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# Bernoulli's principle states,

" For a perfect incompressible liquid, flowing in a continuous stream, the total energy of a
particle remains the same, while the particle moves from one point to another."
This statement is based on the assumption that there are no losses due to friction in the pipe.
Mathematically,

where,

z = Potential Energy
= Kinetic Energy
= Pressure Energy

If a fluid is flowing through a horizontal pipe of varying cross-sectional area, as in Figure 1 for
example, the fluid speeds up in constricted areas so that the pressure the fluid exerts is least
where the cross section is smallest. This phenomenon is also called the Venturi effect. The
Venturi effect has several applications including that associated with generating lift atop an
aerofoil, making all forms of flight on aeroplanes, gyroplanes, and helicopters possible.

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains
constantit is said to be conserved over time.[1] Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it
transforms from one form to another.
Energy Grade Line (EGL)
A line that represents the elevation of energy head (in feet or meters) of water flowing in a pipe,
conduit, or channel. The line is drawn above the hydraulic grade line (gradient) a distance equal
to the velocity head (V2/2g) of the water flowing at each section or point along the pipe or
channel. Also see HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE.
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)
The surface or profile of water flowing in an open channel or a pipe flowing partially full. If a
pipe is under pressure, the hydraulic grade line is that level water would rise to in a small,
vertical tube connected to the pipe. Also see ENERGY GRADE LINE.