determine these coordinates, we observe that the moments Mx and

My of the force P about the x and y axes.

sectional area A.

Differential force acting is dA and moments about x and y are ydA

and xdA.

37

EXAMPLE 1 National University of Sciences and Technology

38

EXAMPLE 2 National University of Sciences and Technology

QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology

QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology

QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology

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