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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This Chapter presents the introduction,


theoretical framework, and statement of the problem,
hypothesis, scope and limitation, the review of related
literature both conceptual and research,synopsis
,implication to the study and definition of terms.

INTRODUCTION

Child Protection Policy provides special


protection to children who are gravely threatened or
endangered by circumstances which affect their normal
development and over which they have no control, and to
assist the concerned agencies in their rehabilitation
(Ida Cabantin, 201).

Republic Act No. 7610, June 17, 1992 .An act


providing for stronger deterrence and special
protection against child abuse, exploitation and
discrimination and for other purpose. Article 1,
Section 1 is an act shall be known as the Special
Protection of Children against abuse, exploitation, and
discrimination act. Section 2 on the other hand
provides the declaration of state policy and
principles. It is declared to be the policy of the
state to provide special protection to children from
all forms of abuse, neglect, cruelty exploitation and
others. The state shall intervene on behalf of the
child when the parent, guardian, teachers or person
having cared or custody of the child fails or is unable
to protect the child against abuse, exploitation, and
other (Senate and House of Representative of the
Philippines in congress, June 17, 1992).

Dep-Ed Sec. Luistro (2012) as cited in this study


stated that the objective of the Child Protection
Policy (CPP) is to promote zero- tolerance policy for
any act of child exploitation, violence, discrimination
and other forms of abuse. He argued the public to
participate actively in reporting cases of bullying
against students in public schools to the CPC Sp
appropriate actions could be taken (Ronda, 2012)

Furthermore, he emphasized that R.A 10627 has


enhanced Dep-eds existing Child Protection Policy
(Dep-Ed order No. 40, S-2012) which puts primarily
importance on the well being of children. He said that
the act contributed to the departments continuing post
to develop safe and nurturing learner-centered
institutions (ibid).

Child protection is the process of protecting


individual child identified as either suffering, or
likely to suffer significant harm as a result of abuse
or neglect. It involves measures and structures
designed to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect
(Emily Roberts, 2014).

For the school year 2013-2014, Dep-ed has received


more than 1700 reports of child abuse and bullying in
school out of these cases, 60% have already been
resolved. The department reminds that under special
protection of children against abuse, exploitation and
discrimination Act (R.A 7610) and CPP, teachers who
humiliate students will face administration sanctions.
Dep-ed continues to equate teachers and school, heads
with knowledge on child protection policies of the
government through a series of forums and consultation
(ibid).

The aim of the policy is to safeguard and promote


our pupils' welfare, safety and health by fostering an
honest, open, caring and supportive climate. Pupil's
safety is of paramount importance in our aspirations to
achieve the every child matters outcomes for all our
children (Pocklington Montessori, Carrlane,2000).

The researchers are curious of the day to day


contact with individual children during school terms,
teachers and other school staff are particularly well
placed to observe outward sign of abuse, changes of
behavior or failure to develop. Whether or not each
school try to support the needs of each individual
child by giving the three main elements to child
protection/safeguarding children policy remains to be
seen. Thus, this study conceptualized.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This study is anchored on the Child Protection


Policy Program under the Anti-bullying Act. of 2013
(R.A 10627).For purpose of this act, "bullying" shall
refer to an y severe or repeated use by one or more
students of written, verbal or electronic expression ,
or a physical act or gesture , or any combination
thereof, directed at another student that has the
effect of actually causing or placing the latter in
reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage
to his property, or materially and substantially
disrupting the education process or the orderly
operation of a school (Congress of the
Philippines,2012).

This study also considers the following theories


to be verified: UNICEF on Child Protection, Complexity
Theory, Theory and Practices of Child Protection and
Child Welfare.

UNICEF adapts a system approach to child


protection. Child protection systems have unique
structures, functions, capacities and other components.
These are typically assembled in relation to a set of
child protection goals. These systems have
traditionally neither been the particular focus of the
child protection discourse nor that of child protection
"practice" or action. UNICEF has initiated a process to
move to a more systematic approach in its child
protection programming. A child protection system as an
identified concept common to all child protection
practitioners- is new (JohnFluke,et al , 2010).
Second, Complexity Theory .The protection of children,
whether living at home or in residential care, is a
core endeavor of residential and field social work with
children. Yet, despite brad support from politicians,
policy makers and the majority of the public for this
work, child protection practice and practitioners are
frequently criticized for perceived or actual failures
to protect. Successive inquires produce reports with
similar recommendation, yet children continue to abused
and harmed, sometimes fatally. Clearly, better
understanding and more effective protection practices
need to be developed. Child protection is not simple
because of the multiplicity of factors that result in
children being at risk. Complexity theory provides
framework for understanding the processes involved but
without the problem of reductionism. It explores the
potential contribution of complexity theory and concept
that have relevance to the protection of children in
both field and residential child care practice. it is
argued that complexity theory offers new and helpful
ways to conceptualize and work with the processes which
underpin keeping children safe (Oxford University,
2007).

Finally,Child Protection and Child Welfare Theory and


practices. Child abuse, child protection and child welfare
issues in families remain one of the society's most
challenging and complex issues. For the human service
graduate, practitioners can operate in a range of practice
and agency context where child abuse is significant issues
requiring difficult decisions focused on protection
intervene. Understanding child abuse, child protection and
child welfare and being able to effectively respond can be
vital in dealing with a range of human service practitioner
concerns. As such, this child protection and child welfare
can be issues in a social and political context and
highlights the impact of class, gender, and race to the
process of the policy development and implementation. This
aim to make critical perspective available to students of
welfare policy and practice to assist them to understand the
content in with policy and practice occur (University of
Newcastle Australia, 2005)
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Public Elementary Level of Implementation


Teachers in North of the Child Protection
Butuan District Policy

This figure show the interrelation of independent and


dependent variable where the dependent is Level of
implementation of the child protection policy and the
independent is the public elementary teachers in north
butuan district. The independent variables include the
respondents length of services, sex and position. Wherein,
the dependent variable includes the orientation,school
preparedness, implication,effect on pupils behavior and
acceptance among respondents.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This study is an attempt to deermine the Level of
Implementation of the Child Protection Policy among selected
Public Elementary Teachers in North Butuan District.

Specifically this study would like to answer the following:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of ?

1.1 length of service

1.2 sex

1.3 position

2. What is the level of implementation of the child


protection policy among the respondents in terms of the
following:
2.1 orientation
2.2 school preparedness
2.3 implication
2.4 effect on pupils behavior
2.5 acceptances among respondents?

3. Is there a significant difference on the respondents


perception in terms of:
3.1 length of service
3.2 sex
3.3 position as differentiating variable?\

HYPOTHESIS

Ho: There is no significant difference on the respondents


perception in terms of :

1. length of service
2. sex
3. position

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


This study would be beneficial to the following
stakeholders:
PECIT College of Education Students: This study will help
them explore the program that would ensure the welfare
and safeguarding of the young people.

Public Elementary School Administration in North


District: This study will help them design a program that
would ensure the welfare of children and commit to
safeguarding and promoting the welfare of young people
and expect all staff and volunteers to share this
commitment.
Teachers : This study will help the teachers to be
responsible
For their own actions and behavior and should
avoid any conduct and to ensure the welfare of their
pupils.
PECIT Staff: This study will help them understand their
responsibility in safeguarding and promoting the welfare
of children and young people.
Parents: This study will help them understand their roles
in ensuring the welfare of their children.
Pupils: This study will help them to understand the roles
and policies for ensuring their own welfare.
Future Researcher: The study will be their basis in
conducting a similar study focusing on recommendation of
this study.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION


This study considers the teachers at North Butuan
District, Butuan City, Their profile and their Level of
Implementation of the Child Protection policy for S.Y.
2015-2016.This includes the policys implementation ,
information dissemination effect on pupils behavior , and
acceptance among respondents.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined operationally:

Butuan City is the capital of the province of Agusan


del Norte 2000, when Republic Act. 8811 transferred the
capital to Cabadbaran.
Child Protection Policy ( Republic Act NO.7610 )- this
policy assist staff to respond appropriately where there
is a concerns for childs well being or adisclosure
abuse.
Elementary refer to the first grade to the sixth grade
level in basic education.
Teacher is a person who delivers an educational program
,assesses student participation in an educational
program, and administers or provides consistent and
substantial leadership to an educational program.
Implemantation is the realization of an application or
execution of a plan ,idea ,model , design ,specification,
standard, algorithm or policy.

A. CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE

Shackewell (2013), Child protection is committed to


create and maintain a safe and secure environment for
pupils, staff, volunteers visitors and promoting a
climate where children and adults will fell confident
about sharing any concerns which they may have about
their own safety or the well being of others.
The role of workers attitudes and child wishes in child
protection workers assessment and recommendation
regarding removal and reunification. The study examines
how child protection workers risk assessment and
recommendation on removal and reunification of children
risk are influenced by the child and mother wishes
regarding removal and associated with the workers own
attitude (Deview, 2008).
Child protection is apart of the wider work to
safeguarding and promote the welfare of children and
young people. It refers to the activity that undertaken
to protect specific children who are suffering from any
form of abuse and neglect. As parents are primary
caregivers of children, it is necessary to learn more
about parents perceptions, attitudes and behaviors
towards child safety (Taylor et al,2005) .
The Republic Act. 10627 or the Anti Bullying Act of
2013 was singed into law by President Benigno Aquino 111
on September 6, 2013.The law requires all elementary and
secondary schools in the country to adopt an anti-
bullying policy. According to a study conducted on 2008
by the Britain-Based Plan International, 50 percent of
school children in the Philippines experienced bullying
either by their teachers or their peers (Flores ,
Helen,2013)

B. RESEARCH LITERATURE

This study considers the following studies conducted


by the researchers and stakeholders regarding the
level of implementation of child protection policy and
the perspective of the community .Lets preview the
different studies.

Devorah Daro,PH.D. (2011) .Child Maltreatment


Previntion : Past , Present , Future. Child abuse
prevention efforts have grown exponentially over the
past 30 years. Some of this expansion reflects new
public policies and expanded formal services such as
parents education classes , support groups , home
visitations programs and safety education for children.
Preventing Child Abuse is not simply matter of parents
doing a better job, but rather it is about creating a
context in which doing better is easier. It remains
important to remind the public that the child abuse and
neglect are serious treats to a childs healthy
development and overt violence towards children and a
persistent lack of attention to their care and
supervision are unacceptable. When the problem is owned
by all individuals and communities prevention will
progress, and fewer children will remain risk.

Lussine Shahinyan (2004) . Child Protection in


Armenia. The study has revealed evidence of improvement
in the child protection system in Armenia, such a
reforms in legal fields, implementation of new program
and cooperation between different actors in child
protection sphere. But the major change seen as a
result of the study was the three tired system, which,
although, needs to past a long way in order to read its
full and effective operation. As the study was chosen
for a city which was the representative of a Marz a
relatively low poverty rate, the study suggest to
conduct a research using the same data collection
tools, in the poorest Marz in Armenia,which is the
Shirak Marz. Statistics showed above and compare the
result to see more clearly the correlation between the
childs rights violation cases and poverty and then
compare the picture with the result showed on this
study. This research study can also conduct country-
wide. This will give a comparative look at child rights
violations with variation in poverty among all the
Marzes in Armenia.

Jay A. Yacat (2011) , Child Protection in the


Philippines: A Situational Analysis. There have been
attempts to link child protection with social
protection which has now become a trend especially
among member countries of the association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN). Save the children defines child
protection as measures and structures to prevent and
respond o abuse,neglect, exploitation and violence
affecting children in all setting. The Philippines has
been cited as possessing a remarkably strong
legislative framework that enables the passing of child
protection laws and policies, both at the national and
local levels. Certain groups of children will require
specific attention, as their exposure to threats and
abuses is high either because they grow up in an
unstable environment, with no sufficient protection
networks or because the adults they deal with do not
see their best as a top priority.

Bernadette J. Madrid et al. (2009), Child


Maltreatment Prevention in the Philippines situations:
Recommendations include conducting a national
prevalence study on child maltreatment; working with
communities to increase their readiness and capacity o
implement a primary prevention program on child
maltreatment and identify a central body with the legal
mandate to implement the national plan to end violence
against children. A central government body needs to be
identified who will be responsible for the
implementation of the framework to end violence against
children and should be given in legal mandate and
resource to do so.

Alana James (2010). School Bullying. School


Bullying is pervasive and most children will probably
experience it at some stage either as a witness, a
victim, or by being bully them. Large-scale surveys
shows that it happen across the world, through it can
involve different behaviors and help different meanings
in different countries. Telling someone usually help
but this does depend upon how well it is acted upon by
the school. Training should be made available to
teachers and other school staff in how to recognize
bullying, an how to intervene effectively. It is very
positive that most schools in the UK have an anti-
bullying policy, but work is needed to ensure
consistency and comprehensiveness, so that all young
people are afforded the same protection from bullying.
Further research is needed into the effectiveness of
different intervention.

Seamus Dooley et al (2002). In Guidance for


Media Reporting on Child Abuse and Neglect. It is
stated that sensitive and professional journalism is a
key element in any media strategy for improving the
quality of reporting concerning human rights and
society. The daily challenge to journalists and media
organization is particularly felt in coverage of
children and their rights. It is hoped that these
guidelines will become a useful references point for
journalist and public bodies when it comes to reporting
on cases of child abuse. More so media coverage plays
an important role in highlighting issues and concern
relating to child protection. However , this should
always be carried out in a sensitive manner with the
children involved and their family members in mind.

Lynne Benson et al.(2006) . In Child-Safe


Organization,the Child-Safe Organizations training
program and toolkit provide a framework for the
development and practical application of child
protection policies within local organizations that
work with an for children. The training especially
targets grassroots and local organizations which may
not have the benefit of policy department and in house
child protection specialist. The most important factor
to consider when organization develop policies and
guidelines is the best interest of children. It is
important the childrens right are respected in
accordance with the United Nations Convention of the
right of the child and national laws. Basic right
include the right to protection from harm, the right to
a safe and appropriate environment, and the right to be
listened to and valued.

Julie Des Lauriers (2007). The Child Protection


Systems Response to Domestic Violence. The Australian
child protection policies analysed all approach the
issue of co-occurrent Domestic Violence and child
maltreatment differently but all present DV as a
problem directly linked to child protection issues. Not
all policies included a generated analysis of DV use of
gendered language also valied. Confidentiality and
safety of mothers, childrens, and workers should be the
primary concern of all child protection work and this
should also be reflected in policies and procedures.
Supporting and empowering women should be the
cornerstone of working with abused mother as well as
providing them with adequate resources for safety and
financial independence from the perpetrator of DV.

Julie Taylor et al. (2014). Disabled Children


and Child Protection in Scotland: An investigation into
the relationship between the professional practice, and
child protection and disability. This research shows
these are still relevant. Many child protection
professionals were aware of the increased vulnerability
or disabled children , but there were views that
disabled children without communication impairments
were not protected than other children. The issue
that child protection workers struggled with was how to
work with and adapt current child protection processes
for disabled childrens needs. There is a whole-hearted
commitment across the child protection system for
putting the child at the centre of practice. However,
getting it right for every child does not mean treating
every child the same. Consideration needs to be given
to how best to adapt practice, assessment and
intervention for children with a range of impairments.
Attention should be paid to ensure that disability is
not conflated with communication impairments and that
all disabled children are given attention and support
they need within the child protection system. More
needs to be done to ensures disabled children voices
are heard and included within formal system. While
there are positive aspect , this research shows that
the child protection system is a cause for concern in
relation to disabled children.

SYNOPSIS
A child protection policy provides guidelines for
organization and their staff to create safe environment
for children.It refers to the activity that is
undertaken to protect specific children who are
suffering from any form of neglect and abuse.The Anti-
bullying Act of 2013,this law is requires all
elementary and secondary schools in the country to
adopt anti-bullying because 50% of school children in
the Philippines experienced bullying either in their
teachers or their peer.It is pervasive and most
children will probably experience it at some stage
either as a witness, a victim , or by being bully them.
The following studies conducted by the researchers and
stakeholders that related of the attitude towards child
protection policy.
Child Maltreatment Previntion : Past , Present ,
Future. Preventing Child Abuse is not simply matter of
parents doing a better job, but rather it is about
creating a context in which doing better is easier.
It remains important to remind the public that the
child abuse and neglect are serious treats to a childs
healthy development

Child Protection in Armenia. The study has revealed


evidence of improvement in the child protection system
in Armenia, such a reforms in legal fields,
implementation of new program and cooperation between
different actors in child protection sphere. Statistics
showed above and compare the result to see more clearly
the correlation between the childs rights violation
cases and poverty.

Child Protection in the Philippines: A Situational


Analysis. Save the children defines child protection as
measures and structures to prevent and respond o
abuse,neglect, exploitation and violence affecting
children. . The Philippines has been cited as
possessing a remarkably strong legislative framework
that enables the passing of child protection laws and
policies, both at the national and local levels.

Child Maltreatment Prevention in the Philippines


situations: Recommendations include conducting a
national prevalence study on child maltreatment;
working with communities to increase their readiness
and capacity o implement a primary prevention program
on child maltreatment and identify a central body with
the legal mandate to implement the national plan to end
violence against children.

School Bullying. School Bullying is pervasive and most


children will probably experience it at some stage
either as a witness, a victim, or by being bully
them.Training should be made available to teachers and
other school staff in how to recognize bullying, an how
to intervene effectively.

In Guidance for Media Reporting on Child Abuse and


Neglect. . It is stated that sensitive and
professional journalism is a key element in any media
strategy for improving the quality of reporting
concerning human rights and society. The daily
challenge to journalists and media organization is
particularly felt in coverage of children and their
rights. It is hoped that these guidelines will become a
useful references point for journalist and public
bodies when it comes to reporting on cases of child
abuse.

In Child-Safe Organization,the Child-Safe Organizations


training program and toolkit provide a framework for
the development and practical application of child
protection policies within local organizations that
work with an for children. The training especially
targets grassroots and local organizations which may
not have the benefit of policy department and in house
child protection specialist. The most important factor
to consider when organization develop policies and
guidelines is the best interest of children.

The Child Protection Systems Response to Domestic


Violence (DV). The Australian child protection policies
analysed all approach the issue of co-occurrent
Domestic Violence and child maltreatment differently
but all present DV as a problem directly linked to
child protection issues. Not all policies included a
generated analysis of DV use of gendered language also
valied. Supporting and empowering women should be the
cornerstone of working with abused mother as well as
providing them with adequate resources for safety and
financial independence from the perpetrator of DV.

Disabled Children and Child Protection in Scotland: An


investigation into the relationship between the
professional practice, and child protection and
disability. Many child protection professionals were
aware of the increased vulnerability or disabled
children , but there were views that disabled children
without communication impairments were not protected
than other children. The issue that child protection
workers struggled with was how to work with and adapt
current child protection processes for disabled
childrens needs. There is a whole-hearted commitment
across the child protection system for putting the
child at the centre of practice. While there are
positive aspect , this research shows that the child
protection system is a cause for concern in relation to
disabled children.

IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY

The review of related literature and studies considered


in this study will be the basis in constructing
questionnaire.More so,the ideas and concepts as well as
the results and findings of related studies will be
used as references in interpreting and analyzing the
data to be gathered in this study.