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Clearances for 230 kV Air Insulated Substation

T. Thanasaksiri

Department of Electrical Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

Chiang Mai University

Thailand 50200

tthanacmu@gmail.com

Abstract-This paper compares the calculations of insulation 800 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include BIL

levels and electrical clearances for 230 kV air insulated and BSL.

substation based on IEEE and IEC standards. The IEEE Std. This paper compares the insulation levels and electrical

1427 can be applied for phase to ground and phase to phase clearances of 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEEE

insulations and electrical clearances calculations. Besides Std. 1427 with IEC 60071-2. The standard insulation levels

calculations, the simulation tool, EMTP as presents in IEEE Std. (phase to ground) for equipment in Class I from IEEE or

1313.2 can be helpful for estimation the crest voltages at any Range I from IEC of the system voltage (phase to phase)

location in substation. According to IEEE Std. 1427 which taking being considered are shown in Table I [1], [2], [3], [4].

into account the basic switching impulse insulation levels (BSL), For the voltage level being considered, the low frequency,

the iterative method is also required. At this voltage level, the

short duration withstand voltage and BIL are mainly factors

which can be leading to the final insulation levels and

procedure for calculations refer to IEC 60071-2 in range I can be

electrical clearances of all equipment in substation but the

applied. To compile with IEC 60071-2 for calculations the

effect of switching surge, BSL to insulation levels can also

insulation levels and electrical clearances, the iteration process

dominated the insulation levels and clearances which received

accounting for the standard rated switching impulse withstand from BIL and short duration withstand voltage [1], [5].

voltage or BSL is not required but the test conversion factors

have to be considered. The relation between insulation levels and TABLE I

electrical clearances applying IEEE and IEC standards are COMPARISON OF STANDARD WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (STANDARDS

INSULATION LEVELS)

approximately linear. The insulation levels and electrical Standard Rated

Maximum Standard Rated

clearances when applied both standards are not significantly Short Duration

System Lightning Impulse

difference. Standard Power Frequency

Voltage Withstand Voltage

Withstand Voltage

(kVrms) or BIL (kVpeak)

(kVrms)

I. INTRODUCTION 275 650

IEEE Std. 325 750

IEEE standard 1427-2006 [1], for equipment in Class I C62.82.1 360 825

242 395 900

(1.2-242 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include

IEEE Std. 480 975

low frequency, short duration withstand voltage (phase to 1050

1427

ground) and standard rated lightning impulse withstand

(275) (650)

voltage or BIL (phase to ground). For equipment in Class II (325) (750)

(362-800 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include IEC

245 360 850

BIL (phase to ground) and BSL (phase to ground). IEEE Std. 60071-1 395 950

C62.82.1-2010 [2] (revision of IEEE Std. 1313.1-1996 [3]), 460 1050

for equipment in Class I (15 kV to 242 kV), the standard

insulation withstand level include low frequency, short

II. CALCULATIONS AND COMPARISONS

duration withstand voltage and BIL. For equipment in Class II

(362-1200 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include The purpose of this study is to compare the insulation

BIL and BSL. IEC standard 60071-1/2006 [4], for equipment levels and electrical clearances for 230 kV air insulated

in Range I (3.6 kV to 245 kV), the standard insulation substation applying the IEEE Std. 1427 and simulation tool,

withstand level include standard rated short duration power EMTP [6] as presents in IEEE Std. 1313.2 [7] with IEC

frequency withstand voltage and standard rated lightning 60071-2 [8]. To calculate the phase to ground clearance based

impulse withstand voltage. For equipment in Range II (300- on the lightning surge, the BIL is required. The data need for

BIL calculations can be found in Table II.

TABLE II

DATA FOR BIL CALCULATIONS APPLYING IEEE AND IEC STANDARDS Input

Data description Values data

Maximum system voltage (Us) 245 kV

Voltage peak from voltage calculations

Altitude in km

Line surge impedance, span length 488 , 250 m equations in standard 1 or simulation 2

CFO 1,300 kV

Switching impulse protective level (Ups) 410 kV

Lightning impulse protective level (Upl) 500 kV

Number of lines connected to the bus 2

Number of conductors/phase 2

BFR (Back flash rate), MTBF 2 FO/100 km/yr, 100 years Calculating relative air density ()

1,000

TABLE III

Compute the BIL for non-self restoring

DATA FOR BSL CALCULATIONS APPLYING IEEE AND IEC STANDARDS

insulations (i.e.; transformer internal insulations)

Data description Values

Maximum system voltage (Us) 245 kV

Transmission line phase to ground withstand voltage, V3 2.50 pu Compute the BIL for self restoring insulations

Transmission line phase to phase withstand voltage, V30 2.80 pu (i.e.; transformer external insulations and others)

Switching surge flashover rate (SSFOR) 1/100

Ratio 2% of energization and re-energization (Up2/Ue2) 1.53, 1.5

Earth fault factor, load rejection factor 1.5, 1.4 Compare the calculated BIL Selected

Overvoltages originating from substation 1 (Ue2, Up2) 1.9, 2.9 pu with the standard required BIL BIL

Overvoltages originating from substation 2 (Ue2, Up2) 3.0, 4.5 pu

0.50 BIL calculations

Safety factor (Ksf) 1.05, 1.15

f/CFO 0.07

fp/CFO0 0.035 Compute the phase to ground clearance (Spg )

Gap factor 0.3 and phase to phase clearance (Spp =1.1xSpg )

, KL 0.5, 0.67

Fig. 1. Sequence of determining the insulation levels and

The sequence of determining the insulation levels and electrical clearances based on lightning surge at and above the

electrical clearances based on the lightning surge at and above sea levels follow IEEE Std. 1427.

the sea levels follow IEEE Std. 1427 are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.

The voltage calculations can be performed by applying the Input

equations appears in the standards as shown in Fig. 2(a) or data

simulation via EMTP as shown in Fig. 2(b). The calculations Input

data

and system modeling using digital simulation include MT BF and BFR Ks

incoming surge model, surge arrester model, transformer

characteristics

Arrester V-I

model and line model [9], [10]. More detailed for calculations Compute the time for surge travel, T

and computer simulation using EMTP can be found in [5], [7], distance to flashover, d m and

surge steepness, S

[9] and [10] and the results of insulation levels and clearances

can be found in [11].

The reason for considering the insulation levels and clearances

Compute arrester voltage, arrester

based on the switching surge is for the system voltage not greater current and arrester resistance

than 242 kV (IEEE) or 245 kV (IEC), the clearances are mainly

based on lightning surge but switching surge is involved and would K1 and K2

affect insulation level as well [1]. To calculate the phase to ground

clearance based on the switching surge, the BSL is required. The data Compute the voltage magnitude for A and B

equipments in substation Input

need for BSL calculations can be found in Table III. The sequence of data

(i.e. ; transformer, arrester bus connection)

determining the insulation levels and electrical clearances based on

the switching surge at and above the sea levels follow IEEE Std.

1

1427 is also shown in Fig. 3. The calculations of phase to ground and

Compute the voltage for equipments in

phase to phase clearances and BSL at the sea level can be directly substation (i.e. ; breaker, switch and bus)

calculated as shown in Fig. 390(a) but the phase to ground and phase (a)

Voltage calculations-equations in standard

to phase clearances and BSL above the sea levels, the solutions

require an iterative process [1], [12] as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Input Exponent, m=0.5 Input

data Calculating relative air density () data

Altitude in km

Input

MT BF and BFR Ks data

Calculating altitude correction factor (m),

characteristics

Input

Arrester V-I

Compute the time for surge travel, T phase to ground clearance (Spg ) and

data phase to phase clearances (Spp )

distance to flashover, d m and

surge steepness, S

CFO VPF (b)

Solve for constant G0 and standard

2

Incoming surge model Surge arrester model critical flashover voltage (CFOs)

RAMP - ramp between zero (ZNO - exponential current

and a constant, type 12 dependent resistor, type 92)

Compute the basic switching impulse

insulation level phase to ground

transformer model Bus, breaker and line models (BSLpg ) and phase to phase (BSLpp )

(capacitance : 2, 4 nF) (distributed parameter model-Clarke)

Voltage calculations-EMTP simulation

Fig. 2. Sequence of voltage calculations follow IEEE Std.

1427 a) equations given in standards b) EMTP simulation. Check if m and m no Adjust m

is sufficiently and m

small

yes

Input

data

T erminate process, solution reached for

insulation levels and air clearances

(b)

withstand voltage (V30)

withstand voltage (V3 )

Input

Phase to ground

Phase to phase

data

Std. 1427 (a) at the sea level (b) above the sea levels.

fp /CFO ratio

f/CFO ratio

clearance can be calculated by applying equation given in (1).

and KL 8 (1)

Compute the critical flashover Input S pg =

voltages (CFO, CFO0 , CFOp ) data 3400 k g

1

CFO

Where

Gap factor (kg)

insulation levels phase to ground

(BSLpg ) and phase to phase (BSLpp ) V3

CFO = V

f

base

(a) 1 3

CFO

Compute the phase to And the phase to ground BSL can also be calculated by

ground clearance (Spg ) applying equation given in (2).

and phase to phase

clearance (Spp )

(2)

BSL pg = CFO 1 1.28 f

CFO

equation given in (3).

8 (3) Earth fault factor

S pg = Input

3400 k g Load rejection factor data

1

CFO p

Representative voltages and overvoltages (Urp)

Where Up2 /Ue2

Slow front

CFO0 overvoltages Ups

CFO p = and V30 T emporary

1 (1 K L ) CFO0 = V overvoltages

(case peak method or Fast front

fp

base phase peak method) overvoltages Upl

1 3

CFO

And the phase to ground BSL can also be calculated by Coordination Coordination Simplified

applying equation given in (4). factor (Kc) factor (Kcd ) statistical

approach

(4)

BSL pp = CFO p 1 1.28 fp

CFO

Coordination withstand voltages (Ucw)

Power Switching Lightning

the sea levels can be calculated as follow, starting with the frequency withstand withstand

altitude adjustments by applying equation given in (5), the withstand voltages voltages

relative air density, can be calculated. voltages

Altitude correction factor (Ka)

H data

where Input Ksf Internal insulation : Urw=UcwKsf

A = altitude above the sea level, km. data External insulation : Urw=UcwKsfKa

applying equation given in (6) and phase to phase clearance Required withstand voltages (Urw)

(Spp) can also be calculated by applying equation given in (7).

Power frequency Switching Lightning withstand

8 (6) withstand voltages, Urw (s) withstand voltages, Urw (s)

S pg = voltages

3400 k g m

1

CFO T est conversion factor

(Ktc) for range I

8 (7)

S pp = Power frequency Lightning

3400 k g m

1 withstand withstand

CFO p voltages, Urw (c) voltages, Urw (c)

equation given in (8). Compare Urw (s) Compare Urw (s)

and Urw (c) and Urw (c)

CFOspg (8)

BSL pg =

1.0471

Standard Rated Standard Rated

Where CFOspg = G0 500 S pg and by solving the quadratic Short Duration Power Lightning

Frequency Withstand Voltage Impulse Withstand Voltage

equation given in (9), the constant G0 can be found.

Rated or standard insulation level (Uw)

Fig. 4. Sequence of determining the insulation levels (BIL and

BSL) and electrical clearances (phase to ground and phase to

The phase to phase BSL can also be calculated by applying

phase clearances) at and above the sea levels follow IEC

equation similar to equation (8). Recalculating m and m until

60071-2.

the solutions are within the tolerance.

For calculating the insulation levels and electrical TABLE III

INSULATION LEVELS AND CLEARANCES BASED ON BSL

clearances in 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEC

Phase to ground Phase to phase

60071-2 for range I, the sequence of insulation level and Calculations

Sea level 2 km Sea level 2 km

electrical clearances calculations is shown in Fig. 4. The Required BSL (kV) 569 730 707 871

process can be directly calculated, which means no iteration Clearances (m) 1.32 1.67 1.54 1.97

required but the test conversion factor, Ktc has to be

considered in order to convert the required switching impulse As shown in Table III [11], at the sea level, the required BSL are

withstand voltages to short duration power frequency and 569 kV phase to ground and 707 kV phase to phase. The minimum

lightning impulse withstand voltages. To calculate the clearances are 1.32 m phase to ground and 1.54 m phase to phase. At

insulation levels and electrical clearances applying IEC the altitude of 2 km above the sea level, the required BSL are 730 kV

60071-2, the data need for calculations can also be found in phase to ground and 871 kV phase to phase. The minimum electrical

Table II and III. clearance at 2 km elevation from sea level should be 1.67 m phase to

From Fig. 4 the process is starting from determining the ground and 1.97 m phase to phase.

representative overvoltages, Urp accounting for temporary, From the system being studied, to follow IEEE Std. 1427 and

slow front and fast front overvoltages. Two factors play 1313.2, taking into account both BIL and BSL, the insulation level at

significantly roles which affected to representative the sea level should be 825 kV and the minimum clearances are 1.60

overvoltages are earth fault and load rejection factors but the m phase to ground and 1.75 m phase to phase. At the altitude of 2 km,

lightning and switching protective levels of protective devices the insulation should be 900 kV and the minimum electrical

(Upl and Ups) can reduced the overvoltages in some degree. clearances are 1.71 m phase to ground and 1.97 m phase to phase

After applying the coordination factor, Kc the coordination (not include the safety clearances).

withstand voltages, Ucw can be found. Taking into account the

altitude correction factor, Ka for external insulation and safety

factor, Ksf for both external and internal insulations, the

required withstand voltages, Urw(s) can be calculated.

Converting the required switching withstand voltages to

power frequency and lightning withstand voltages, Urw(c) by 1.722

multiplying test conversion factor, Ktc. Comparison the

1.563

required withstand voltages from calculations and conversions

and the rated or standard insulation level, Uw for short

duration power frequency and lightning impulse withstand 823

voltages as shown in Table I can be achieved.

III. RESULTS Fig. 5. The relation between minimum insulation levels, BIL

and electrical clearances recommended by IEEE Std. 1427.

Depending on the methods from IEEE Std. 1427 or IEEE Std.

1313.2, the selected BIL should be approximately 825-850 kV and When refer to IEC 60071-2 [4], the recommended insulation

the required electrical clearances should be within 1.2-1.6 m phase to levels and electrical clearances based on BIL are shown in

ground and 1.2-1.75 phase to phase [11]. Refer to both IEEE Fig. 6. The calculated and selected insulation levels at the

standards, the recommended insulation levels and electrical altitude of 2 km above the sea level are given in Table IV. The

clearances at the sea level based on BIL are shown in Fig. 5. For selected BIL should be 850 kV and the required electrical

example, at the selected insulation level of 650 kV, the minimum clearances should be within 1.6-1.7 m phase to ground and

electrical clearances phase to ground and phase to phase should be 1.9-2.1 m phase to phase (not include the safety clearances).

1.235 and 1.360 m respectively. At the selected insulation level of

825 kV, the minimum electrical clearances phase to ground and

phase to phase should be 1.570 and 1.725 m respectively. The phase

to phase clearance is greater than the phase to ground clearance

approximately by 10%. The insulation strength decreases as a linear

function of the relative air density [1] which means at the altitude of 2

km above the sea level, the BIL and clearances must be divided by

the relative air density (0.79).

From Fig. 5, the insulation level of 650 kV can be applied at the sea

level with the clearances of 1.235 m phase to ground and 1.360 m

phase to phase but at the altitude of 2 km above the sea level the

insulation should be 650/0.79=823 kV with the clearances of

1.235/0.79=1.563 m and 1.36/0.79=1.722 m phase to phase. The BIL

and clearances are well within the values as recommended. Fig. 6. The relation between minimum insulation levels, BIL

and electrical clearances recommended by IEC 60071-2.

TABLE IV [8] IEC 60071-2, 1996, Insulation Coordination-Part 2 : Application guide.

INSULATION LEVELS AND CLEARANCES APPLIED IEC STANDARD

Calculated Insulation Selected Insulation [9] IEEE Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Working Group,

Type of levels (kV) levels (kV) Modeling Guidelines for Fast Front Transients, IEEE Transactions on

insulations Phase to Phase to Phase to Phase to Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, January, 1996, pp. 493-506.

ground phase ground phase

External [10] Juan A. Martinez-Velasco, Power System Transients, CRC Press, 2010.

803 1046 850 1050

insulation

Internal [11] T. Thanasaksiri, Insulation Level and Clearances for 230 kV Air

705 798 750 850

insulation Insulated Substation, Proceedings of The ECTI International Conference,

May 14-17, 2014, NakornRatchasima, THAILAND.

IV. CONCLUSIONS [12] T. Thanasaksiri, Iterative Method for Clearances and Insulation Levels

Based on Switching Surge", Proceedings of The ECTI International

Conference, June 24-27, 2015, Hua-Hin, THAILAND.

This paper compares the insulation levels and electrical

clearances of 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEEE

Std. 1427 with IEC 60071-2. For the voltage level being

considered, the low frequency, short duration withstand

voltage and BIL are mainly factors which can be leading to

the final insulation levels and electrical clearances of all

equipment in substation but the effect of switching impulse,

BSL to insulation levels can also dominated the insulation

levels and clearances which received from BIL and short

duration withstand voltage.

For the voltage level, both for IEEE (class I) and IEC

(range I) standards, BIL calculation is much more

complicated. Especially when taking into account the effect of

switching impulse. According to IEEE Std. 1427 which taking

into account the basic switching impulse insulation levels

(BSL), the iterative method is also required. To compile with

IEC 60071-2 for calculations the insulation levels and

electrical clearances, the iteration process accounting for the

standard rated switching impulse withstand voltage or BSL is

not required but the test conversion factors have to be

considered. The relation between insulation levels and

electrical clearances applying both IEEE and IEC standards

are approximately linear. The insulation levels and electrical

clearances when applied both standards are not significantly

difference.

REFERENCES

Clearances and Insulation Levels in Air-Insulated Electrical Power

Substations.

Definitions, Principles, and Rules.

Definitions, Principles, and Rules.

Principles, and Rules.

Dekker, 1999.

9x/NT/2000/XP/Vista/7, 2014.

Coordination.

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