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Mechatronics Engineering Department

Faculty of Engineering
National University of Sciences and Technology

ME 206
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Mr. Anas Bin Aqeel


Department of Mechatronics Engineering
National University of Sciences and Technology
Pakistan
National University of Sciences and Technology

Course Title : Mechanics of Materials


ME 206
Credit Hours: 2-1 Pre Req: ME 132 Engineering Statics
Contact Hours: 5 Hours per Week
Private Study: 3 Hours per Week
Field of study, Specialization
Robotics, Structures, Computer Aided Engineering, Aerospace, Bio Medical
Objective: This course is a foundation to many advanced techniques that allow engineers to
design structures, predict failures and understand the physical properties of materials.
Mechanics of Materials gives you basic tools for stress, strain and strength analysis. Methods
for determining the stresses, strains and bending produced by applied loads are learned.
Engineering design concepts are integrated into the Mechanics of Materials course. The
subject includes laboratory demonstrations on basic strength of materials.
Abilities: After completing the course the students will be able to understand physical
properties of materials, strength and deformation in structures. You will be able to draw
bending moment diagram and Mohrs circle and use it in stress strain analysis.

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Mechanics of Materials

Concepts of stress and strain

Axial Loading

Torsion

Pure Bending

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram

Beams under transverse loading

Transformation of stress and strain and biaxial stress

Mohrs Circle
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Text Books:

1. Mechanics of Materials by James by M. Gere and Barry Goodno,


Seventh Edition

Reference Books:

1. Mechanics of Materials by E P Popov, Latest Ed, Prentice-Hall Inc


2. Mechanics of Materials by F P Beer, E R Johnson, Latest Ed.

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WHY DO WE NEED MECHANICS OF
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MATERIALS

Pre-university:
Theoretical problems
massless spring
particle of negligible radius
frictionless surface

1st and 2nd year:


More realistic problems:
2 and 3D objects
Stress distributions through
materials

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WHAT IS MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ?
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Mechanics of materials is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with


the behaviour of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.
Other names for this field of study are
1. Strength of materials and
2. Mechanics of deformable bodies.

The solid bodies considered throughout this course include bars with
Axial loads
Shafts in torsion
Beams in bending
Columns in compression.

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PURPOSE OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
National University of Sciences and Technology

Objective
The principal objective of mechanics of materials is to determine the
stresses, strains, and displacements in structures and their components
due to the loads acting on them.

Values of loads = Failure cause (Mechanical Behavior)

An understanding of mechanical behaviour is essential for the safe design of


all types of structures, whether

Airplanes and antennas


Buildings and bridges
Machines and motors or
Ships and spacecraft.

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BRIEF HISTORY
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Grew out of aerospace industry


Post-WW II jets, missiles, space flight
Need for light weight structures
Required accurate stress analysis
Paralleled growth of computers

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ITS ALL ABOUT National University of Sciences and Technology

Structural Analysis Mechanics Structural mechanics

Its also known as:


Strength of Materials
Deformation of Elastic Models
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BECAUSE REAL STRUCTURES ARE COMPLEX!
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Reality:
Human trabecular bone
(from Abaqus.com)

GM Powertrain Vortex 6 cylinder engine


(from Abaqus.com)

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INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION National University of Sciences and Technology

Nodes
Basics:
Elements
Divide complex structure into
smaller regions (elements)
Develop algebraic equations to
approximate the behaviour of
each region
Assemble equations for all
regions and solve using a
computer
Output the node
displacements, stress, strain etc

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WHY DO WE NEED TO KNOW HOW IT
WORKS? National University of Sciences and Technology

Software can only process our inputs


Results are only as good as the assumptions made
Element type
Boundary conditions
Constitutive equations
Material properties
Axes of symmetry
Etc

Rubbish in = rubbish out


You still have to do the thinking!

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Analysis Types

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SOLID MECHANICS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN
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Strength?
Life?
Deformation?
Stability?
Vibrations?

Material Selection
Shape Optimization
Cost
Manufacturability

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COMMON APPLICATIONS
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Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automotive
Engineering
Structural/Stress Analysis
Static/Dynamic
Linear/Nonlinear
Fluid Flow
Heat Transfer
Electromagnetic Fields
Soil Mechanics
Acoustics
Biomechanics

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SAMPLE APPLICATION: HIP IMPLANT
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APPLICATION: CRASH SIMULATION
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FRONTAL CRASH: BELTED AND UNBELTED
DRIVER National University of Sciences and Technology

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KNEE PROTECTION
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BUCKLING AND PENETRATION
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MISSILE DETONATION (!)
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MILLING
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BICYCLE FRAME DESIGN
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GEAR DESIGN
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Mechatronics Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering
National University of Sciences and Technology

Chapter 1
Tension, Compression, and Shear

Mr. Anas Bin Aqeel


Department of Mechatronics Engineering
National University of Sciences and Technology
Pakistan
NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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Stress and strain can be illustrated in their most elementary form by


considering a prismatic bar subjected to axial forces.
A prismatic bar is a straight structural member having the same cross
section throughout its length
An axial force is a load directed along the axis of the member, resulting
in either tension or compression in the bar.

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NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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Fig. 1-2 Prismatic bar in


tension:
(a) free-body diagram
of a segment of the
bar,
(b) segment of the bar
before loading,
(c) segment of the bar
after loading, and
(d) normal stresses in
the bar.

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NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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Stress has units of force per unit area and is denoted by the Greek
letter s (sigma).
In general, the stresses s acting on a plane surface may be uniform
throughout the area or may vary in intensity from one point to another.

If we assumed stresses acting on cross section mn are uniformly


distributed over the area. Then the resultant of those stresses must be
equal to the magnitude of the stress times the cross-sectional area A of
the bar, that is

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NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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When the bar is stretched by the forces P, the stresses are tensile
Stresses
If the forces are reversed in direction, causing the bar to be
compressed, we obtain compressive stresses.
Stresses acting in a direction perpendicular to the cut surface, they are
called normal stresses.
Sign convention + for tensil and for compression.
Stress is customarily expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or kips
per square inch (ksi).

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NORMAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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A straight bar will change in length when loaded axially, becoming


longer when in tension and shorter when in compression.
Elongation of the bar is the cumulative result of the stretching of all
elements of the material throughout the volume of the bar.
If we consider half of the bar (length L/2), it will have an elongation
equal to /2, and if we consider one-fourth of the bar, it will have an
elongation equal to /4.

Tensile strain and compressive strain.

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UNIAXIAL STRESS AND STRAIN
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Normal stress and strain are based on assumptions element being


Static body
Geometric conditions
Principle requirement deformation of bar be uniform throughout
volume.

Strain of stress and strain is known as uniaxial stress and strain.


Bar prismatic
Load acts through centeroids of cross sections.
Material be homogeneous.

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LINE OF ACTION OF AXIAL FORCES
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Normal stress was uniformly distributed over cross section.


Met if line of action of axial forces is through centeroid of cross sectional
area.
Prismatic bar subjected to uniformly distributed stress .
p1 represents point in cross section where the line of action of the forces
intersects the cross section.

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LINE OF ACTION OF AXIAL FORCES
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We construct a set of xy axes in the plane of the cross section and


denote the coordinates of point p1 by x and y.
To determine these coordinates, we observe that the moments Mx and
My of the force P about the x and y axes.

Moments of force P are

Moments of distributed stresses are obtained by integrating over cross


sectional area A.
Differential force acting is dA and moments about x and y are ydA
and xdA.

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EXAMPLE 1 National University of Sciences and Technology

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EXAMPLE 2 National University of Sciences and Technology
QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology
QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology
QUESTION National University of Sciences and Technology