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Comparison of IEEE and IEC Standards for

Calculations of Insulation Levels and Electrical


Clearances for 230 kV Air Insulated Substation
T. Thanasaksiri
Department of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Chiang Mai University
Thailand 50200
tthanacmu@gmail.com

Abstract-This paper compares the calculations of insulation 800 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include BIL
levels and electrical clearances for 230 kV air insulated and BSL.
substation based on IEEE and IEC standards. The IEEE Std. This paper compares the insulation levels and electrical
1427 can be applied for phase to ground and phase to phase clearances of 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEEE
insulations and electrical clearances calculations. Besides Std. 1427 with IEC 60071-2. The standard insulation levels
calculations, the simulation tool, EMTP as presents in IEEE Std. (phase to ground) for equipment in Class I from IEEE or
1313.2 can be helpful for estimation the crest voltages at any Range I from IEC of the system voltage (phase to phase)
location in substation. According to IEEE Std. 1427 which taking being considered are shown in Table I [1], [2], [3], [4].
into account the basic switching impulse insulation levels (BSL), For the voltage level being considered, the low frequency,
the iterative method is also required. At this voltage level, the
short duration withstand voltage and BIL are mainly factors
which can be leading to the final insulation levels and
procedure for calculations refer to IEC 60071-2 in range I can be
electrical clearances of all equipment in substation but the
applied. To compile with IEC 60071-2 for calculations the
effect of switching surge, BSL to insulation levels can also
insulation levels and electrical clearances, the iteration process
dominated the insulation levels and clearances which received
accounting for the standard rated switching impulse withstand from BIL and short duration withstand voltage [1], [5].
voltage or BSL is not required but the test conversion factors
have to be considered. The relation between insulation levels and TABLE I
electrical clearances applying IEEE and IEC standards are COMPARISON OF STANDARD WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (STANDARDS
INSULATION LEVELS)
approximately linear. The insulation levels and electrical Standard Rated
Maximum Standard Rated
clearances when applied both standards are not significantly Short Duration
System Lightning Impulse
difference. Standard Power Frequency
Voltage Withstand Voltage
Withstand Voltage
(kVrms) or BIL (kVpeak)
(kVrms)
I. INTRODUCTION 275 650
IEEE Std. 325 750
IEEE standard 1427-2006 [1], for equipment in Class I C62.82.1 360 825
242 395 900
(1.2-242 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include
IEEE Std. 480 975
low frequency, short duration withstand voltage (phase to 1050
1427
ground) and standard rated lightning impulse withstand
(275) (650)
voltage or BIL (phase to ground). For equipment in Class II (325) (750)
(362-800 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include IEC
245 360 850
BIL (phase to ground) and BSL (phase to ground). IEEE Std. 60071-1 395 950
C62.82.1-2010 [2] (revision of IEEE Std. 1313.1-1996 [3]), 460 1050
for equipment in Class I (15 kV to 242 kV), the standard
insulation withstand level include low frequency, short
II. CALCULATIONS AND COMPARISONS
duration withstand voltage and BIL. For equipment in Class II
(362-1200 kV), the standard insulation withstand level include The purpose of this study is to compare the insulation
BIL and BSL. IEC standard 60071-1/2006 [4], for equipment levels and electrical clearances for 230 kV air insulated
in Range I (3.6 kV to 245 kV), the standard insulation substation applying the IEEE Std. 1427 and simulation tool,
withstand level include standard rated short duration power EMTP [6] as presents in IEEE Std. 1313.2 [7] with IEC
frequency withstand voltage and standard rated lightning 60071-2 [8]. To calculate the phase to ground clearance based
impulse withstand voltage. For equipment in Range II (300- on the lightning surge, the BIL is required. The data need for
BIL calculations can be found in Table II.

978-1-4673-49749-0/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE


TABLE II
DATA FOR BIL CALCULATIONS APPLYING IEEE AND IEC STANDARDS Input
Data description Values data
Maximum system voltage (Us) 245 kV
Voltage peak from voltage calculations

Altitude in km
Line surge impedance, span length 488 , 250 m equations in standard 1 or simulation 2
CFO 1,300 kV
Switching impulse protective level (Ups) 410 kV
Lightning impulse protective level (Upl) 500 kV
Number of lines connected to the bus 2
Number of conductors/phase 2
BFR (Back flash rate), MTBF 2 FO/100 km/yr, 100 years Calculating relative air density ()
1,000

TABLE III
Compute the BIL for non-self restoring
DATA FOR BSL CALCULATIONS APPLYING IEEE AND IEC STANDARDS
insulations (i.e.; transformer internal insulations)
Data description Values
Maximum system voltage (Us) 245 kV
Transmission line phase to ground withstand voltage, V3 2.50 pu Compute the BIL for self restoring insulations
Transmission line phase to phase withstand voltage, V30 2.80 pu (i.e.; transformer external insulations and others)
Switching surge flashover rate (SSFOR) 1/100
Ratio 2% of energization and re-energization (Up2/Ue2) 1.53, 1.5
Earth fault factor, load rejection factor 1.5, 1.4 Compare the calculated BIL Selected
Overvoltages originating from substation 1 (Ue2, Up2) 1.9, 2.9 pu with the standard required BIL BIL
Overvoltages originating from substation 2 (Ue2, Up2) 3.0, 4.5 pu
0.50 BIL calculations
Safety factor (Ksf) 1.05, 1.15
f/CFO 0.07
fp/CFO0 0.035 Compute the phase to ground clearance (Spg )
Gap factor 0.3 and phase to phase clearance (Spp =1.1xSpg )
, KL 0.5, 0.67
Fig. 1. Sequence of determining the insulation levels and
The sequence of determining the insulation levels and electrical clearances based on lightning surge at and above the
electrical clearances based on the lightning surge at and above sea levels follow IEEE Std. 1427.
the sea levels follow IEEE Std. 1427 are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.
The voltage calculations can be performed by applying the Input
equations appears in the standards as shown in Fig. 2(a) or data
simulation via EMTP as shown in Fig. 2(b). The calculations Input
data
and system modeling using digital simulation include MT BF and BFR Ks
incoming surge model, surge arrester model, transformer

characteristics
Arrester V-I
model and line model [9], [10]. More detailed for calculations Compute the time for surge travel, T
and computer simulation using EMTP can be found in [5], [7], distance to flashover, d m and
surge steepness, S
[9] and [10] and the results of insulation levels and clearances
can be found in [11].
The reason for considering the insulation levels and clearances
Compute arrester voltage, arrester
based on the switching surge is for the system voltage not greater current and arrester resistance
than 242 kV (IEEE) or 245 kV (IEC), the clearances are mainly
based on lightning surge but switching surge is involved and would K1 and K2
affect insulation level as well [1]. To calculate the phase to ground
clearance based on the switching surge, the BSL is required. The data Compute the voltage magnitude for A and B
equipments in substation Input
need for BSL calculations can be found in Table III. The sequence of data
(i.e. ; transformer, arrester bus connection)
determining the insulation levels and electrical clearances based on
the switching surge at and above the sea levels follow IEEE Std.
1
1427 is also shown in Fig. 3. The calculations of phase to ground and
Compute the voltage for equipments in
phase to phase clearances and BSL at the sea level can be directly substation (i.e. ; breaker, switch and bus)
calculated as shown in Fig. 390(a) but the phase to ground and phase (a)
Voltage calculations-equations in standard
to phase clearances and BSL above the sea levels, the solutions
require an iterative process [1], [12] as shown in Fig. 3(b).
Input Exponent, m=0.5 Input
data Calculating relative air density () data
Altitude in km
Input
MT BF and BFR Ks data
Calculating altitude correction factor (m),

characteristics
Input

Arrester V-I
Compute the time for surge travel, T phase to ground clearance (Spg ) and
data phase to phase clearances (Spp )
distance to flashover, d m and
surge steepness, S
CFO VPF (b)
Solve for constant G0 and standard
2
Incoming surge model Surge arrester model critical flashover voltage (CFOs)
RAMP - ramp between zero (ZNO - exponential current
and a constant, type 12 dependent resistor, type 92)
Compute the basic switching impulse
insulation level phase to ground
transformer model Bus, breaker and line models (BSLpg ) and phase to phase (BSLpp )
(capacitance : 2, 4 nF) (distributed parameter model-Clarke)
Voltage calculations-EMTP simulation
Fig. 2. Sequence of voltage calculations follow IEEE Std.
1427 a) equations given in standards b) EMTP simulation. Check if m and m no Adjust m
is sufficiently and m
small

yes
Input
data
T erminate process, solution reached for
insulation levels and air clearances
(b)
withstand voltage (V30)
withstand voltage (V3 )

Fig. 3. Sequence of determining the insulation levels and


Input
Phase to ground

electrical clearances based on the switching surge follow IEEE


Phase to phase

data
Std. 1427 (a) at the sea level (b) above the sea levels.
fp /CFO ratio
f/CFO ratio

From Fig. 3(a), at the sea level, the phase to ground


clearance can be calculated by applying equation given in (1).

and KL 8 (1)
Compute the critical flashover Input S pg =
voltages (CFO, CFO0 , CFOp ) data 3400 k g
1
CFO
Where
Gap factor (kg)

Compute the basic switching impulse


insulation levels phase to ground
(BSLpg ) and phase to phase (BSLpp ) V3
CFO = V
f
base

(a) 1 3
CFO
Compute the phase to And the phase to ground BSL can also be calculated by
ground clearance (Spg ) applying equation given in (2).
and phase to phase
clearance (Spp )
(2)
BSL pg = CFO 1 1.28 f
CFO

The phase to phase clearance can be calculated by applying


equation given in (3).
8 (3) Earth fault factor
S pg = Input
3400 k g Load rejection factor data
1
CFO p
Representative voltages and overvoltages (Urp)
Where Up2 /Ue2
Slow front
CFO0 overvoltages Ups
CFO p = and V30 T emporary
1 (1 K L ) CFO0 = V overvoltages
(case peak method or Fast front
fp
base phase peak method) overvoltages Upl
1 3
CFO
And the phase to ground BSL can also be calculated by Coordination Coordination Simplified
applying equation given in (4). factor (Kc) factor (Kcd ) statistical
approach
(4)
BSL pp = CFO p 1 1.28 fp
CFO
Coordination withstand voltages (Ucw)

From Fig. 3(b), the insulation levels and clearances above


Power Switching Lightning
the sea levels can be calculated as follow, starting with the frequency withstand withstand
altitude adjustments by applying equation given in (5), the withstand voltages voltages
relative air density, can be calculated. voltages

= 0.997 0.106 A (5) m Input


Altitude correction factor (Ka)
H data
where Input Ksf Internal insulation : Urw=UcwKsf
A = altitude above the sea level, km. data External insulation : Urw=UcwKsfKa

The phase to ground clearance (Spg) can be calculated by


applying equation given in (6) and phase to phase clearance Required withstand voltages (Urw)
(Spp) can also be calculated by applying equation given in (7).
Power frequency Switching Lightning withstand
8 (6) withstand voltages, Urw (s) withstand voltages, Urw (s)
S pg = voltages
3400 k g m
1
CFO T est conversion factor
(Ktc) for range I
8 (7)
S pp = Power frequency Lightning
3400 k g m
1 withstand withstand
CFO p voltages, Urw (c) voltages, Urw (c)

The phase to ground BSL can be calculated by applying


equation given in (8). Compare Urw (s) Compare Urw (s)
and Urw (c) and Urw (c)
CFOspg (8)
BSL pg =
1.0471
Standard Rated Standard Rated
Where CFOspg = G0 500 S pg and by solving the quadratic Short Duration Power Lightning
Frequency Withstand Voltage Impulse Withstand Voltage
equation given in (9), the constant G0 can be found.
Rated or standard insulation level (Uw)

m = 1.25G0 ( G0 0.2 ) (9)


Fig. 4. Sequence of determining the insulation levels (BIL and
BSL) and electrical clearances (phase to ground and phase to
The phase to phase BSL can also be calculated by applying
phase clearances) at and above the sea levels follow IEC
equation similar to equation (8). Recalculating m and m until
60071-2.
the solutions are within the tolerance.
For calculating the insulation levels and electrical TABLE III
INSULATION LEVELS AND CLEARANCES BASED ON BSL
clearances in 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEC
Phase to ground Phase to phase
60071-2 for range I, the sequence of insulation level and Calculations
Sea level 2 km Sea level 2 km
electrical clearances calculations is shown in Fig. 4. The Required BSL (kV) 569 730 707 871
process can be directly calculated, which means no iteration Clearances (m) 1.32 1.67 1.54 1.97
required but the test conversion factor, Ktc has to be
considered in order to convert the required switching impulse As shown in Table III [11], at the sea level, the required BSL are
withstand voltages to short duration power frequency and 569 kV phase to ground and 707 kV phase to phase. The minimum
lightning impulse withstand voltages. To calculate the clearances are 1.32 m phase to ground and 1.54 m phase to phase. At
insulation levels and electrical clearances applying IEC the altitude of 2 km above the sea level, the required BSL are 730 kV
60071-2, the data need for calculations can also be found in phase to ground and 871 kV phase to phase. The minimum electrical
Table II and III. clearance at 2 km elevation from sea level should be 1.67 m phase to
From Fig. 4 the process is starting from determining the ground and 1.97 m phase to phase.
representative overvoltages, Urp accounting for temporary, From the system being studied, to follow IEEE Std. 1427 and
slow front and fast front overvoltages. Two factors play 1313.2, taking into account both BIL and BSL, the insulation level at
significantly roles which affected to representative the sea level should be 825 kV and the minimum clearances are 1.60
overvoltages are earth fault and load rejection factors but the m phase to ground and 1.75 m phase to phase. At the altitude of 2 km,
lightning and switching protective levels of protective devices the insulation should be 900 kV and the minimum electrical
(Upl and Ups) can reduced the overvoltages in some degree. clearances are 1.71 m phase to ground and 1.97 m phase to phase
After applying the coordination factor, Kc the coordination (not include the safety clearances).
withstand voltages, Ucw can be found. Taking into account the
altitude correction factor, Ka for external insulation and safety
factor, Ksf for both external and internal insulations, the
required withstand voltages, Urw(s) can be calculated.
Converting the required switching withstand voltages to
power frequency and lightning withstand voltages, Urw(c) by 1.722
multiplying test conversion factor, Ktc. Comparison the
1.563
required withstand voltages from calculations and conversions
and the rated or standard insulation level, Uw for short
duration power frequency and lightning impulse withstand 823
voltages as shown in Table I can be achieved.

III. RESULTS Fig. 5. The relation between minimum insulation levels, BIL
and electrical clearances recommended by IEEE Std. 1427.
Depending on the methods from IEEE Std. 1427 or IEEE Std.
1313.2, the selected BIL should be approximately 825-850 kV and When refer to IEC 60071-2 [4], the recommended insulation
the required electrical clearances should be within 1.2-1.6 m phase to levels and electrical clearances based on BIL are shown in
ground and 1.2-1.75 phase to phase [11]. Refer to both IEEE Fig. 6. The calculated and selected insulation levels at the
standards, the recommended insulation levels and electrical altitude of 2 km above the sea level are given in Table IV. The
clearances at the sea level based on BIL are shown in Fig. 5. For selected BIL should be 850 kV and the required electrical
example, at the selected insulation level of 650 kV, the minimum clearances should be within 1.6-1.7 m phase to ground and
electrical clearances phase to ground and phase to phase should be 1.9-2.1 m phase to phase (not include the safety clearances).
1.235 and 1.360 m respectively. At the selected insulation level of
825 kV, the minimum electrical clearances phase to ground and
phase to phase should be 1.570 and 1.725 m respectively. The phase
to phase clearance is greater than the phase to ground clearance
approximately by 10%. The insulation strength decreases as a linear
function of the relative air density [1] which means at the altitude of 2
km above the sea level, the BIL and clearances must be divided by
the relative air density (0.79).
From Fig. 5, the insulation level of 650 kV can be applied at the sea
level with the clearances of 1.235 m phase to ground and 1.360 m
phase to phase but at the altitude of 2 km above the sea level the
insulation should be 650/0.79=823 kV with the clearances of
1.235/0.79=1.563 m and 1.36/0.79=1.722 m phase to phase. The BIL
and clearances are well within the values as recommended. Fig. 6. The relation between minimum insulation levels, BIL
and electrical clearances recommended by IEC 60071-2.
TABLE IV [8] IEC 60071-2, 1996, Insulation Coordination-Part 2 : Application guide.
INSULATION LEVELS AND CLEARANCES APPLIED IEC STANDARD
Calculated Insulation Selected Insulation [9] IEEE Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Working Group,
Type of levels (kV) levels (kV) Modeling Guidelines for Fast Front Transients, IEEE Transactions on
insulations Phase to Phase to Phase to Phase to Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, January, 1996, pp. 493-506.
ground phase ground phase
External [10] Juan A. Martinez-Velasco, Power System Transients, CRC Press, 2010.
803 1046 850 1050
insulation
Internal [11] T. Thanasaksiri, Insulation Level and Clearances for 230 kV Air
705 798 750 850
insulation Insulated Substation, Proceedings of The ECTI International Conference,
May 14-17, 2014, NakornRatchasima, THAILAND.

IV. CONCLUSIONS [12] T. Thanasaksiri, Iterative Method for Clearances and Insulation Levels
Based on Switching Surge", Proceedings of The ECTI International
Conference, June 24-27, 2015, Hua-Hin, THAILAND.
This paper compares the insulation levels and electrical
clearances of 230 kV air insulated substation applying IEEE
Std. 1427 with IEC 60071-2. For the voltage level being
considered, the low frequency, short duration withstand
voltage and BIL are mainly factors which can be leading to
the final insulation levels and electrical clearances of all
equipment in substation but the effect of switching impulse,
BSL to insulation levels can also dominated the insulation
levels and clearances which received from BIL and short
duration withstand voltage.
For the voltage level, both for IEEE (class I) and IEC
(range I) standards, BIL calculation is much more
complicated. Especially when taking into account the effect of
switching impulse. According to IEEE Std. 1427 which taking
into account the basic switching impulse insulation levels
(BSL), the iterative method is also required. To compile with
IEC 60071-2 for calculations the insulation levels and
electrical clearances, the iteration process accounting for the
standard rated switching impulse withstand voltage or BSL is
not required but the test conversion factors have to be
considered. The relation between insulation levels and
electrical clearances applying both IEEE and IEC standards
are approximately linear. The insulation levels and electrical
clearances when applied both standards are not significantly
difference.

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Std. 1427-2006, IEEE Guide for Recommended Electrical


Clearances and Insulation Levels in Air-Insulated Electrical Power
Substations.

[2] IEEE Std. C62.82.1-2010, IEEE Standard for Insulation Coordination-


Definitions, Principles, and Rules.

[3] IEEE Std. 1313.1-1996, IEEE Standard for Insulation Coordination-


Definitions, Principles, and Rules.

[4] IEC 60071-1, 2006, Insulation Coordination-Part 1 : Definitions,


Principles, and Rules.

[5] Andrew R. Hileman, Insulation Coordination for Power Systems, Marcel


Dekker, 1999.

[6] Hans Kristian Hidalen, ATPDraw version 5.9p3 for Windows


9x/NT/2000/XP/Vista/7, 2014.

[7] IEEE Std. 1313.2-1999, IEEE Guide for Application of Insulation


Coordination.