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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Project

Sewage treatment plant is a facility that design to receive the wastewater


and remove all the material that will effects the quality of water which compromising
the public health and safety after wastewater has discharged into the receiving
system. The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to allow industrial effluent,
domestic and commercial used to be dispose in a proper manner without risking a
human health and environmental because improper management of wastewater will
contribute an environmental pollution, besides communicable disease will easy to
spread due to presence of variety of pathogenic organism in wastewater.
Conventional wastewater treatment processes is a process that involve a combination
of physical, chemical and biological processes and operation to remove solid, organic
matter and nutrient from wastewater.

Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of


water. It is a measurement used to measure the condition of water relative to the
needs of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or for some purpose. It
is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance

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can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to
health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. In Malaysia, water
quality is important because water from domestic sewage and industrial effluent that
needs to be discharge into environment must undergo a few treatments so that it will
meet a standard effluent requirement by Department of Environment (DOE)
Malaysia.

1.2 Problem Statement

This final year project is conduct at one of the IPTA in Selangor. This IPTA
has built a modern sewage treatment plant to support a wastewater for the whole
campus. This campus is not fully developed and still under phase one construction
and not fully accommodating the peoples. For the sewage treatment plant, it was
functioning for the fully development phase. In addition, the water produced by this
plant after the treatment process is the higher grade which is A. The minimum
requirement needed by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia is grade B
before the water is to be discharge to the environment [8].

The problem statement of this project, this study is conducted to determine


the processes involved for wastewater management in this campus. Based on the
information obtained, the energy usage for the water treatment at this plant is about
to processes for fully development accommodating student. Thus, it will cause the
excess of energy usage for the wastewater treatment processes. In addition, the
highest grade of water produced in this plant required a lot of processes involved in
wastewater treatment. Therefore, this study will focus on a processing method to
reduce the water quality from grade A to the grade B, where at the same time it reach
the minimum requirement set by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia

1.3 Scope of Study

The scope of this project is to make the adjustment of the operational system
of water treatment plant at one of the IPTA in Selangor. Water from the adjustment
operation then will be evaluating in order to determine the water grade discharge to
environment. There are several parameters involved that need to be tested and

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conducted on water discharged after treatment had done thus it is complying with the
Environment Quality Act 1974 requirement. The parameters are:

pH test
Suspended Solid (SS) test
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) test
Oil and Grease test

The result of these tests will verify the quality of water produce by this plant
and comparison grade will be defined. Energy consumption from the current process
and adjustment process will be analyzed.

1.4 Objectives

This study is carry out to analyze water treatment method conducted in the
Sewerage Treatment Plant in one of the IPTA in Selangor,

The main objective for this final year project is:

i. To test and adjust Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operation by reducing the
duration of operation.

ii. To compare the current process and the subsequent process after optimization
of plant operation in term of energy consumption. Energy consumption is related to
how the processes involved for sewage water treatment to produce a standard
effluent level.

iii. To compare and analyze water quality from the adjustment operation to the
current operation. There are a several important parameters will be analyzed such as
pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solid (SS).

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

According to the Jeremy Parr et. al [3] industrial effluent, domestic and
commercial usage are considered as wastewater and once it is produce and collected,
those wastewater are required to undergo several treatments. Wastewater or also
known as sewage water is difficult to be treated and disposed because once improper
management occurred it might contribute a great influence to public health and
safety and to the environment. Nowadays, conventional sewage treatment is hugely
use to treat wastewater because it meant to reduce and decrease biodegradable
organic material, suspended solid and some nutrients contained in sewage water.

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This treatment involved the removal of these pollutants and converted it into another
valuable product which is sludge.

Sewerage treatment processes can be divided into some groups of processes


according to their function of performance and their complexity. The first process is
the preliminary processes. Preliminary processes is a simple process that
significantly removed the coarse solid pollution by used of screening (usually by bar
screens) and grit removal through constant velocity channel. Second process of
sewage is the primary process. In this processes, plain sedimentation, which is the
simple completion of the solid material in sewage, can reduce the polluting load by
significant amounts. Then it will proceed to the secondary process, which is
removing of common pollutant done by biological processes. The last stage in this
sewage treatment is a tertiary process where it is function to remove specific
pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorus or any other specific industrial pollutants.

Preliminary and primary processes of water treatment are considered as the


most effective treatment process since it can remove a huge amount of water
pollutant contained in sewage water. While for the secondary process, it involved
many different types for this process. The most common one are describe in the table
opposite, with brief comments on their suitability for low-and middle-income
countries. The tertiary treatment process is a particular process which is further than
the need of most common communities.

2.1.1 Aerobic and Anaerobic treatment


Aerobic is a most conventional wastewater treatment process, where oxygen
is used by bacteria to break down the waste product. This treatment required high
energy requirement for bacteria to perform their function besides it might produce a
large amount of sludge. Thus, it will make this process complicated to control and
expensive. On the other hand, anaerobic treatment is fully different compared to
aerobic treatment since bacteria in anaerobic process do not use oxygen. Anaerobic
treatment is much easier than aerobic treatment where less energy required besides
less sludge produced. Thus, it will make this process cheaper and simpler. In

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addition, the temperature in which bacteria involved in anaerobic process like to


work is easy to maintain especially in hot climates. However, anaerobic process also
have its own side effect where it much slower than aerobic process and only effective
at removing the simple organic waste and not to any other pollutant such as nutrient
and pathogen.
Form the finding of this observation; any plant that decides to undergo
wastewater treatment needs significant investment and control. Therefore any
decision to implement such a facility should be carefully considered.

Figure 2.1 Typical stage in the conventional of sewage [Source from Water and
Environment Health at London and Loughborough (WELL)]

2.2 Water quality impact of onsite treatment and disposal system

Daniel E. Meerof et al. [4] was conducted an evaluation of water quality


impacts of onsite treatment and disposal systems on urban coastal waters and they
have studied about the onsite sewage treatment and disposal system (OSTDS) that
not properly sited and maintain. From their finding of this study, improperly

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maintain of OSTDS will pose a potential risk to the public health and may contribute
toward degradation of receiving water body.

2.3 Assessing the water quality index (WQI) of water treatment plant

From the M. K. Chaturvedi and J. K. Bassin [5] was carried out the water
quality monitoring exercise with water quality index (WQI) method by using water
characteristic data for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from
December 2006 to August 2007. WQI is used to classify the standard of water
whether it is excellent, good, medium, bad, and very bad. M. K Chaturvedi and J. K
Bassin was used the National Sanitation Foundation WQI procedure to calculate the
WQI. The index range is from 0 to 100 where 100 represent the excellent quality
condition. Theyve collected water samples monthly at a three different place in
Delhi and five parameters was analysed which is namely, nitrate, pH, total dissolved
solid, turbidity, and temperature of the water. From the finding, theyve found that
the three samplings of water show that the water quality was between good and
medium and it was acceptable for water supply. The WQI has been considered as
one criterion for surface water classification, based on the use of standard parameters
for water characterization. This index is numeric expression used to transform large
quantities of water characterization data into a single number which represent water
quality level (Mohamad Alu Fulazzaky et. al [2])

2.4 Effluent Standard

Domestic sewage treatment is largely designed to produce an effluent low in


solids and organic. However, for another treatment that eliminate the nutrient,
change the pH and disinfect effluent might be add depending to the environment
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discharged from treatment plants the environment. These take the form of
acceptable upper limits for various effluent contaminants. Effluent sample from the
sewerage treatment plant will be tested in laboratory to make sure the water met the
standard and treatment plants are being operated correctly [Indah Water Konsortium]

Table 2.1 Standard Effluent of Malaysia [8]

Standard
Parameter Unit A B
Temperature C 40 40
pH value - 6.0-9.0 5.5-9.0
BOD5 at 20 mg/l 20 50
COD mg/l 50 100
Suspended Solids mg/l 50 100
Mercury mg/l 0.005 0.05
Cadmium mg/l 0.01 0.02
Chromium, Hexavalent mg/l 0.05 0.05
Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.10
Cyanide mg/l 0.05 0.10
Lead mg/l 0.10 0.5
Chromium, Trivalent mg/l 0.20 1.0
Copper mg/l 0.20 0.1
Manganese mg/l 0.20 0.1
Nickel mg/l 0.20 0.1
Tin mg/l 0.20 0.1
Zinc mg/l 1.0 1.0
Boron mg/l 1.0 4.0
Iron (Fe) mg/l 1.0 5.0
Phenol mg/l 0.001 1.0
Free Chlorine mg/l 1.0 2.0

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Sulphide mg/l 0.50 0.5


Oil and Grease mg/l Not Detectable 10.0

2.5 Physical and Chemical characteristic of wastewater

According to Dr. Sultan A. Salem et. al [6] a discharged of sewage water to


environment increased the availability of plant nutrient and caused the risky effect of
hazardous heavy metals, organic pollutant and pathogenic agent. From their study,
theyve defined the term of sewage water especially for sludge and effluent, and
effective sludge treatment processes. They also was identified the general
characteristic of sewage water which is physical, chemical and biological
characteristic in different location.

From a research by Srivastava Anukool and Srivastava Shivani [7], they had
done an assessment of Physico-chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator
bacteria in surface water of River Gomti in Uttar Pradesh. Their studied was aimed to
estimate a current status of Physico-chemical characteristics and level of sewage
pollution for the whole Gomti River. The sampling was covered from upstream and
downstream region of the river. Eight water samples to be analyzed to determine the
status of Physico-chemical of water. The analysis was done such as Water
temperature, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solid,
Conductivity, pH, COD, BOD and DO. The study for bacteriological samples was
focused on parameters like Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC) and Faecal Streptocoli
(FS). From their findings, the high values of sewage pollution indicator bacteria was
detected and they are revealed that the quality of water of Gomti River was very
poor, unsafe and not acceptable for any purpose. The main cause is totally from the
water treatment system from all cities alongside the Gomti River.

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2.5.1 Sewage Sludge

Sewage sludge is produced during mechanical, biological and chemical


sewage system. According to P. Kosobucki et. al [9] composition of the sewage
sludge is very complex. Sludge is rich in micro- and microelements but the sludge
can have toxic compounds and pathogenic organism. Regularly sludge content does
not exceed 2% of the effluent sewage volume. Sewage sludge obtained as a by
product reflects the chemical composition of the treated sewage. From their research,
they have studied about the sewage sludge treatment methods and more attention to
non-industrial methods of neutralization of the sewage sludge. Figure 2.2 shows that
the selection of sludge treatment methods. It shows that composting and
environmental utilization is a preferred ways of sludge management and these two
ways are different from the economical point view. The composting is more
expensive than the environmental utilization which is cheapest method for
neutralized the sewage sludge.

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Figure 2.2 Management for sewage sludge [9].


For the finding of their research, theyve defined that there are many
methods for neutralization of sewage sludge but the cost have been a serious
constraint for this practice. Further development is very important to limit the
investment and abuse cost. Sludge management is very important for towards big
environmental use and possible with a slow decrease of the storage on public
dumping site.

2.6 Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology for Wastewater Treatment

For Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), this is simple system. It has a set of
tanks that operate on a fill and draw basis. It made from earthen or other type metal
structure. In the SBR system, each tank will be filling during a discrete period time
and operated as a batch reactor. The differences of SBR and conventional continuous
flow activated sludge system is SBR will carried out various function such as

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aeration, equalization and sedimentation in a time rather in a space sequence. The


advantage by using SBR is flexibility in an operation [10].

2.6.1 Physical description of SBR system

SBR was designed consist single or multiple reactor tanks. The operation is in
parallel which is consist of five distinctive operating phase, Fill, React, Settle, Draw,
and Idle phase.

Figure 2.3 SBR for one complete cycle [10].

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2.7 Effect of aeration in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)

One of the experiments was carried out by N. Artan and R. Tasli [11]. They
was used SBR to carried out to investigate the effect of filling and aeration on the
efficiency of nutrient removal the characteristics of settling. On their study, they was
operated a SBR with a cycle time 8 hours in four different operations conditions. The
increasing of filling time will gradually reduced the aeration time during these four
different conditions. They also defined that the change of sludge characteristic
werent given a major effect on nutrient removal. From the result of their experiment,
it can be conclude that aeration time fraction is the most important parameter for the
operational of SBR that will influences the efficiency of the nutrient removal.

In the reaction process in SBR that involved aeration process, it involves the
utilization of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and ammonia nitrogen where it is
applicable by microorganism. The duration of aeration period and the mass of sludge
will determines the degree of the wastewater treatment. Aeration period length was
depending on the wastewater strength and the degree of nitrification provided for the
wastewater treatment [15].

2.8 Aeration Process Energy Audit

In the wastewater plant, aeration and pumping is the largest energy user. The
largest energy user in the water system is the pump [12]. Energy consumption in
wastewater treatment is approximately about 60% can be attributed to the oxidation
process or aeration process [16].

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2.9 Energy optimization of the aeration process

A. Thunberg et. al. [13] studies for energy optimization at Kppala


Wastewater Treatment Plant in Stockholm Sweden. Aeration of biological treatment
consumes the largest energy in conventional wastewater treatment plants. They
performed a full-scale optimization experiment of the dissolved oxygen (DO) control
in the aerobic tanks. The strategy gave a reduction of the total airflow of 18% and
with conserved treatment efficiency. They modified the strategy and the results are
similar to those in the preceding experiments.

2.10 Electricity cost in Wastewater Treatment Plant

In order to sustain the economic growth of Malaysia, an electricity provider,


Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) was taking steps in energy supply, which is
managing the utilization of imbalance energy by promoting a better participation
from the customer through a program known as Demand Side Management (DSM)
[14].

In this country, TNB was introduced a C2 Tariff for the wastewater treatment
plant.

Table 2.2 TNB Tariff for commercial category

Tariff Category Unit Rates


Tariff B
Low Voltage Commercial Tariff
For all kWh cent/kWh 32.3
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
Tariff C1

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Medium Voltage General


Commercial Tariff
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per
month RM/kW 19.50
For all kWh cent/kW 23.4
The minimum monthly charge is RM
600.00
Tariff C2
Medium Voltage Peak/Off Peak
Commercial Tariff
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per
month during the peak-period RM/kW 29.00
For all kWh during the peak-period cent/kW 23.4
For all kWh during the off peak-period cent/kW 14.4
The minimum monthly charge is RM
600.00
(Source: Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) Malaysia)

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Methodology is a study about the procedure or method used to obtain and


collect the require information. Among the methods used in this project is to
interview the concerned person in respect of project undertaken and also from the
observations from the visits and analysis of existing information. The information
collected will be analysing to obtain the data from the procedure or method use. The
data was analysed to facilitate by means of graph based on the results of the
experiments and the analysis of the result.

3.2

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Process Flow of Research

START
Introduction to sewage
treatment plant
Water Index Quality
Acquire journal from the past (WQI)
research and development. Effluent Standard
Physical and Chemical
characteristic of waste
water
Sewage Sludge
Sequencing Batch Reactor
Analyze and understand the (SBR) System
acquired journals Aeration Process Energy
Audit

Identify relation between journals


with project

Relation with
the project

Research on Sequencing Batch


Reactor (SBR)

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Actual process duration of


SBR is 60 minutes.
Experiment: Changing the Adjustment operation to:
operation of Sequencing Batch - 55 Minutes
Reactor (SBR) -50 minutes
-45 Minutes

Water testing to check the


quality of water
pH Test
Biochemical Oxygen
Water Samples and testing Demand (BOD) Test
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD) Test
Suspended Solid Test
Oil and Grease Test

Assist by Co. Supervisor,


UiTM Puncak Alam sewage
treatment plant staff and
contractor

Obtain the result


from the
experiment

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Quality of water
Energy consumption for the
every Sequencing Batch
Result analysis
Reactor (SBR) duration
Analyzed the energy saving
Electricity cost estimation

Relate the result with the


projects objective

Project
objectives
achieved

Conclusion

TERMINATION

Figure 3.1 Process flow of the research

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3.3 Gantt Chart for Final Year Project I

Semester Part 7
Task Duration (Months)
July August September October November December January
Activities
Final Year Project I
Search for project and
1
confirmation
PERSONAL

Problem Statement,Objectives
2
and Scope of Project
3 Literature Review

4 Project Methodology

5 Proposal Submit to Supervisor

6 Final Presentation
Remarks:
Planning

Actual

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3.4 Gannt Chart for Final Year Project I

Semester Part 8
Task Duration (Months)
February Mac April May June July
Activities
Final Year Project II
Seasonal Mode Research at
1
UiTM Puncak Alam
Sequantial Batch Reactor (SBR)
2
Operation Research
Samples of water from SBR
3
operational changes
PERSONAL

4 Samples of water testing

Result compilation for water


5
testing and energy consumption

6 Progress update

Draft submission for 2nd


7
Examiner

8 Final Presentation

9 Final Report submission

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3.5 Laboratory Tests

Samples of water will take from the plant to go through a laboratory tests.
Several test to be conduct such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) test,
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test, Suspended Solid (SS) test and Oil and
Grease test. The purpose of this laboratory test is to determine whether the
wastewater was discharge into the environment is meet the standard needed by
Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia.

Table 3.1 Test Method for water parameters

TEST PARAMETER UNIT TEST METHOD


pH value - APHA 4500-H+ B
BOD 5 @ 200C mg/l APHA 5210 B
COD mg/l APHA 5220 C
Suspended Solids mg/l APHA 2540 D
Oil and Grease mg/l APHA 5520 B
*APHA - American Public Health Association 21st Edition 2005

3.5.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Test Procedure

i. To ensure proper biological activity during the BOD test, a


wastewater sample:

a. Must be free of chlorine. If chlorine is present in the sample, a


dechlorination chemical (sodium sulphite) been added prior to testing.
b. Needs to be in the pH range of 6.5 - 7.5 S.U If the sample is outside
this range, then acid or base been added as needed.
c. Needs to have an existing adequate microbiological population. If the
microbial population is inadequate or unknown, a seed solution of
bacteria added along with an essential nutrient buffer solution that
ensures bacteria population vitality.
ii. Specialized 300 mL BOD bottles designed to allow full filling with no
air space and provide an airtight seal are used. The bottles a filled with
the sample to be tested or dilution (distilled or deionised) water and
various amounts of the wastewater sample added to reflect different

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dilutions. At least one bottle is filled only with dilution water as a


control or blank.
iii. A DO meter is used to measure the initial dissolved oxygen concentra-
tion (mg/L) in each bottle, which should be a least 8.0 mg/L. Each
bottle in then placed into a dark incubator at 20C for five days.
iv. After five days ( 3 hours) the DO meter is used again to measure a
final dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/L), which ideally will be a
reduction of at least 4.0 mg/L.
v. The final DO reading is then subtracted from the initial DO reading
and the result is the BOD concentration (mg/L). If the wastewater
sample required dilution, the BOD concentration reading is multiplied
by the dilution factor

3.5.1.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Equation

i. Solve for BOD


= (1 ) (3.2.1.1.1)

ii. Solve for ultimate BOD



= (1 )
(3.2.1.1.2)

iii. Solve for seeded BOD


( )(1 )
= (3.2.1.1.3)

Or
( )
= (3.2.1.1.4)

iv. Solve for temperature of interest

= 20 ()20 (3.2.1.1.5)

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Where:
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
L ultimate biological demand
k ultimate biological demand
t time
D1 initial diluted seeded wastewater dissolved oxygen
D2 final diluted seeded wastewater dissolved oxygen
B1 initial diluted seed sample DO
B2 final diluted seed sample DO
f seed volume ratio
P wastewater decimal fraction

3.5.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Test Procedure

i. Previous to completing the COD test, a series of known standards are


prepared using KHP (potassium hydrogen phthalate). Most waste-
water samples will fall in the high range, so standards of 100, 250, 500
and 1000 mg/L are typically prepared. COD standards can also be
purchased.
ii. A COD reactor/heating (150C) block and a colorimeter are turned on
so that both instruments are allowed to stabilize.
iii. Pre-prepared low-range (3 - 150 ppm) or high-range (20 - 1500 ppm)
vials are selected for the COD test based on expected results. Both
ranges can be used if expected results are unknown.
iv. One vial is marked as a blank and three or four vials are marked with
known standard levels. Two vials are then marked for the wastewater
sample to make a duplicate run. Note: If multiple wastewater samples
are being run, at least 10% of samples are duplicated.
v. 2 mL of liquid are added to each vial. In the case of the blank 2 mL of
DI water are added. 2 mL of each standard are added to the
corresponding vials. If the wastewater sample is tested at full strength,
then 2 mL is added to the corresponding vial. If dilution is required,

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then serial dilutions are performed and 2 mL of the diluted sample are
added to the corresponding vial.
vi. Each vial is mixed well and placed into the reactor block for two
hours. After two hours, the vials are removed from the block to a
cooling rack for about 15 minutes.
vii. The colorimeter is set and calibrated per the specific instructions for
that unit (i.e., proper wavelength, blank and standards) and each vial is
placed in the unit and the COD concentration read.
viii. If the sample diluted, the corresponding multiplication been made.

3.5.3 Oil and Grease Test Procedure

i. A clean flask is dried, cooled and weighed.


ii. A 1L wastewater sample is acidified (typically using hydrochloric or
sulphuric acid) to a pH 2.
iii. The acidified wastewater sample is then transferred to a 2L separator
funnel.
iv. 30 mL of the extraction chemical (n-Hexane) then added to the funnel
and the funnel had shaken vigorously for two minutes.
v. The wastewater/extraction chemical layers are allowed to separate in
the funnel (the lighter water layer will be on the top and heavier
extraction chemical layer will be on the bottom). The bottom layer of
extraction chemical is drained into the flask prepared in Step 1.
vi. Steps 4/5 are repeated twice more to extract O&G.
vii. The contents of the flask (the extraction chemical containing O&G)
are then heated so that the extraction chemical is distilled into another
container.
viii. The flask (containing the extracted O&G) is reweighed. The original
weight of the flask is subtracted and the total O&G weight in mg is
calculated. The results provide the O&G concentration in mg/L.

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3.5.4 Total Suspended Solid Procedure

i. Make a preparation of the glass fibre filter disk.


ii. Sample of water selection with a maximum of 200mL that will yield
no more than 200 mg of total suspended solids.
iii. Place the filter on the base and clamp on funnel and apply vacuum.
iv. Shake the sample vigorously and quantitatively transfer the sample to
the filter using a large orifice, volumetric pipette. Remove all traces of
water by continuing to apply vacuum after sample has passed through.
v. Rinse the pipette and funnel onto the filter with small volume of Milli-
Q water. Remove all traces of water by continuing to apply vacuum
after water has passed through.
vi. Carefully remove the funnel and filter from the base. Dry at least one
hour at 103-105EC. Cool in desiccators and weigh.
vii. Retain the sample in the dish for subsequent ignition at 550oC if
volatile suspended solids are desired.

3.5.4.1 Total Suspended Solid Calculation

()1000
/ = , (3.2.4.1.1)

Where:

A = weight of filter + dried residue, mg and

B = weight of filter, mg

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

In this section, it will shows that the result of the experiment. There are three
samples of water had been test in order to determine the standard effluent. Samples
of water were taken after through the adjustment operation in Sequencing Batch
Reactor (SBR) system. There are two types of water has been tested which is water
in (water flows in the wastewater treatment plant or influent) and water out (water
discharge from the plant or effluent). The current process of SBR is 60 minutes per
cycle. Standard grade water discharged to the environment is A for the 60 minutes
operation of SBR.

Energy consumption after reducing the SBR operation also being recorded
and analyzed in this section. The main purpose for the energy consumption analysis
is to determine the energy saving for this plant per day and per month after reducing
operational time of SBR.

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Table 4.1 Sample 1 data obtain for Sequential Batch Reactor operation

SAMPLE 1
Energy
Water
No. Duration Parameters Water In Water Out Consumption
Standard
(kWH)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 155 4
1 1 Hour COD 471 19 A 792
Suspended Solid 236 20
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 156 6
2 55 Minutes COD 472 26 A 756
Suspended Solid 230 33
Oil and Grease 99 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.7 at 26 deg 5.8 at 26 deg
BOD 153 10
3 50 Minutes COD 465 30 A 736
Suspended Solid 232 20
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.0 at 26 deg
BOD 156 12
4 45 Minutes COD 470 32 A 711
Suspended Solid 235 26
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)

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Table 4.2 Sample 2 data obtain for Sequential Batch Reactor operation

SAMPLE 2
Energy
Water
No. Duration Parameters Water In Water Out Consumption
Standard
(kWH)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 155 4
1 1 Hour COD 472 18 A 859
Suspended Solid 236 18
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 156 7
2 55 Minutes COD 471 24 A 756
Suspended Solid 230 37
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.7 at 26 deg 5.8 at 26 deg
BOD 155 11
3 50 Minutes COD 468 30 A 723
Suspended Solid 231 24
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.0 at 26 deg
BOD 156 11
4 45 Minutes COD 472 36 A 704
Suspended Solid 234 27
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)

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Table 4.3 Sample 3 data obtain for Sequential Batch Reactor operation

SAMPLE 3
Energy
Water
No. Duration Parameters Water In Water Out Consumption
Standard
(kWH)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 155 5
1 1 Hour COD 472 19 A 838
Suspended Solid 234 18
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.1 at 26 deg
BOD 156 6
2 55 Minutes COD 472 21 A 748
Suspended Solid 235 32
Oil and Grease 97 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.7 at 26 deg 5.8 at 26 deg
BOD 155 10
3 50 Minutes COD 471 30 A 730
Suspended Solid 231 21
Oil and Grease 99 Not detected (<2)
pH 6.9 at 26 deg 6.0 at 26 deg
BOD 156 13
4 45 Minutes COD 463 33 A 695
Suspended Solid 236 29
Oil and Grease 99 Not detected (<2)

30
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4.2 Graph of the water quality result

6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6
6.05
6
6
6
5.95
pH Value

5.9 5.8

5.85 5.8

5.8 5.8
5.75

5.7

5.65

60 Minutes
55 Minutes
50 Minutes
Duration 45 Minutes

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Figure 4.1 Graph of pH changes against duration of SBR operation

Figure shows the result of pH content in the wastewater treatment plant for
effluent water at UiTM Puncak Alam. Three samples have been tested for required
duration which is 60 minutes, 55 minutes, 50 minutes and 45 minutes. For the 60
minutes duration of SBR operation, pH value of effluent is 6.1 for all samples. pH
value remain 6.1 after reducing the system operation time to 55 minutes. For 50
minutes operation, pH value shows the reading of 5.8. And after 45 minutes
operation which is the minimum operation time for the experiment, pH value shows
the reading of 6.0. By referring Table 2.1(Standard Effluent of Malaysia), pH value
for the minimum operation time is standard A effluent.

31
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Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)


Sample 1
160

140

120

100

mg/L 80

60 Water In

40 Water Out

20
Grade B
0
60 Minutes
55 Minutes
50 Minutes
45 Minutes
Duration

Figure 4.2 Graph of BOD changes against duration of SBR operation

Figure shows the result of BOD content in the wastewater at UiTM Puncak
Alam wastewater treatment plant. This is a sample 1 result of water testing. There are
two types of water has been tested which is the water in (water flows into the
treatment plant or influent) and water out (water discharge from the treatment plant
or effluent). BOD in a wastewater been tested for each duration of SBR operation.
For the 60 minutes duration of SBR operation, BOD content of effluent is 4 mg/L. It
was increase to 6 mg/L after reducing the SBR system operation time to 55 minutes.
For 50 minutes operation, BOD content shows the reading of 10 mg/L. And after the
45 minutes operation which is the minimum operation time of the experiment, BOD
content increase to 12 mg/L. By referring Table 2.1(Standard Effluent of Malaysia),
BOD content for the minimum operation time is standard A effluent. Grade of
effluent will reduce to standard B if BOD content in effluent exceeds 50 mg/L.
Results for the sample 2 and 3 shows the similarities with the first sample.

32
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Chemical Oxygen Demand


(Sample 1)
500
450
400
350
300
mg/L

250
200 Water In

150 Water Out

100
50
0 Grade B
60 Minutes
55 Minutes
50 Minutes
Duration 45 Minutes

Figure 4.3 Graph of COD changes against duration of SBR operation

Figure shows the result of COD content in the wastewater at UiTM Puncak
Alam wastewater treatment plant. This is a sample 1 result of water testing. There are
two types of water has been tested which is the water in (water come into the plant or
influent) and water out (water discharge from the plant or effluent). COD in a
wastewater been tested for each duration of SBR operation at this plant. For the 60
minutes duration of SBR operation, COD content of effluent is 19 mg/L. It was
increase up to 26 mg/L after reducing the SBR system operation time to 55 minutes.
For 50 minutes operation, COD content shows the reading 30 mg/L. And after the 45
minutes operation which is the minimum operation time of the experiment, COD
content increase to 32 mg/L. By referring Table 2.1(Standard Effluent of Malaysia),
COD content for the minimum operation time is standard A effluent. Grade of
effluent will reduce to standard B if COD content in effluent exceeds 100 mg/L. For
the sample 2 and 3 of the experiment the result shows it close at similarities between
the three results.

33
`

Suspended Solid
(Sample 1)
250

200

150
mg/L

100 Water In
Water Out
50 Grade B

60 Minutes
55 Minutes
50 Minutes
Duration
45 Minutes

Figure 4.4 Graph of Suspended Solid changes against duration of SBR


operation

Figure shows the result of Suspended Solid (SS) content in the wastewater at
UiTM Puncak Alam wastewater treatment plant. This is a sample 1 result of water
testing. There are two types of water has been tested which is the water in (water
come into the plant or influent) and water out (water discharge from the plant or
effluent). SS in a wastewater been tested for each duration of SBR operation at this
plant. For the 60 minutes duration of SBR operation, SS content of effluent is 20
mg/L. It was increase up to 33 mg/L after reducing the SBR system operation time to
55 minutes. For 50 minutes operation, SS content shows the reading 20 mg/L. And
after the 45 minutes operation which is the minimum operation time of the
experiment, SS content is 26 mg/L. By referring Table 2.1(Standard Effluent of
Malaysia), COD content for the minimum operation time is standard A effluent.
Grade of effluent will reduce to standard B if SS content in effluent exceeds 100
mg/L. For the sample 2 and 3 of the experiment the result shows it close at
similarities between the three results.

34
`

Oil and Grease


100
90
80
70
60
mg/L

50
40
Water In
30
Water Out
20
10
0
60 Grade B
Minutes 55
Minutes 50
Minutes 45
Duration Minutes

Figure 4.5 Graph of Oil and Grease change s against duration of SBR operation

Figure shows the result of Oil and Grease content in the wastewater at UiTM
Puncak Alam wastewater treatment plant. This is a sample 1 result of water testing.
There are two types of water has been tested which is the water in (water flows into
the plant or influent) and water out (water discharge from the plant or effluent). For
every durations of water been tested, oil and grease in effluent that discharge to the
environment has less than 2 mg/L. Thus, oil and grease in the effluent will consider
as not detectable. By referring Table 2.1(Standard Effluent of Malaysia), oil and
grease content for the minimum operation time is standard A effluent. Grade of
effluent will reduce to standard B if oil and grease content in effluent exceeds 10
mg/L.

35
`

4.3 Energy Consumption Analysis

From the result that obtained from 4.1, it can be plotted the energy
consumption for the various duration of SBR in UiTM Puncak Alam Sewage
Treatment Plant.

Graph of Energy Consumption vs Duration of SBR


operation
900

Experiment 1

850 Experiment 2
Energy Consumption, kWH

Experiment 3

800

750

700

650
60 Minutes 55 Minutes 50 Minutes 45 Minutes
Duration of SBR operation

Figure 4.6 Graph of Energy consumption versus Duration of SBR operation

From the three experiments of SBR operation, there are significant


differences of energy consumption when the duration of SBR operation was reduced
until 15 minutes. Energy consumption was taken is the overall energy from this
plant. Its was included the energy form pumping system at preliminary processes
and secondary sedimentation process. It also includes pumping system, Heating
Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and lighting system. Current
process duration for SBR at UiTM Puncak Alam plant is 60 minutes.

36
`

For the first experiment, an overall energy consume for current process is 792
kWH per day. After the operation has been reduced to 45 minutes, energy
consumption reduced to 711 kWH per day. The differences of overall energy
consume at this plant after the reducing the SBR operation is about 81 kWH per day.
For the second experiment, actual energy consumption for this plant is 859 kWH per
day when SBR operates in 60 minutes. After the operation was reduced to 45
minutes the overall energy consumes is 704 kWH per day. The differences energy
consumed for the reduction until 15 minutes operation is about 155 kWH per day. It
same goes to third experiment where it recorded the energy reduction until 143 kWH
per day. From the energy consumed, it shows that the daily energy consumption for
overall plant decreased when the operation is reduced to 15 minutes.

37
`

4.4 Energy Saving Analysis

Table 4.4 Energy saving for the duration of SBR operation per day

Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3


Operational
duration Energy
Energy Energy Energy
consumption Energy saving
Consumption Consumption Consumption
average per day (kWH)
per day (kWH) per day (kWH) per day (kWH)
per day(kWH)
*60 Minutes 792 859 838 829.67 0

55 Minutes 756 765 748 756.33 73.34

50 Minutes 736 723 730 729.67 100

45 Minutes 711 704 695 703.33 126.34


(*) Current process duration for SBR operation

38
`

From a maximum operation adjustment of SBR operation Estimation of


energy saving for this plant in 1 month (assuming for 30days) is:

Energy consumption:

Energy saving per day: 126.34 kWH

Energy saving per month: 3790.2 kWH


(30 days)

Table 4.5 Total energy saving per month for the duration of SBR operation per
day

Operational Energy Energy


duration consumption Energy saving Saving per
average per day month (30
per (kWH) days)
day(kWH) (kWH)
*60 Minutes 829.67 0 0

55 Minutes 756.33 73.34 2200.2

50 Minutes 729.67 100 3000

45 Minutes 703.33 126.34 3790.2


(*) Current process duration for SBR operation

39
`

Energy saving
per day

45 Minutes 126.34
Duration of SBR operation

50 Minutes 100

55 Minutes 73.34

60 Minutes 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


n

Figure 4.7 Graph of energy saving for duration of SBR operation

From the three experiment conducted by reducing the Sequencing Batch


Reactor operation, the average energy consumption for 60 minutes operation is
829.67 kWH per day. 60 minutes duration is a current process operated at this plant.
The average energy consumption for 55 minutes operation is 756.33 kWH per day,
for 50 minutes operation is 729.67 kWH per day and 703.33 kWH for 45 minutes
duration of SBR operation. The differences of energy usage after reducing until 15
minutes operation are about 126.34 kWH per day. It can be save a lot of electricity
cost usage for this plant a month.

40
`

4.5 Cost Operational Analysis

From the average energy consumption, average cost for the energy usage per
day can be calculated. TNB was introduced a Tariff C2 for the wastewater treatment
plant. But for this project, the cost calculation cant be managed because of lack of
data for energy consumption by this plant.

The procedure to calculate the cost of electricity by using Tariff C2, it need
an hourly basis data for energy consumption by this plant. It is because from the
hourly basis data, it can be determine the peak period time and off-peak period time
in one day operation. It does automatically can be determine the maximum demand
on that day.

Besides that, the management of this plant only provided a data of energy
consumption for the overall plant which is included the Heating, Ventilation and Air-
Conditioning (HVAC) system, other process pumping system, Lighting system for
this plant and miscellaneous. In order to have a specific energy usage for the SBR
operation, it needs a specific data and electricity bill for the energy audit of SBR
system.

41
`

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

To have a good wastewater treatment system need a good wastewater


management. Poor management will result into a disappointing energy saving
performance and will automatically increase the cost higher than usual.

Based on research had done, many changes in energy consumption can be


seen after a few adjustment of the Sequencing Batch Reactor operation had been
done. However, a quality of water is slightly changes from the current plant
operation. But, standard of effluent still remain in standard A.

For energy consumption of this plant, it shows that the overall energy
consumption was decrease after the duration of SBR operation had reduces from 60
minutes to 45 minutes without affecting the effluent standard. The average energy
consume by this plant is 829.67 kWH per day for the actual process while for 45
minutes operation, the average energy consumed by this plant is only 703.33 kWH.
The expected energy can be saving after the operation reduction is about 15.22% per
day.
42
`

For the water quality, most of the water parameters had been test after the
reduction of operational time of SBR still far to exceed the standard B effluent. The
reading of important parameter such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and
Suspended Solids (SS) remain in standard A.

As a conclusion, the overall objectives of this project were achieved. The


optimization of wastewater treatment could not be neglected in order to avoid an
over operational system for the entire plant. From the experiment and testing that
carried out shows that the operation of SBR can be reduce thus save an electricity
cost of the wastewater treatment.

43
`

5.2 Recommendation

For the recommendation of this project, it can be recommended that the


whole data of energy consumption should be monitor and analyze constantly for the
improvement of energy audit. For the current method, energy consumption data had
been monitor randomly.

Plant management also must have a data for hourly basis at least once a week.
To be more specifically in order to determine the cost for the Sequencing Batch
Reactor (SBR), the data should be taken and record separately based on the different
system in the plant.

Current process of SBR system in this plant is 60 minutes. For the


recommendation, the operation should be reducing to 45 minutes as long as the
quality of effluent discharge to the environment still fulfils the requirement by
Department of Environmental (DOE) Malaysia.

44
`

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