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BASIC PLUMBING

SOIL APPLIANCES WASTE WATER APPLIANCES


W Cs URINALS WASH BASIN BATHS
Consists of
BIDETS SHOWERS rectangular profile The
Used conventional
for to accommodate shower or shower
end and side panels bath consists of a
Western Stall urinal washin
, an outlet, overflow, shower tray or
seat with g holes for taps receiver to collect
cover excret Pedestral
water, with a fixed
ory or hand held
squatting organs shower.
Indian The wall around
without fixed showers are
footrest lined with some
FLUSHING COMPONENTS Counter top impermeable
SYSTEMS Glazed COMPONENTS material (tile) and
Manual waterless urinals ceramic 3 WALL ALCOVE open side is fitted
flushing pedestal bowl Bowl, Soap tray, with a water proof
conserve thousands of curtain.
Uses 1.5 gallon
Flushing rim Outlet , Water
gallons of water
water approx.
automated overflow , Holes
significantly reduce Overflow
flushing connected to a for fixing taps
sewage SUPPOR
Water reduced
Pressure
by 50% the urine passes through a waste TS
flushing floating layer of Blue Inlet for spray Wall
1-1.6 gallon Seal liquid, which forms a rises from bowl brackets BASIC PLUMBING DEVICES
HANDICAP TOILETS

A 60" unobstructed opening for each toilet


room for maneuvering a wheelchair IS not
required if the door swings out. The inside
dimensions of the toilet room which includes a
water closet and lavatory

The top of the water closet seat The door opening must be 32" net
must be 17" -19" above the clear width (in between stops). The
finished floor. Both wall-hung and width of the compartment must be a
floor mounted water closets are minimum of 36 and a maximum of
acceptable. Only wash down 48". The length of the compartment
water closets are permitted must be a minimum of 72

The side grab bar must be located


within 12 inches of the rear wall,
and extended 42 inches from that
location. If the grab bar extends
to the rear wall it must be at least
54 inches in length. All grab bars
must be parallel to the floor. The
height of the grab bar above the
finished floor is 33 to 36 inches

HANDCAP TOILET ARRANGEMENT


PUMPING SYSTEMS
EJECTOR
PUMPS
TURBINE
SUBMERSI a venturi
PUMPS
BLE tube is
usually has
PUMPS a turbine
added to
Designed so below the the
that the ground centrifugal
motor can water and a pump
be drivingPUMPS
CENTRIFUGAL
submerged
Has an impellermotor
mounted on a
along with above it
rotory shaft which increases the
the turbine
water velocity and forces it into
the casing

ROTATORY PUMPS
Has a helical or spiral
RECIPROCATING PUMPS rotor-a turning vertical shaft
It has aplunger that moves back with a rubber sleeve and
and forth within a cylinder traps water between it and
TYPES OF PUMPS
HIGH RISE
the NATIONAL
STRUCTURES FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION
defines a high rise building as a building with an
occupied floor that is 75 feet above the natural ground
level
WATER
Factories where bath rooms are required
to be provided REQUIREMENT 45 per
Factories where no bath rooms are head
Required to be provided
Hospital(including laundry): 30 per
a) Number of beds not exceeding100 head
b) Number of beds exceeding100
Nurses homes and medical quarters 340per
Hostels head
Hotel (Up to 4 Star) 450 per
Hotel(5 Star and above) head
Offices 135per
Restaurants head
Cinemas, concert halts and theatres 135per
Schools: head
a) Day schools 180per
b) Boarding schools head
NOTE For calculating water demand 320per
for visitors a head
45 per
Consumption of 15litresp~rhead, per day maybe For 20 storey
taken head HIGH STOREY PLUMBING
structures
DIRECT SUPPLY SYSTEM
This system is adopted when adequate pressure is available round the clock at the topmost floor.
With limited pressure available in most city mains, water from direct supply is normally not
available above two or three floors.
DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEMS Plumbing
Water is pumped directly into the distribution engineers found
system without the aid of any overhead tank, out that as you lift
except water above a
for flushing purposes. The pumps are controlled datum, you lose 1
by a pound per square
pressure switch installed on the line. inch for every 2.3
feet of elevation.
Direct pumping systems are suitable for This small but
buildings where a certain amount of constant use incremental loss
of makes achieving
water is always occurring. high water
pressure at the
The system depends on a constant and reliable top of a water
supply of power. Any failure in the power system column very
would result in a breakdown in the water supply difficult. As the
system. building get taller,
another problem
The system eliminates the requirements of arises as the
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS
HYDRO NUEMATIC SYSTEMS Hydro-pneumatic system is a variation of
direct pumping system. An air-tight pressure vessel is
installed on the line to regulate the operation of the
pumps. The vessel capacity shall be based on the cutting
and cut-out pressure of the pumping system
depending upon allowable start/stops of the pumping
system. As pumps operate, the incoming water is
the vessel, compresses the air on top. When a
predetermined pressure is reached in the vessel, a
pressure switch installed on the vessel switches off the
pumps. As water is drawn into the system, pressure
falls into the vessel starting the pump at preset pressure.
The air in the pressure tank slowly reduces the volume
due to dissolution in water and leakages from pipe
lines. An air compressor is also necessary to feed air
into the vessel so as to maintain the required air-water
ratio. The system shall have reliable power supply to
avoid breakdown in the water supply.
Hydro-pneumatic system generally eliminates
the need for an over head tank and
may supply water
at a much higher pressure than
available from overhead
tanks particularly on the upper floors,
resulting in even
distribution of water at all floors
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS
OVER HEAD TANK DISTRIBUTION
This is the most common of the
distribution
systems adopted by various type
of buildings.
The system comprises pumping
water to one
or more overhead tanks placed at
the top most location of the
hydraulic zone. In case only OHT is
Water collected in the overhead
provided , it may be
tank is taken as 33.3 to 50
percent of one
distributed to the various parts of days
requirement
the building by a set of pipes
located generally onInthe terrace.
case only UGT is
provided , it may be taken
as 50 to 150percentof one
days requirement

In case combined storage


is provided
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY, BUILDINGS
it maybe
The requirements for fitments for drainage and
sanitation for a regular building might be as follows

REQUIREMENTS OF A RESTAURANT

OFFICE BUILDING
REQUIREMENTS
PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS
PIPING FIXTURES
water systems for high rise
buildings are typically l-copper .
tubing sizes 2 inches and smaller
are typically assembled using 95-5
solder. in very high buildings,
stainless steel can be used due to
very high pressure. in hospitals,
silicon iron, borosilicate glass,
propylene and PDVF are used.

Copper pipe is available in a number of sizes


commonly:
8 and 10 mm - for use micro bore central heating
systems
12 and 15 mm - generally for connections to
individual taps, appliances etc.
22, 28 and 35 mm - generally for long runs where
use of 15 mm piping would cause excessive
pressure drop PIPING FIXTURES
PIPE SIZES

Pipes may be of
any of the
following
materials:

cast iron, vertically


cast or
centrifugally
(spun) cast, steel
(internally lined or
coated with
bitumen or a
bituminous
composition, and
out-coated with
cement concrete
or mortar, where
necessary),
reinforced
concrete,
prestressed
concrete,
galvanized mild PIPE RELATED BYLAWS
The realization of an economical drainage system
is added by compact grouping of fitments in both
horizontal and vertical directions. This implies that if
care is taken and ingenuity brought into play when
designing the original building or buildings to be drained, it is
possible to group the sanitary fittings and other equipment
requiring drainage; both in vertical and horizontal planes, as
to simplify the drainage system

DISCHARGE PIPING
DRAINAGE
VENTING
For water to travel down a vertical pipe, air is
necessary. Air ventilation must be controlled
so that low pressure zones can be created,
and the flow of water can continue. The low
pressure zones should not be placed near a
fixture, or else poor drainage could occur
(often recognized by a gulping sound and
poor flow performance). It is however okay to
Drainage is another common issue in place air vents in the fixtures themselves to
skyscrapers, and is often just as difficult to increase water flow.
solve as water pressure problems. When water
falls vertically down a pipe, the water will
adhere to the pipe's walls until the pipe's cross
sectional area is about one-fourth full. Once the
gravity propelled water hits a horizontal bend in
the pipe, the flow velocity drops dramatically,
and fills the pipe considerably more due to the
lost speed. It is common practice to use relief
or yoke vents to slow the water before it
DRAINAGE
HEATING SYSTEMS
a) Electric Storage Heaters
1) Non-pressure or open outlet type
ELECTRI 2) Pressure type
C
STORAG 3) Cistern type
E 4) Dual heater type
HEATER
S
GAS WATER b) Gas Water Heaters
HEATERS 1) Instantaneous type
2) Storage type

c) Solar Heating Systems


1) Independent roof mounted heating units
2) Centrally banked heated system

d) Central Hot Water System


1) Oil fired
2) Gas fired
CENTRAL HOT WATER SYSTEMS
HOT WATER SYSTEMS
RAIN WATER
HARVESTING
The increasing need for
green buildings and self
sufficient buildings has
made rain water
harvesting an important
part of plumbing in high
buildings so that a large
amount of water
requirements can be met
by it

A specific minimum area has to be allotted t rain water


harvesting according to the national building code

RAIN WATER HARVESTING REQUIREMENTS


GREY WATER REUSE
Latest water saving technologies such as waterless urinals
avoid the need to flush 0.2L of urine with 9 L of perfectly
good drinking water. Flow controls can reduce flows from
taps by over 50% without a discernable loss of amenity
values. New toilets can reliably flush with 35% less water
than previously required. Dual flush cisterns are a given.
Modern showerheads can provide a better shower at half the
flow rate of older
The grey water reuse
and recycling can
reduce the fresh
water requirements
by up to 60%
Brac systems are
The grey water collected from the toilets and septic
an example of grey
tanks can be recycled and purified. Depending on
water purification
the level of purification of water, it can be used in-
systems
Cooling towers and irrigation of the landscaped
It saves 35% to
gardens
the tanks can be hidden 40% off the annual
Flushing and toilet systems
in the basement or water and sewer
Washing and bathing purposes
under the walkways BRAC W-450 bills
Drinking only if it is highly purified through
GREY WATER REUSE
EFFICIENT BUILDING
REDUCE REPLACE
REUSE

WATER CYCLE
GREEN BUILDING
PLUMBING INSTALL ON DEMAND HOT WATER
They supply the hot water instantly
CIRCULATION PUMP and
prevents the wastage of cold water prior to
HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER the hot water. In this, the water is
HEATERS
On demand systems and energy constantly moving through the heating
efficient heating systems can reduce the system and therefore, a constant
energy consumption USINGtemperature
WATER is maintained
EFFICIENT
INSULATING HOT WATER Latest water saving technologies FIXTURES
such as
PIPES the pipes prevents the hot
Insulating waterless urinals New toilets can reliably flush
water from cooling down quickly and with 35% less water than previously required.
therefore reduces the load on the Dual flush cisterns are a given. Modern
heating system showerheads can provide a better shower at
REUSE GREY WATER
INSTALL halfFLOW
the flowREDUCERS
rate of older
Grey water can replace the fresh water
in various purposes and hence, the ON FAUCETS AND SHOWER
demand is reduced significantly Water savings for the
HEADS
client
INSTALL HOT WATER HEAT Buy retrofit aerators and screw into
Heat is recovered
RECOVERYfrom waste water
SYSTEMS faucet head
resulting in energy and water savings These reducers are readily available
Typically installed during new and are attached at the faucet head
construction under tubs and showers
GREEN BUILDING PLUMBING TECHNIQUES
FIRE PRTECTION
SYSTEMS

one area that should not be overlooked


in any high rise building is the fire
protection systems. as a minimum, all
buildings should have sprinkler systems
and stand pipe systems. all buildings
containing fire protection systems have
large, dedicated fire pumps to provide
the flows and pressure required at the
time of emergency.

SAND PIPE
SYSTEMS SPRINKLER
SYSTEMS

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


VATIKA CITY POINT,
GURGAON
Architects Studio U+A ,London +Ashok Dhawan Archit
Plumbing & Fire Fighting Consultants SAVIRAM Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd

PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
Area Details & Projected Population
Plot area (Net area)=7,522.4 sqm
Superstructure =13,821.76 sqm
Business use
Substructure=10,819 sqm Parking
/ Utilities/BOH

PLUMBING SYSTEM
CASE STUDY
FIRST FLOOR SANITARY
PLUMBING PLANS SYSTEMS
Emphasis on
water
conservation,
better hygiene
and ease in
maintenance. All
EWCs shall be low
volume flushing
EWC (4-6 liters)
with concealed
flush valves. IWCs
in drivers toilets
shall be Orissa
pan with exposed
flush valves.
Washer less taps
shall be used
WATER SUPPLY DRAINAGE In the proposed
Architectural
CASE STUDY
WATER
Water body/irrigation demand
REQUIREMENT Water body make-up (Assumed) =
Irrigation water demand (Assumed 15% greens) =1,500 sqm@3 l/sq
= 4,500 LPD
RETAIL [Ground and First floor] SUBTOTAL C =
Population calculations
Permanent population Retail shops 16 nos.x2 persons= 32 persons@45lpcd = 1,440
TOTAL LPD DEMAND [A+B+C]
WATER =
Visitors @ 3 sqm@GF and 6 sqm atFF (1414.85/3+1156.23/6)= 664persons@15lpcd = 9,960 LPD
Add for 5% extra for equipment back-wash etc. =
GROSS DAILY WATER DEMAND =
BUSINESS[2nd floor to 11th floor] SAY 106 KLD [X
Population calculations
Business use (all levels) 11250.68/10 = 1125 persons@45lpcd = 50,625 LPD
Water Balance Calculations
Common usage
Maintenance/service personnel 50 nos@45 lpcd = 2,250Domestic
LPD water demand = 71,275 lpd
2nd Floor Restaurant/foodcourt etc. (Assumed) ~100 seats = 7,000Requirement
LPD for flushing @45% = 32,074
SUBTOTAL A = 71,275 LPD lpd [Water quality Q1]
Requirement for washing +drinking @55% = 39,201
1.4.2 COOILNG TOWER MAKE-UP ETC. lpd [Water quality Q2]
Requirement for HVAC/DG = 23,400 lpd
HVAC make-up [As/HVAC consultants input] = NIL [Water qualityQ1]
DG room air washers make-up@1500 lphx6 hours Requirement for landscaping etc. = 6,500
Make-up water demand [As/HVAC consultants input] = 9,000lpdLPD
[Water quality Q1]
DG cooling tower make-up demand Equipment backwash demand = 5,059 lpd
[2400 lphx6 hours] [As/Elect. Consultants input] = 14,400 [Water
LPD quality Q2]
SUBTOTAL B = 23,400 LPD Wastewater flow to Sewer =
80%domestic water deman
+100% equipment
backwash
= 62,079 lpd
Expected recovery from STP[if provided] CASE STUDY
=
STORAGE TANK
REQUIREMENT
WATER TANK CONFIGURATIONS

UNDERGROUND TANKS [All capacities in cum or kiloliters]

FIRE 200

RAW WATER 100

TREATED WATER 100

TOTAL STORAGE MINUS


FIRE TANK 200

TOTAL STORAGE
VOLUME PLANNED 1.82 days

TERRACE WATER TANKS [All capacities in cum or kiloliters]

FIRE 20
FLUSHING

[6 hrs storage] 20 UNDERGROUND STORAGE PLAN


TREATED WATER
[6 hrs storage] 15
TOTAL STORAGE MINUS
FIRE TANK 35\ CASE STUDY
BUILDING SETUP
SEWERAGE
WATER SUPPLY A centralized sewage treatment and recycling
Municipal water supply shall be supplemented plant shall be installed to take care of the
through deep bore-wells. Based upon the discharge from the new development. The
physical, chemical & bacteriological analysis combined discharge from the entire premises
of ground water made available from the site shall be ~62cum/day. The expected
its suitability for domestic & DG sets cooling recovovery of recycled water is approx. 95%
tower make-up purposes shall be established i.e. 59 kLD. The space requirement for the
The expected yield from a bore-well shall be STP will be approx. 150 sqm . The recycled
approx. 15,000 lit/hour. The average yield water can be used for flushing, air-washers
from a bore-well for 16 hours running and DG cooling tower make-up and
operation shall be approx. 240 kL. It is gardening. This shall help in reducing the
STORM WATER
suggested to digDRAINAGE
two borewells load on fresh water resources by almost
It is proposed to do total rainwater harvesting
55% (47 kLD against 106 kLD)
in this project. The average yearly
precipitation is 610 mm. The rainwater
calculations are given below:

Plot Area = 7,522.4


sqm
PROPOSED STRUCTURE
Average Rainfall = 610 mm
/ year CASE STUDY
FIRE FIGHTING

All the fire fighting provisions shall be as per National Building


Code of India 2005 Part IV Fire and Life Safety published by the
Bureau of Indian Standards.

The minimum requirements for fire fighting installations for a


Business building exceeding 30 m in height in height as per NBC
are:

- Hose Reel (To be provided)


-Wet Riser (To be provided)
- Yard Hydrant (To be provided)
- Automatic Sprinkler System (To be provided-in entire building)
- Manually operated Electric Fire Alarm System (To be provided-
by electrical agency)
- Automatic Detection and Alarm System (To be provided-by
electrical agency)
- Water Storage Tanks
Underground Static Water Storage Tank (200, 000 litres)
Terrace Tank (20,000 liters)
CASE STUDY
- Fire Pumps {Two Electrical (one each for hydrant and sprinkler
THANKYOU
ABHIMANYU MITTAL DHRUV GUPTA SAURABH GUPTA